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Chapter 2

Digitized Division Technologies

The redesigned division support command (DISCOM) and its organic units will see an emergence of new technologies and CSS enablers that will greatly enhance the ability of logisticians at division and below to execute their work more efficiently and provide situational understanding. This coupled with the paradigm shifts in organizational structures and support concepts, allows the Force XXI DISCOM to provide the required resources to the maneuver commander to meet the OPTEMPO required to defeat the enemy. Figure 2-1 shows the locations of automated systems within the DISCOM. These systems are discussed in this chapter.

Figure 2-1. DISCOM Automation Architecture

Figure 2-1. DISCOM Automation Architecture

Although the sections in what was previously known as the division materiel management center (DMMC) are now an integral part of the division support operations, the automation used to link the DSB, DASB, and FSBs to the DISCOM, and the DISCOM to the corps, remain resident in the same sections that managed them under the AOE structure. This is particularly true in the case of the STAMIS.


2-1. The CSS enablers will assist logisticians by improving efficiency and effectiveness. Discussed below are those enablers that are currently designated to be used by the Force XXI Division.


2-2. The CMT is a self-contained, multi-capable repair system which will perform on-site organizational and DS level repair for wheeled vehicles and equipment. It has high mobility to maintain continuous support of maneuvering forces. It has enhanced hand and power tools, test measurement and diagnostic equipment (TMDE), welding and cutting equipment, and an air compressor, mounted on a heavy high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) (M1097) vehicle chassis. The CMT will replace older obsolete contact trucks utilizing M880 and commercial utility cargo vehicle (CUCV) chassis. It also meets requirements for both ordnance and engineer on-site repair missions. Specific components include:

  • Secure enclosure with easy access to tool cabinets and equipment.

  • Highly durable, good quality hand tools.

  • Enhanced electric power tools.

  • Electrical arc and metal inert gas (MIG) welding and gas (oxyacetylene) brazing and cutting.

  • Test and diagnostic equipment (TDE).

  • High mobility standard chassis.

  • Increased payload for spares, special tools, and individual military gear.


2-3. The CTS (AN/PSM-80 (V) 2 ) is a modular tester and electronic information delivery device that can be reconfigured to meet maintenance support requirements of different commodity and items at unit level and above. The CTS, a component of the integrated family of test equipment (IFTE), is a rugged man portable, knowledge based test set used at all levels of maintenance. It identifies LRU problems and augments weapon systems built-in test and built-in test equipment (BIT/BITE). It acts as a platform for electronic technical manuals (ETM), and is an Army standard software downloader. It is one-person portable and is capable of interfacing with standard printers to provide hard copy output. The AN/PSM-80 (V) 2 will contain a digital multi-meter board, a counter/timer board and an internal combustion engine board. It replaces the simplified test equipment/internal combustion engine (STE/ICE) in performing expert diagnostics. In addition, it will provide means to upload and download software and support the J1708 digital bus systems. This system would be located wherever needed; organization, DS, or higher levels of maintenance.


2-4. The FRS is a PLS flatrack mounted maintenance shop. It is designed to provide field level (unit and direct support) maintenance to mechanized/armored forces and is transported by a standard PLS vehicle. The FRS capabilities include: 5.5 ton capacity crane for lifting engines/power packs and other major assemblies; oxyacetylene, electric ARC and MIG welding capabilities; pneumatic power and industrial quality hand tools; a 175 PSI air compressor; and a 30KW tactically quiet generator (TQG) power source to provide power for the welding set, crane, electric power tools, and on-board ancillary equipment. The tool configuration is a standardized load unique to the FRS and is based on the heavy combat fleet. It provides storage locations for general mechanics tool kits (GMTK); battle damage assessment & repair (BDAR) kits for the mechanized fleet, and the soldiers' portable on-system repair tool (SPORT). The GMTK, BDAR Kits, and SPORT are not components of the FRS. The FRS provides space to carry basic issue items (BII), authorized list items (ALI), CTA items and crew member's individual clothing and equipment.

2-5. Specific maintenance features are as follows:

  • Lift capability needed to replace/repair heavy combat system components, such as power packs.

  • Secure enclosure with easy access to tools and on-board equipment.

  • Industrial quality tools and equipment to optimize support of heavy systems.

  • Full welding and cutting capability.

  • Air compressor for tools and utility support.

  • Carries the SPORT for diagnostics, ETM and IETM support.

  • Workbench area with limited environmental protection.


