Manual SHORAD Control System
ADA FUs are more effective if they are provided accurate, timely, and reliable early warning. Early warning serves two purposes--alerting and cueing. Alerting information tells the user that an aircraft is approaching his position or the asset he is defending. Cueing information tells the user from which direction the aircraft will be coming, its positional location, and its tentative identification in a timely manner. This enables the user to focus his attention in that direction to detect the aircraft at a greater range. To obtain this information, SHORAD units use a manual control system that provides alerting, but very limited cueing.
This appendix provides standardized procedures for the MSCS. The objectives of the MSCS are to:
Provide near real-time transmission of early warning information to SHORAD and other divisional units. Provide weapons control information to the SHORAD units organic to the division. Integrate ADA data into the division airspace management effort.
Early warning data is available to any unit which is capable of receiving it. This includes ADA units, the divisional maneuver units, and combat support/service support units.
Section I--MSCS COMMUNICATIONS
SECTION I--MSCS COMMUNICATIONS
The MSCS is implemented through three communications nets.
The air defense coordination net (ADCN) provides early warning information to the SHORAD battalion from HIMAD systems or Air Force sources. The EWBN disseminates a standardized form of manual early warning within the division. The FAAR early warning net integrates HIMAD and SHORAD early warning information. MANPAD teams receive their information from either the EWBN or the FAAR early warning net.
AIR DEFENSE COORDINATION NET
This net is used to transmit long-range track information and air defense weapons control information to the SHORAD battalion TOC. This information can be obtained at a HIMAD (Hawk or Patriot) fire direction center or Air Force forward air control post (FACP), control and reporting post (CRP), or control and reporting center (CRC). The net control station for the ADCN is the SHORAD battalion air defense coordination section (ADCS).
EARLY WARNING BROADCAST NET
The EWBN is a one-way FM net originating at the SHORAD battalion TOC. Any unit with an FM receiver and within line of sight (LOS) and operating range restrictions can obtain early warning information simply by monitoring this net. Units unable to receive this information due to the restrictions mentioned above can obtain early warning from adjacent, subordinate, or parent units that are receiving the information.
FAAR EARLY WARNING NET
Information transmitted by the FAAR is received at the C/V and Redeye/Stinger command posts, sections, and FUs on the FM receiver in the TADDS or on the R-442 auxiliary receiver. It can also be received by supported maneuver units, as well as by combat support/service support units.
Command nets, while not strictly part of the MSCS, contribute to the efficient functioning of the system.
SHORAD GRID MATRIX
The MSCS uses a unique grid system. A standard grid matrix is used with a specified reference point. The map coordinates to this reference point will normally be designated in the air defense annex of the division OPORD as will be the map sheet series number. The location of the reference point is standard on each sheet, however, it may be moved for security reasons. This can be accomplished by designating another intersection as the reference point (for example, intersection of HEMLOCK, INSECT, HAZEL, and INDIAN) and applying the specific map coordinates.
The SHORAD grid matrix is a standardized matrix consisting of 400 grid squares with a code name assigned to each square. Users need only use that portion of the matrix applicable to their areas of operation. The matrix reference point should be set to extend the matrix coverage at least 20 kilometers beyond the division boundaries.
The standard track report format is shown in illustration below.
Shown below are the track report examples.
SECTION II--MSCS COMMUNICATIONS OPERATIONS
Trained personnel must understand both the standards and procedures of the MSCS for it to function smoothly. This section discusses how the MSCS operates, who per forms the functions at each level and, finally, how it is used.
AIR DEFENSE COORDINATION SECTION
The ADCS consists of three personnel: the air defense coordination officer (ADCO), an NCO, and a driver radiotelephone operator (RATELO). During operations the section deploys to the nearest source of HIMAD/ Air Force track information. Once deployed the ADCS establishes two-way AM radio communications with the SHORAD battalion TOC. The ADCS passes long-range aircraft track information, air defense command and control information (ADWs, WCS, etcetera) disseminated through HIMAD/USAF control systems to the SHORAD TOC over this net.
The ADCS obtains HIMAD track information by physically viewing a radar console and a manual plotting board.
The radar console provides the most timely early warning information. The console can either be an FU or control facility radar scope on which the division's air picture is displayed.
In situations where it is impossible for the ADCO to physically view a radar scope, adequate data can be obtained from a manual plotting board. As with the radar console method, the division's area of operations should be marked on the plotting board.
Here is how early warning track data is passed in SHORAD units.
When the ADCO places his GEOREF acetate overlay over the SHORAD grid on his clipboard, he can convert the GEOREF position to a SHORAD grid position (see illustration below).
If the ADCS has an AN/GRA-6 radio set control group (AM remote unit), the ADCO can transmit directly from the HIMAD source to the SHORAD TOC.
If the ADCS has no AN/GRA-6 radio control group, it must be issued two TA-312/PT telephones. Using a TA-312/PT, the ADCO can relay the track report to the ADCS driver/RATELO, who then transmits the report on the AN/GRC-106A.
