Find a Security Clearance Job!

Military

APPENDIX E

EARLY WARNING

Early warning (EW) provides reliable alerting and cueing information to ADA FUs and also provides alerting to other combat, combat support, and combat service support units. Alerting allows them time to apply active and passive air defense measures. Disseminating this information accurately and timely enhances the effectiveness of air defense weapon systems and the accomplishment of the air defense mission. Alerting information tells the FU an aerial platform is approaching. Cueing information tells the FU from which direction the aerial platform will be coming, its location, and its tentative identification. This enables the FU to focus in that direction to detect it at a greater range.

DIGITAL EARLY WARNING

Digital EW track data will be the primary means of early warning communications to the Avenger platoon. Voice EW will be the alternate method. The air battle management operations center (ABMOC) and A2 C2 element receive track data simultaneously from the Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS). The JTIDS track data, along with WCS and ADWs, are transmitted using the EPLRS or SINCGARS to the tactically employed sensor and C2 nodes. The sensor and C2 correlate that information with their own local track data (LSDIS negative 20-kilometer detection range and GBS 40-kilometer detection range) and send it to the Avenger platoon. EW dissemination using SINCGARS requires line of sight (LOS) between the sending and receiving nodes. EW dissemination using EPLRS does not require LOS alignment. EPLRS also provides the capability to net sensors with the ABMOC and A2 C2 element. This network eases sharing track data and graphics digitally at all echelons. See the illustration below.

CONTENTS

Digital Early Warning

Voice Early Warning

Directed Early Warning

Local Air Defense Warning

Ground-Based Sensor

Lightweight and Special Divisions Interim Sensor

Simplified Handheld Terminal Unit

VOICE EARLY WARNING

Voice EW is the method of disseminating directed early warning. It is the alternative to digital early warning. The illustration below shows a voice early warning network.

DIRECTED EARLY WARNING

Directed EW must be quick, simple, and redundant in nature. It is imperative that all units, including the supported force, receive EW. It is especially important that units with no air defense assets receive all EW. It states whether the aerial targets are friendly or unknown, provides a cardinal direction, and if known, identifies the most likely affected asset(s) within the supported force. For example, if an EW source reports four enemy Hinds inbound from the east, and the 1st Brigade is attacking along the eastern axis, the Avenger platoon leader should transmit a LADW message over both the maneuver force command net and the platoon net: "Dynamite! Dynamite! Hinds from the east against Axis Blue!" Dynamite is the LADW that alerts the maneuver force of an attack; the response, per the local SOP, should be immediate. The following diagram indicates how this information will be provided to the Avenger platoon and supported unit. See EW and DEW Distribution for ADA Net illustration.

LOCAL AIR DEFENSE WARNING

LADWs are described in Chapter 2. LADWs are designated as Dynamite, Lookout, and Snowman. They parallel air defense warnings (Red, Yellow, and White), but the level of warning is determined by the tactical air defense artillery commander. They are used to alert a unit of an impending air attack.

  • Dynamite--aerial platform inbound, or attacking locally. Response is immediate.
  • Lookout--aerial platform in the battle space, but not threatening, or is inbound and there is time to react.
  • Snowman--aerial platform not in the area of operation, and at tack is not probable.

GROUND-BASED SENSOR

GBS with a C2I node is an EW sensor that provides FAAD units with cueing, alerting, and other EW information. Capabilities of the GBS with C2I node are as follows:

  • Detects one-square meter targets out to a range of 40 kilometers and from 0 to 4,000 meters above ground level.
  • All weather, 24-hour operations.
  • FAAD C3I and IFF compatible.
  • Acquires high-speed maneuvering FW aircraft up to 40 kilometers out.
  • Can acquire hovering, running, or pop-up helicopter at up to 20 kilometers out.
  • Provides visual display of target location in azimuth and range.
  • Acquires UAVs at a maximum range of 30 kilometers.
  • Uses military power sources (l0-kilowatt generator) to include organic vehicle power sources.
  • Two-man emplacement or march order for GBS.
  • Two-man emplacement or march order for C2I node.
  • Operable by one soldier.
  • Capable of sharing division picture with other sensors (ABMOC and A2 C2) using EPLRS.
  • Provides azimuth and range resolutions of 8 degrees or less and 1,500 meters or less, respectively.

The GBS sensor platoon is made up of three sensor sections. Each sensor section is made up of two sensor teams. Each sensor team is made up of one section chief (SSG), two sensor operators, and two operator/drivers. The other team is made up of one section chief (SGT), two sensor operators, and two operator/drivers.

LIGHTWEIGHT AND SPECIAL DIVISIONS INTERIM SENSOR

LSDIS is the interim FAAD man-portable, rugged, EW sensor that provides FAAD units with alerting and other EW information.

LSDIS capabilities are as follows:

  • Detects 2-square meter targets out to a range of 20 kilometers and from 0 to 3,000 meters above ground level.
  • Limited weather.
  • FAAD C2I and IFF compatible.
  • Acquires high-speed maneuvering FW aircraft.
  • Acquires hovering and popup helicopters up to 8 kilometers.
  • Provides azimuth and range resolutions of 8 degrees or less and 1,500 meters or less, respectively.
  • Provides visual display of target location in azimuth and range.
  • Uses military power sources to include organic vehicle power sources.
  • Two-man emplacement or march order.
  • Operable by one soldier.
  • Airdroppable and transportable by medium helicopters and HMMWVs.

The LSDIS platoon will be assigned to the headquarters and headquarters battery (HHB) of the FAAD battalion and will have six LSDISs for deployment and six sections.

The LSDIS section consists of three crew members: a section chief, a sensor operator, and an operator/driver. The current employment concept requires that the LSDIS be transported by the HMMWV.

SIMPLIFIED HANDHELD TERMINAL UNIT

The SHTU is a state-of-the-art, military lightweight, battery-operated, handheld communications terminal designed for "man on the move" operation and providing digital communications over advanced communications systems. The SHTU has a modular and open architecture allowing for internal and external expansion. Separate numeric keypad and cursor controls provide user friendly operation under adverse conditions. LCD display provides both bit-mappable graphics and text capability.

Early warning air tracks along with ADW/WCS updates are received on the SHTU. The SHTU requires LOS to the sensor in the light division. This is due to using SINCGARS for EW date and FM voice nets. In the heavy division, this is not a problem due to using the EPLRS for EW data and SINCGARS for FM wire nets.



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list