2-6. The HERCULES provides the answer to the current recovery problems with the M1 series tank. It is an upgrade to the current M88A1 medium recovery vehicle that provides recovery support to systems up to 70 tons, which are Abrams, and future heavy combat systems, Wolverine, Grizzly, and Crusader. Improvements include an upgraded power train, better armor protection and improved towing, lifting, and winching capabilities. Key system performance improvements include: an upgraded power pack (engine, 750 HP to 1050 HP and an improved transmission), improved final drive, power brakes, and suspension; overlay armor-30mm protection, increase weight from 56 to 70 tons, and 6000 pounds lead auxiliary winch to aid in deployment of the main winch. The HERCULES will operate in the same environment and geographical areas as the systems it supports. This is normally one terrain feature behind supported units, maximizing cover and concealment techniques and will operate during hostile battlefield conditions compounded by darkness, smoke, dust, and adverse weather. The HERCULES will provide safe operation, braking, steering control, and adequate mobility while performing primarily recovery and maintenance operations such as towing an M1 series tank, removing turrets, recovering nosed-in or overturned tanks and tanks mired to various depth in varying soil conditions. Secondary recovery functions include removing/replacing powerpacks, a cutting capability for removal/repair of damaged components, auxiliary power unit for ancillary tools, refuel/defuel pump, and an impact wrench to support the various recovery task and repair actions.


2-7. The TIGER provides mechanics expert diagnostic trouble shooting programs and access to ETM/IETMs, standard army maintenance system (SAMS) and databases for float management.

2-8. Tactical interactive ground equipment repair is principally a comprehensive related body of ideas and proposals intended to reform maintenance. Tactical interactive ground equipment repair is intended to furnish the means to diagnose materiel conditions correctly, communicate needs for services and supplies, and track them to the customer, thus reducing repair cycle time. Tactical integrated ground equipment repair includes the following concepts and projects: anticipatory logistics; turbine engine diagnostics (TED)-onboard; driver minder; interactive electronic technical manuals (IETM); pocket unit maintenance aid (PUMA); digital interactive training (DIT).

2-9. Tactical interactive ground equipment repair provides the basic ingredients to establish anticipatory logistics and accurate diagnostics/prognostics. To resolve maintenance deficiencies, TIGER concentrates on such core problems in our logistics systems: lack of communications in contemporary combat service support (CSS) units; fault-diagnosis of weapon systems and other military materiel; identifying, requisitioning, distributing, and applying repair-parts; tactical maintenance processes; the proficiency and performance of mechanics; understanding customer wants; the burden of preventative maintenance checks and services (PMCS) on mechanics, technicians, and most of all users.


2-10. Electronic technical manuals provide the mechanic compact disc-read only memory CD-ROM access to all maintenance technical manuals via laptop computer. Electronic technical manuals provide technical information and directions to maintainers and technicians. However, they do not automatically diagnose inoperable or malfunctioning systems.

2-11. Onboard IETMs have all the capabilities of IETMs, with the additional advantages of being integrated into the weapon system. This enables dynamic diagnosis, and the ability to communicate critical logistics information over the weapon system's digital radio.

2-12. Interactive electronic technical manuals diagnose and direct how to fix complicated, malfunctioning, or inoperable equipment. Interactive electronic technical manuals troubleshoot specific problems that inhibit combat performance of critical weapon systems, or high-maintenance cost drivers. Interactive electronic technical manuals have the capabilities to isolate the fault, determine the required repair part, and provide maintainers the instructions on the repair of the system. Interactive electronic technical manuals have the ability to communicate and interact with weapon systems, and with the supporting management information system (GCSS-Army). The IETM initiates the repair process. Normally, this occurs at the location of the inoperable equipment. Interactive electronic technical manuals comprehensively diagnose those field (organization and direct support level) maintenance tasks, identifies the parts required to repair the equipment, and forwards those parts requirements to the maintenance STAMIS, ULLS-G and SAMS-2 currently, and GCSS-Army as it replaces existing STAMIS.

2-13. A comprehensive weapon systems IETM or onboard-IETM does not exist. The ETM, the IETM, and the onboard-IETM are integrated components, or software objects that perform diagnostic functions. A combination of the IETMs, onboard-IETMs, and ETMs comprise a weapon system's total technical documentation.

