Stinger Training Devices and Materials
This chapter describes the devices that can be used to train and test Stinger gunners. These devices serve to promote and maintain gunner proficiency, shorten training time, and effect savings in resources.
A training program should emphasize weapon handling and firing procedures to develop and maintain gunnery proficiency at a high level. A number of training devices have been developed which, if used properly, can add realism to the training program. The use of these devices is less costly than conducting live firings and permits training to be conducted at the home station.
FIELD HANDLING TRAINER (FHT) M60
The Stinger gunner uses the FHT to practice basic manual skills of weapon handling, operation, sighting, and ranging. The FHT can be used to visually track actual aircraft or radio-controlled targets. It also allows the gunner to practice mating/removal of the gripstock and insertion/removal of the BCU. The FHT has the same size, weight, and external appearance as the Stinger weapon-round. Controls and mechanical operation are the same as the weapon-round. However, indications of target acquisition are not provided. Each Stinger team is issued one FHT.
Normally, during team-level training, only one FHT is available to each team. This presents a problem during field handling/quick-reaction drills, when a complete basic load of weapon and missile-round containers is needed. These drills require that the container/ready rack be located on top of the other weapon containers, on either the right or left side of the trailer. With only one container, the necessary height and accessibility of the ready rack cannot be duplicated. There is also a problem in securing the lone container/ready rack in the trailer bed to prevent its movement and possible damage.
Training Set Guided Missile M134
Radio-Controlled Miniature Aerial Target
A wooden frame to simulate the missing containers of the basic load can be constructed to fill this need. This device can be made by the local TASC. The simulated basic load frame can be constructed of plywood.
For those exercises requiring the gunner and team chief to each handle a weapon, it is suggested that an FHT be borrowed from another team. An allowance for the extra weapon is built into the frame's design.
TRAINING SET GUIDED MISSILE M134
The training set guided missile M134 consists of the THT, five rechargeable NICAD batteries, an IFF simulator with cable, and a shipping and storage container. This training set is used by the gunner to develop and maintain proficiency in tracking aircraft and firing the Stinger weapon. Each Stinger section is issued one M134 training set.
The tactical IFF interrogator is compatible with the M134 and for training purposes can be programmed and used for field training.
TRACKING HEAD TRAINER (THT)
The THT consists of the launch tube assembly (which contains the missile simulator), gripstock assembly, and a performance indicator. The trainer has the same general appearance as the weapon-round except for the performance indicator assembly. This assembly is strapped near the aft end of the launch tube. The trainer weighs about 38 pounds.
The external appearance of the trainer battery is similar to the BCU except that the trainer battery is approximately 3 inches longer and about twice as heavy. At least 16 training missions of 47 seconds each are possible with a fully charged battery.
The IFF simulator provides random, simulated IFF interrogation responses to the audio device on the trainer as on the weapon
SHIPPING AND STORAGE CONTAINERS
Shipping and storage containers are shown and discussed in chapter 1 of this field manual.
Further description of the trainer set and ancillary equipment is found in TM 9-6920-429-12. Use of the THT for gunner evaluation is found, where appropriate, in chapter 15 of this manual.
Electrical components provide the same audiovisual indications as the weapon when acquiring and tracking a target. Electrical power is provided by a rechargeable NICAD battery. Batteries are recharged in a battery charger.
The missile simulator has two major parts: the seeker section and the coolant reservoir assembly (gas bottle). The seeker works the same as the seeker on the weapon. The gas bottle contains pressurized argon gas which cools the seeker during each training mission. Under normal conditions, eighty 47-second practice engagements can be completed when the gas bottle has been fully pressurized.
The performance indicator displays the gunner's progress in a simulated engagement. It provides indications that the gunner has--
MOVING TARGET SIMULATOR
The MTS M87A1 provides representative sights and sounds of aircraft expected to be encountered by Stinger gunners. Environmental realism is achieved through the use of a large, curved projection screen, aircraft presentation, and sound. MTSs are located at major installations in the continental US (CONUS) and overseas. A complete description of the MTS is found in TM 9-6920-427-10.
Stinger simulator devices are the Stinger launch simulators (STLS) and the THT launch signature simulator. The STLS launches a dummy projectile and simulates an actual missile launch. This device allows every gunner an opportunity to fire a weapon (launch a dummy missile).
The THT/launch signature simulator produces a simulated backblast effect when fired. Because of this, Stinger gunners using the THT/launch signature simulator are more visible during FTXs. This not only allows them to be more effectively evaluated but also allows them to enjoy a greater sense of participation in the exercise.
RADIO-CONTROLLED MINIATURE AERIAL TARGET
The radio-controlled miniature aerial target (RCMAT) is a durable target capable of providing an accurate simulation of an attacking aircraft. An IR source device can be attached to the target. This target provides the gunner practice in tracking and ranging. RCMATS are available through normal supply channels. They are normally issued in kit form by Federal stock number.
The Beseler Cue/See is used with training extension course (TEC) lessons. It can be used for training in all aspects of Stinger gunner procedures. The lessons are presented via a super 8-millimeter continuous loop cassette projected on a 6 by 8-inch screen. The Beseler's light weight and small size allow it to be used almost anywhere. Eight Beseler Cue/See projectors are issued to a combat arms battalion/squadron.
This device is best used with one or two soldiers at a time. However, a lesson may be shown to a large group, if necessary. After completing each TEC lesson, the soldier may take a written test. If he answers all training objectives correctly, he goes on to the next lesson. The local TASC has a catalog of all TEC lessons produced by Army service schools. TEC lessons covering Stinger and Redeye subjects are listed in chapter 14.
United States Army training films can be used to support instruction of Stinger personnel in both Army-wide skills and in Stinger operations. DA Pam 108-1 is an index of Army motion pictures and related audiovisual aids. It lists available training films and other audiovisual aids. Films of particular interest to trainers are--
Film and projection equipment are obtained from TASCs.
Stinger training films that are available or in production include the following:
Stinger television tapes that are available or in production include the following:
DA Pam 310-1 provides a Consolidated Index of Army Publications and Forms which can be procured where appropriate to support the training of Stinger personnel.
*Films classified CONFIDENTIAL.
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