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Appendix A

Unit Training

This appendix addresses training as it pertains to a unit in preparation for active and passive air defense measures. Because self-defense against aerial platform attack is closely related to the defensive measures you take against ground attack, training can be conducted merely by varying the perspective_attack from the air as opposed to attack from the ground. This is especially true for training in the application of passive air defense measures (camouflage, concealment, and the use of cover). Training in the application of active air defense measures presents a special problem, however. Soldiers must learn the techniques for delivering volume fire in the path of attacking aircraft. They must also be trained to overcome their natural tendency to track the target, not to fire directly at crossing targets, and not take Kentucky windage. The recommended leads have been computed to give the highest probability of engulfing the target with fire, and the soldier must adhere to the rules if the system is to be effective.

  A-1. Training in passive air defense measures is continuous and is integrated with other field training undertaken by the unit. The trainer should vary the training exercise occasionally by proclaiming an air attack situation. The unit should immediately disperse, seek cover, and prepare to engage the attacker. If available, use aircraft to fly simulated attack missions so that the troops can get an idea of the time element of an attack. See Table A-1 for a checklist of items the trainer should check before and during the attack.

Table A-1: Passive Air Defense Training Checklist


A-2. When training in active air defense measures, the trainer assumes that the individual soldier knows how to fire his personal weapon. Therefore, training should concentrate on coordination of fire and on correct lead estimation. Fire coordination consists simply of ensuring that the unit acts as a group and in response to command and/or air attack alarms. This means that each individual knows what he is going to do in response to the command "air attack" and that he does it without further instructions. It also means that he holds fire until he receives the "fire" command.

A-3. All members of the combined arms team can take it for granted that they will come under air attack in a future war. They need to train now to meet this threat. Units must integrate training for air defense into their tactical training. Units must practice the passive and active air defense skills they will employ while moving cross-country in tactical formations, moving in convoy, and while stationary. Units must practice and be evaluated on such skills as posting air guards; maintaining cover, concealment, and dispersion (or seeking cover and concealment if caught in the open); and proper employment of their weapon systems against air threats. Units must follow the guidance contained in their ARTEP MTP manuals. Some of these manuals are--

  • ARTEP 7-8-MTP Mission Training Plan for the Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad
  • ARTEP 7-10-MTP Mission Training Plan for the Infantry Rifle Company
  • ARTEP 17-237-10-MTP Mission Training Plan for the Tank Platoon
  • ARTEP 71-1-MTP Mission Training Plan for the Tank and Mechanized Infantry Company and Company Team


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