2-14. To employ IETMs effectively, the Army requires an interface device, the PUMA. This permits the maintainer to communicate seamlessly with the weapon system, yet connect with customers, and other CSS elements over FBCB2, the global combat support system-army (GCSS-Army), or other available communications systems. Onboard IETMs are accessed over the weapon system's existing computer and communications systems.


2-15. The movement tracking system (MTS) is a stand-alone, satellite-based communication system that provides near real time in-transit visibility (ITV) of distribution assets. The MTS provides ITV through the use of vehicular mounted personal computer-based hardware packages with mapping software and commercial satellite assets. The MTS combines global positioning system (GPS) and satellite communication technologies that provide automatically updated position location and two-way digitized message capability between mobile units and control stations.

2-16. The MTS is employed at all levels of the distribution management system. In the corps and division, MTS control stations are located in distribution management center (DMC) support operations sections, movement control/mode operator headquarters elements, support battalion support operations sections within the division, and supply support activities (SSAs) at all echelons. The MTS control stations located at the maneuver brigade S4 and the FSB support operations section, transportation cell provide positive inbound clearance, outbound coordination of transportation assets and supplies, and maintain ITV.

2-17. The MTS provides CSS commanders with near real time transportation asset location, movement data, and situational understanding. These capabilities enable distribution managers to redirect (divert) supplies/assets to higher priority needs, avoid identified hazards, inform vehicle operators of changes in unit locations, and improves the overall effectiveness and efficiency of the distribution management system. The MTS mobile units, palm-sized laptop computers, are mounted on common user land transportation (CULT) vehicles, selected C2 and combat support (CS) vehicles, and CSS tactical wheeled vehicles. In addition, a mobile MTS unit will be available for use by host nation and other foreign nations contributing to a combined operation, or in leased, contracted and other vehicles that may be used in the distribution role but would not normally be equipped with MTS.


2-18. The family of medium tactical vehicles (FMTV) consists of two weight classes of vehicles and trailers; 2 1/2-Ton light medium tactical vehicles (LMTV) and 5-ton medium tactical vehicles (MTV) each with trailers. Each family of vehicles shares common design and components to the maximum extent of commonality feasible. The family of vehicles currently features 80% commonality of parts, state-of-the-art systems, and easy to access controls.

2-19. The FMTV overcomes numerous deficiencies in tactical/strategic deployability, mobility, and ammunition/general resupply. It has the central tire inflation system (CTIS), on-board crane availability option, and is transportable on C-5, C-17, C-141, and C-130 aircraft. The FMTV replace existing 2 1/2-ton and 5-ton trucks on a one-for-one basis. The FMTV are required to maintain the increased pace of logistical operations and to equal a dominant maneuver OPTEMPO. Battlefield distribution significantly alters the speed at which we execute service support and FMTVs are a key factor in reinforcing the existing infrastructure within Force XXI operations.


2-20. The palletized load system is a 16 1/2-ton tactical truck, trailer, and interchangeable de-mountable cargo flatrack combination with built-in self-loading/unloading capability that hauls all classes of supply (minus water and Class III bulk). The PLS has a total system hauling capacity of 33 tons, a 225-mile range, 50 MPH maximum speed, central tire inflation system (CTIS), and is C-5 and C-17 air transportable. When equipped with the container handling unit (CHU), the PLS can also provide increased container movement flexibility within the division rear area.

2-21. The PLS improves cargo handling by minimizing materiel handling requirements on an expanded battlefield and provides enhanced mobility to fielded units within the Force XXI division. These improvements are critical as they provide efficient and effective movement of supplies through a distribution-based logistics pipeline. The PLS is a key distribution platform employed by field artillery, ordnance, and transportation units. The PLS is the DISCOM's transportation operations workhorse under the Force XXI CSS redesign. The DISCOM commander can logistically weight the division's fight with the PLS employed by the transportation motor transport company (TMTC) of the DSB.

2-22. The role of the TMTC is to provide truck transportation for the distribution of supplies in the division's battlespace and assist division and corps elements requiring supplemental transportation. Specific PLS missions include, but are not limited to:

  • Lateral redistribution of supplies in the brigade areas.

  • Lateral redistribution of supplies between divisions.

  • Relocation of ammunition supply/transfer points.

  • Support tactical unit relocation and displacement of other divisional units.


2-23. The heavy expandable mobility tactical truck (HEMTT) - load handling system (LHS) is a standard M977 or M985 HEMTT chassis equipped with a PLS-variant load handling system. The LHS is designed for loading/unloading de-mountable cargo beds (flatracks) and 8'x 8'x 20' international standardization organization (ISO) containers/shelters on flatracks. These flatracks are interchangeable with all fielded PLS flatracks. This system introduces the capability to handle flatracks at the maneuver brigade level.

