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This appendix presents some military symbols, descriptions, and control measures which are of operational interest to the ADA platoon. For a complete list, see FM 101-5-1.

Avenger platoon personnel must know how to read and use a map. Each section and or squad leader should have a plastic map case and marker to post operational symbols. Because the loss of key personnel may result in the platoon sergeant or section leader assuming control of the platoon, the platoon sergeant and each section leader must know his location at all times, and have the platoon's operational graphics properly on his map.

Performing land navigation while mounted at high speeds is now easier with the global positioning system (GPS) locator. However, all key leaders must still be able to use terrain association. Making a thorough map study and identifying major terrain feature, contour changes, and man-made structures that exist along a mute is essential. As the platoon advances, the platoon, section, and squad leaders must observe existing features and elevation change. They use these and structures on the ground to orient or locate themselves and other elements of the platoon.


Color Representation

Control Measures

Symbols and Graphics


Ideally, different colors are used for enemy and friendly symbols. Different colors may not always be available; therefore, other procedures are needed for one-color symbols as well as for multicolor representation.


Friendly symbols are outlined by a single line, and enemy symbols are outlined by double lines. For enemy equipment, ground environment, and activities symbols, use the abbreviation EN.


The colors on a military map indicate varied meanings. These meanings are given as follows:

  • Blue or black indicates friendly units, posts and installations, equipment, activities, and ground environment symbols not covered by other colors.
  • Red indicates enemy units, posts and installations, equipment and activities, and friendly fire support ground environment symbols not covered by other colors.
  • Yellow indicates friendly and enemy chemical or radiological areas and enemy biological areas.
  • Green indicates friendly and enemy man-made obstacles.
  • Other colors used must be explained in a legend.

When overlays are transmitted by facsimile, only black on white is possible. To differentiate between enemy and friendly contaminated areas or obstacles, use the abbreviation EN in the line that defines the enemy area.


Most of the control measures commonly used by the battery or supported commander are also used at the platoon level. See the Control Measures Graphics illustration.


The Avenger mission relies on the platoon being able to recognize different symbols and graphics. The platoon leader must be able to recognize enemy as well as friendly symbols. Symbols and graphics represent units of varying sizes, and it also may provide information on equipment activities and other items of military interest. See the ADA Symbols and Graphics illustration below. For more information on symbols and graphics, see FM 101-5-1.

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