The ADCS is the NCS for the ADCN. It uses the ADCN to transmit track reports to the SHORAD TOC. Located where he can view a radar console or manual plotting board, the ADCO detects tracks located within or approaching the division's area of operations. He converts the track GEOREF position to a SHORAD grid position and transmits early warning to the SHORAD TOC. Position data is transmitted via a standardized format either directly or through the ADCS driver/RATELO. The ADCO also acquires and transmits air defense command and control information to the SHORAD TOC.
SHORAD TOC personnel receive the ADCS's track report. They record the track, determine if the track requires retransmission, and transmit early warning over the EWBN. ADWs and other air defense command and control information are also transmitted over the battalion command net or over the EWBN.
Aircraft detected by the FAAR are manually tracked by the FAAR operator on the PPI using a china marker and the FAAR scope insert.
The FAAR scope insert is a plexiglass disk overprinted with the standardized SHORAD grid system. It is placed over the FAAR PPI scope to allow the FAAR operator to conduct manual tracking and voice-tell operations.
The FAAR scope insert is actually two plexiglass disks mounted one on top of the other. The lower disk is overprinted with the standardized SHORAD grid. The upper disk is hinged so that it can be raised and the grid codewords can be written on the lower disk. The FAAR scope inserts should be locally manufactured through TASC based on the specifications in the illustration shown.
The scale of the FAAR scope is the same as a 1:250,000 map. The scale of the standardized SHORAD grid that is overprinted on the FAAR scope is also 1:250,000. To achieve the desired accuracy, the FAAR operator must know his actual location and offset the origin of the sweep display to his actual location within the center 10 kilometer grid box on the FAAR scope insert.
The FAAR operators monitor the EWBN using the AN/VRC-46 radio normally used for their platoon command net. When a track report is received from the SHORAD TOC that pertains to the FAAR area of interest, the FAAR operator interrupts his own broad cast/track plotting, plots and correlates the EWBN track on the scope insert, and relays any new information.
The FAAR operators voice tell the track information over the FAAR early warning net to the FUs over the AN/VRC-46 radio using the standard track report formats.
Command and control information can also be relayed by the FAAR. Authentication and acknowledgement may have to be accomplished through command channels.
USING UNITS AND EQUIPMENT
To be of best use to SHORAD units, early warning information should be displayed. This information is used to alert personnel of aircraft in their vicinity. Command and control information received over the FAAR early warning net may require authentication and acknowledgement. This would be accomplished over command nets.
Non-ADA units may monitor the EWBN or the FAAR net for early warning by using the SHORAD grid. They may also receive this information through liaison from supporting ADA units.
The MSCs map/plotting case is a canvas and plastic map case adapted for use as a plotting board for the SHORAD FU. The plotting case consists of a 30 x 30 kilometer plotting grid; a copy of the 200 x 200 kilometer standardized SHORAD grid system; a status board; a pen, pencil, and rag storage compartment; and operating instructions. The map/plotting case was distributed on a one time distribution basis to divisional and nondivisional units. Replacements must be obtained at local TASCs. The MSCs map/plotting case is shown in the following illustration.
To set up the map/plotting case for operation, you must accomplish the following steps:
Once the map/plotting case is set up as described, you are ready to plot IAW the plotting instructions described earlier in this section.
The marks in the plotting board case should look like those in the illustration below.
PLOTTING EARLY WARNING INFORMATION
To be of best use to SHORAD FUs, early warning information must be displayed. This provides an immediate aid in visualizing the air picture and prioritizing engagements in a multiple target environment.
Two methods of plotting are described here. The desired method involves using three different colored china markers (grease pencils), one for each of the identification categories (normally white for FRIEND, yellow for UNKNOWN, and red for HOSTILE). When using this method, the symbol can be used to designate a track.
The second method can be used when only one color china marker is available. In this case, a circle represents a FRIEND, a U represents an UNKNOWN, and a diamond represents a HOSTILE.
Using the example track reports that were shown earlier, the plotting would be done as shown in the following illustrations.
Using the example track reports that were shown earlier, the plotting would be done as shown in the above illustrations.
ALTERNATE MSCS PROCEDURES
Alternate routes for command and control information are provided for in the MSCS; these include the EWBN and command nets. In the event of loss of communications in the MSCS, procedures are flexible enough to make maximum effective use of remaining command and control facilities. For example, WCSs, hostile criteria, and emergency information received from the ADCO, division TOC, and/or the brigade TOC, can be passed to SHORAD units via the EWBN or via the SHORAD battalion command net. (Emergency information is information that must be disseminated rapidly throughout the division, such as NBC strike warnings and enemy airmobile assaults. The division G3 and G2 are normally the primary sources of this information, which is usually disseminated through the division intelligence net and relayed down command nets.) The EWBN provides the means to rapidly disseminate this information throughout the SHORAD battalion. Alternately, the command nets are used to disseminate emergency messages and critical warning information.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|