2-24. The LHS is employed by the FSB's HDC and FSC in the supply & transportation (S&T) distribution sections. Employment of the LHS improves system performance, reduces load and unload times, and increases vehicle availability for CSS units operating in the Force XXI brigade area. The LHS has the capability of transporting an 11-ton payload on the truck-mounted flatrack while towing an additional 11-ton flatrack load with the M1076 PLS trailer (the trailer is issue with LHS only to the FSB HDC). The LHS maintains the capability to transport all classes of supply (minus water and Class III(B)) in a tactical environment.

2-25. The LHS improves cargo handling by reducing container/materiel handling equipment requirements forward on the battlefield. It also enhances the mobility of CSS units by allowing supplies and equipment to remain uploaded for immediate displacement if required. Additionally, the LHS extends distribution throughput capability and enhances velocity through flatrack exchange with PLS. The use of flatrack distribution and exchange forward in the brigade area increases the supported maneuver commander's tactical flexibility.


2-26. The container handling unit (CHU) is a configuration of lifting, sliding, stowing, and locking apparatus configured onto to the palletized load system (PLS) that enables it to self-load/unload 20 foot (or equivalent) containers. With this CHU configuration, the PLS interfaces with ISO-conforming containers without the use of a flatrack. The CHU has the ability to adjust to container height variants and retains full flatrack interoperability with minimal reconfiguration required.

2-27. The CHU is employed by the tactical truck platoon, TMTC of the DSB and at ammunition transfer points (ATPs) operated by the FSB, HDC. This employment increases the division's capability to rapidly transport containerized supplies forward on the battlefield. The PLS/CHU has the capability of transporting a 16 1/2-ton payload on the truck while towing an additional 16 1/2-ton flatrack load with the M1076 PLS trailer. The PLS/CHU configuration (with trailer) maintains the capability to transport 33-tons of supplies in a tactical environment.

2-28. The CHU provides a container handling ability not previously organic to the division and reduces container/material handling equipment requirements, such as rough terrain container handlers. This additional container handling ability enhances distribution throughput capability, velocity, and immediate ATP displacement. The CHU provides CSS commanders with container handling capability forward in the division and brigade areas and increases the supported maneuver commander's tactical flexibility.


2-29. The containerized roll-in/roll-out platform (CROP) is the flatrack of the future. It is a PLS/LHS flatrack that will eventually replace the M1077 flatracks currently fielded with the PLS and trailers. This flatrack is configured to fit snuggly into a 20 foot ISO dry cargo container that has an internal door opening width of at least 92 inches and an internal length of 231 inches. It reduces transportation-shipping times and eliminates blocking and bracing efforts at origin and destination when shipped in a container. The CROP can be loaded with miscellaneous unit equipment and all classes of supply, to include ammunition. The CROP has an inward folding A-frame that allows these flatracks to be stacked 2-6 high for retrograding.

2-30. The CROP is a cargo carrying platform (or flatrack) suitable for repeated use throughout the PLS and LHS mission profiles. This improved-design flatrack is a critical enhancement to transportation operations, a key enabling system to battlefield distribution, and the cornerstone to sustainment supply velocity in the distribution pipeline under Force XXI CSS doctrine.

2-31. The CROP offers strategic, operational, and tactical applications that serve an increased pace of logistics operations and significantly alters the speed at which we provide combat service support to the warfighters.


2-32. Radio frequency-automatic identification technology (RF-AIT) is an assemblage of commercial off the shelf equipment built around a nucleus of radio frequency tags that possess embedded data of container contents, shipment data, and vehicle identification. The tags are placed on containers or vehicles at the source (such as a shipping depot or supply point) and can then be read by fixed interrogators placed at various in transit points, such as ports of embarkation (POE), ports of debarkation (POD), installations and at the eventual destination. Data input for radio frequency (RF) tags will be generated at the data source supply activity. For sustainment shipments flowing from echelons above brigade (EAB), supply locations to the lowest level supply support activity (SSA), supply item data will be entered through a fixed burn station into the RF tag. For remote EAB supply locations, supply item data may be entered by the use of a hand held interrogator. There are three sections within the data fields of a single tag that provide specific information. The lead section, or section 1 of the RF tag holds the transportation control and movement document (TCMD) header data. This section contains the primary transportation control number (TCN), major characteristics of the cargo (cube/weight), the primary consignor, and consignee. Section 2 contains a detailed item description to include subordinate consignees and document number information. Section 3 is a free text area that allows the source to input any specific disposition and/or special handling instructions for any line item of the shipment.

2-33. Radio frequency tags are separated into three data sections that provide specific information. The lead section, or license plate data, provides specific information about the shipment, such as, port of entry, port of departure, required delivery date (RDD), consignee, consignor, hazardous material (HAZMAT), number of commodity records and the number of transportation control and movement document (TCMD, DD Form 1384) records. The second section, or the TCMD section holds the TCMD header data. This section contains the primary transportation control number (TCN), major characteristics of the cargo (cube/weight), the primary consignor, and consignee. Section 3, or the commodity section contains detailed 1348 type detail. This section includes a database with NSN, document number, unit of issue routing identifier code.

2-34. Radio frequency tags will be affixed to the cargo by means of nylon serrated electrical ties. This method ensures the tags remain with the cargo until it reaches the point of delivery or the lowest level SSA.

2-35. The receiving SSA, through the use of a hand held interrogator, gains quick information as to the contents of each shipment and aids in the rapid processing of supplies into SARSS and subsequent delivery to the requesting unit.


2-36. Radio frequency tags recovered from previous shipments can be used to retrograde cargo from the user to EAB supporting supply activities. The SSA will take steps to ensure the original shipment data on the tag is deleted. This measure prevents confusion of the old original shipment data and new retrograde data.

2-37. Upon picking up the cargo, the FSC or HDC, informs the battalion support operations section. The support operations office of the FSB will then associate that particular RF tag with the corresponding vehicle equipped with the MTS or FBCB2. The support operations section passes this information via digital non-secure voice terminal or telephone (DNVT) or tactical fax, which provides information to the EAB receiving supply activity.

Return of Unused RF Tags

2-38. Should recovered RF tags exceed the number of retrograde shipments, arrangements should be made to return the tags to the next higher supporting SSA. Key points to remember when returning RF tags are to: delete the original shipment information and flip the battery within the tag. Units, through retrograde operations, or direct returns, should return tags to the system within 72 hours of receipt.


2-39. The CSS community has developed functional information management systems that increase the productivity of the individual soldier and effectiveness of the unit. These CSS STAMIS will provide the logistics infrastructure required for any military ground operation. The technical goal is to establish a seamless and interoperable network. The network involves the integration and communication software used by all STAMIS systems. Components of the system primarily include unit level logistics system (ULLS)-ground (G),ULLS air (A), ULLS-S4, standard Army retail supply system (SARSS), and standard army maintenance system (SAMS). In addition to the above mentioned systems, the STAMIS interim transmission equipment consists of RF modems, mobile subscriber equipment (MSE), and tactical terminal adapters (TTA). The STAMIS communication software utilizes the blocked asynchronous transmission (BLAST) package. A brief description of the various STAMIS listed in Figure 2-1, as part of the DISCOM automation architecture, is discussed in this section.


Department of the Army Movement Management System Redesigned (DAMMS-R)

2-40. Department of the army movement management system redesigned (DAMMS-R) is an automated movement management system designed to provide convoy planning, highway regulation, and transportation asset information for the division. The DAMMS-R provides in-transit cargo movements data, convoy arrival information, mode asset status, hold/diversion status, transportation and container status reports, and transportation intelligence.

2-41. The DAMMS-R operates in the DISCOM support operation's movement control office (MCO) and in the division transportation officer (DTO). The DAMMS-R functionality will be combined with other installation transportation office (ITO) unit deployment planning/executing systems and result in a single, easily deployable transportation management system, the transportation coordinator's-automated information management system II (TC-AIMS II).

Transportation Coordinator's - Automated Command and Control Information System (TC-ACCIS)

2-42. Transportation coordinator's - automated command and control information system (TC-ACCIS) is the Army's automated unit deployment planning and execution system that accomplishes transportation functions for ITO/traffic management offices. It generates unit movement data, air load plans, air cargo manifests, rail load plans, bills of lading, and bar-code labels for shipment.

2-43. The TC-ACCIS allows unit movement officers (UMOs) to create, update, or modify unit deployment data for peacetime, mobilization and deployment/redeployment operations. The TC-ACCIS functionality will be combined with DAMMS-R's movement management functionality and result in a single, easily deployable transportation management system, the transportation coordinator's-automated information management system II (TC-AIMS II).

Transportation Coordinator's-Automated Information for Movements System II (TC-AIMS II)

2-44. Transportation coordinator's-automated information for movements system II (TC-AIMS II) is the generic term for the computer hardware, software, and radio frequency-automatic identification technology that consolidates unit movement, ITO, and theater distribution functions (DAMMS-R and TC-ACCIS) into a joint automated information system.

2-45. The TC-AIMS II is a system designed for unit movement officers, planners, movement controllers, and transportation operators at all levels. It will be employed from installation transportation offices (ITOs) at the Army's power projection platforms, other TC-ACCIS locations, and from theater level commands to battalion and separate company levels.

2-46. The TC-AIMS II will provide transportation functions such as plan convoys, request convoy clearances, conduct load planning, and manage mode operations. It will also support daily transportation operations and provide enhancements to the deployment process by building automated unit equipment lists and deployment equipment lists. The TC-AIMS II supports planning, executing, managing, and reporting movement-related deployment, sustainment, and redeployment activities. It will facilitate the movement of personnel, equipment, and supplies and provide visibility data of those forces from factory to foxhole.

2-47. The TC-AIMS II will provide information to enable in-transit visibility (ITV) through a series of regional servers to the global transportation network and transportation information to Army command and control systems. It will ultimately provide the theater of operations with a joint transportation system capability supporting the Commander-in Chief with visibility of transportation assets in the distribution pipeline. The TC-AIMS II will be the enabler for force projection supporting Force XXI operations and battlefield distribution.


Standard Army Maintenance System (SAMS)

2-48. SAMS-1. Standard army maintenance system-1 (SAMS-1) is a maintenance management system which automates shop operations within the FSC MCS, BSC MCS, AMC MCS, and ASMC MCS. It provides shop management control of workload, manpower, and supply. It also has the capability to automatically produce work orders, requisition repair parts, manage shop and bench stock, and provide detailed labor costs related to a specific work order. The FSC MCS, BSC MCS, AMC MCS and ASMC MCS pass the SAMS-1 information to the SAMS-2 located in the respective support operations section. The FSB , DASB and DSB support operations sections pass the information to the SAMS-2 located in the division support operations section.

2-49. SAMS-2. Provides mid-level maintenance management and readiness visibility at the support operations level through selected maintenance, equipment readiness, and equipment performance reports. It produces management reports related to work orders, shop capabilities, production, backlog, manpower and parts costs. It also provides completed work order data and readiness data to the logistics support activity (LOGSA) for equipment performance and other analysis.


Unit Level Logistics System (ULLS)

2-50. ULLS-Ground (G). The ULLS-G is located at any unit that has an organizational or tactical field maintenance facility, and is designed to be operated by unit level personnel. It automates the entire range of supply functions associated with the prescribed load list (PLL), vehicle dispatching, and the army maintenance management system (TAMMS) function at the motor pool. ULLS-G interfaces with SARSS-1 and SAMS-1.

2-51. ULLS-Air (A). The ULLS-A is located in all aviation units. It performs those functions for aviation the ULLS-G performs for ground units. It will automate the production control, quality control, and tech supply (Class IX) functions at the aviation unit maintenance (AVUM). The ULLS-A interfaces with SARSS-1.

2-52. ULLS-Battalion (S4). The ULLS-S4 is located at all companies, battalion S4s, and brigade S4s. It provides hand receipt accountability for property, requests supplies, and requests transportation. The ULLS-S4 interfaces with SARSS-1, standard property book system-revised (SPBS-R), standard army ammunition system-modified (SASS-MOD) and CSSCS.

Standard Army Retail Supply System (SARSS)

2-53. SARSS-1. The SARSS-1 is an interactive, menu-driven, automated supply accounting system providing asset visibility. It automates supply support functions of the DSB SSA, DASB SSA, FSB SSA and FSC supply platoons. It processes supply requests, issues, receipts, and tracks storage of items. It interfaces with the ULLS-S4, SAMS-1, SPBS-R, CSSCS, and SARSS-2A.

2-54. SARSS-2A. The SARSS-2A provides intermediate management of the supply system at the DISCOM level. It provides reparables management and tracks excesses. It also provides referrals by conducting lateral searches among SARSS-1 locations within the division. It interfaces with the SARSS-2A(C/B) located at the corps material management center (CMMC), which tracks demand and document history, financial record keeping, and conducts lateral searches at the corps level.

Standard Property Book System- Revised (SPBS-R)

2-55. The SPBS-R is an interactive, menu driven property accountability system. The system accomplishes the functions of property accountability required by Army regulation (AR) 710-2, department of the Army pamphlet (DA PAM) 710-2-1, and all other pertinent and applicable regulations and guidelines. It operates in both centralized and decentralized mode, and provides asset visibility wherever the requirement exists. The SPBS-R interfaces with ULLS-S4, SARSS-1, tactical unit financial management system (TUFMIS), and CSSCS.

Standard Army Ammunition System-Modified (SAAS-MOD)

2-56. The SAAS-MOD is an automated ammunition system, which consolidates the following, three levels of operations into a single software baseline: theater support command materiel management center (TSC MMC/CMMC), ammunition supply point, and the division ammunition office (DAO). SAAS-MOD is designed to manage conventional ammunition, guided missiles and large rockets, and related crating and packing materials. SAAS-MOD provides formal stock record accountability, asset visibility, intransit visibility, management control, and automatic-reporting capabilities for ammunition stored at the retail level. It also supports basic load, war reserve, and operational stock management. It supports Class V conventional ammunition missions for units ranging in size from a brigade-size task force to theater. Any element, except an ammunition transfer point (ATP), when deployed independently, can perform the same functions as a TSC MMC or a DS/general support (GS) ordnance group. Within the division, a SAAS computer is located at the Class V branch of the general supply office, division support operations section. The SAAS-MOD interfaces with the following systems by either disk-to-disk or modem-to-modem transfer:

  • SAAS.

  • Commodity command standard system (CCSS).

  • LOGSA.

  • Worldwide ammunition reporting system (WARS).

  • SPBS-R.

  • DAMMS.

  • ULLS-S4.

  • CSSCS.


Medical Communications for Combat Casualty Care (MC4)

2-57. The MC4 system will be a theater, automated combat health support (CHS) system, which links commanders, health care providers, and medical support providers, at all echelons, with integrated medical information. The system will provide digital enablers to connect, both vertically and horizontally, all ten CHS functional business systems. The MC4 system will receive, store, process, transmit, and report medical command and control, medical surveillance, casualty movement/tracking, medical treatment, medical situational understanding, and MEDLOG data across all levels of care. This will be achieved through the integration of a suite of medical information systems linked through the Army data telecommunications architecture. The MC4 system will begin with the individual soldier and continue throughout the health care continuum. The best way to visualize the MC4 system capability is as a piece of the Army digital computer network where all ten CHS functional areas have been digitized and this CHS information is freely shared with everyone in the Army with a need to know. Not only will the MC4 system provide Army commanders with CHS information, but it will also provide them with a seamless transition to the joint CHS environment. The MC4 system will consist of three basic components: software, hardware, and telecommunications systems.

  • Software capability.

    • The Joint TMIP will provide government off-the-shelf (GOTS)/commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software and interoperability standards to support joint theater operations. The software provides an integrated medical information capability that will support all levels of care in a theater of operations with links to the sustaining base. Medical capabilities provided by the software to support commanders in the theater will address medical command and control (C2) (including medical capability assessment, sustainability analysis and medical intelligence); MEDLOG (including blood product management and medical maintenance management); casualty evacuation; and health care delivery.

    • The MC4 system will support Army-unique requirements and any software needed to interface with Army information systems such as CSSCS, GCSS-A, FBCB2, warrior programs, and the movement tracking system.

  • Hardware systems. The hardware will consist of COTS automation equipment supporting the above software capabilities. Examples include, but are not limited to, computers, printers, networking devices, and the personal information carrier.

  • Telecommunications systems. The MC4 system will rely on current and proposed Army solutions for tactical, operational, and strategic telecommunications systems to transmit and receive digitized medical information throughout the theater and back to the sustaining base. There will be no separate Army medical department (AMEDD) communication system. Telecommunications at brigade and below will be accomplished through the tactical internet (TI); above brigade level, telecommunications will be accomplished through the warfighter information network (WIN) architecture. The MC4 system will include hardware or software required to interface with current and emerging technologies supporting manual, wired, and wireless data transmission. At end-state, the MC4 system users will exchange data electronically via the WIN architecture. In the interim, commercial satellites and/or high-frequency radios will be fielded to selected medical units [for example, medical detachment-telemedicine] receiving the MC4 system to support high bandwidth requirements until the WIN architecture is fully fielded. Personnel operating satellite assets are resourced in the MDT TOE and will be located with the medical detachment-telemedicine.

The MC4 system will employ a three-block incremental development approach that incorporates the spiral systems engineering life-cycle methodology designed to reduce development risk, improve manageability, increase maintainability, and accelerate benefits to the warfighter. The MC4 system will be the Army's medical information system to modernize, digitize, and integrate medical information and make it available for the warfighting commander's use.


2-58. In the future, GCSS-Army will be the Army's automation information system to modernize and integrate the capabilities of existing logistics STAMIS. Those capabilities to be integrated will include supply, property, ammunition, and maintenance functions (less medical) with significant enhancements. The principal logistics STAMIS to be functionally integrated include the ULLS, SARSS, SPBS-R, SAAS-MOD, and the SAMS. The GCSS-Army modules include:

  • A modernized supply and property module that integrates supply operations and property accountability in all units.

  • A modernized maintenance module that integrates maintenance operations (such as ground, aviation, and water equipment) at all levels of maintenance.

  • A modernized ammunition module that integrates Class V management and operations.

  • A modernized supply support activity module that integrates the supply management and operations at supply support activities and storage sites.

  • A modernized and integrated materiel management module that integrates supply, property, ammunition, and maintenance management in all materiel management organizations.

  • A management module that integrates information from multifunctional CSS data sources and allows for data exchange with other GCSS-Army modules and external automation information systems.

  • The GCSS-Army will improve CSS information management by eliminating duplicative information systems, improving the sharing of data, and leveraging advances in advanced information technology. It will provide the ability to support joint operations with sister services as well as provide support to our allies. The GCSS-Army will have a link into the command and control systems through CSSCS and GCSS-Army.


2-59. The FBCB2 is a hardware/software suite that digitizes C2 at brigade level and below. The FBCB2 concept provides a seamless battle command capability for performance of missions throughout the operational continuum at the tactical level. The FBCB2 is the implementation of information age technology to provide increased battlefield operational capabilities.

2-60. The system, positioned on specified platforms, will perform combat, combat support (CS), and CSS functions for the planning and execution of operations. The FBCB2 represents a major paradigm shift for the CSS community. For the first time, the CSS organizations are digitally linked to the platforms and organizations that they support. The FBCB2 provides a common battlespace picture enabling CSS providers to maintain the OPTEMPO set by maneuver commanders.


2-61. Combat service support functionality within FBCB2 gives the combatant a common relevant picture of the current CSS situation at his/her echelon of command and at subordinate levels. Additionally, it provides the personnel and logistics leaders CSS situational understanding (SA) throughout their battlespace. It also provides enhanced capability to synchronize support to customer units. The CSS functionality on FBCB2 includes the following: logistics situational reports (LOGSITREP), personnel situation report (PERSITREP), supply point and field services status report, command tracked item list update message (CTIL/BRIL), a task management suite which includes: logistics call for support (CFS), logistics task orders (LTO), logistics task synchronization and logistics task management. Additional FBCB2 CSS reports include: medical unit situation report, mortuary affairs report, logistical and tactical situational understanding. Currently, FBCB2 permits information to be entered using free text, such as comments and other pertinent CSS information. Ideally, automated systems should be designed to limit free text input. In these cases, the user of the system should understand that the information cannot be automatically manipulated or rolled-up by higher headquarters.


2-62. The LOGSITREP provides input for logistical status for all classes of supply as determined by the CTIL, for example, Class I, II, III(P), III(B), IV, V, VII, and IX. CTIL items are selected from the CSSCS BRIL and passed through each echelon of command using the CTIL/BRIL update message and posted to each FBCB2 platform. Platforms are only required to report CTIL items authorized and available on-hand. The LOGSITREP primarily flows through the noncommissioned officer (NCO) chain of command to the battalion S4 and the maneuver brigade S4, with information copies to the FSB support operations section. All reports will follow the chain of command as specified in the unit task organization (UTO). As each unit's report is submitted to the next higher echelon of command, information copies are sent to key personnel. For survivability of the reporting process, key personnel are identified to replace the primary roll-up point duties should the primary roll-up point become non-operational. At brigade level, the maneuver brigade S4 submits company level roll-ups to CSSCS. See Figure 2-2.

Figure 2-2. LOGSITREP Digital Report Flow

Figure 2-2. LOGSITREP Digital Report Flow

2-63. All recipients of the LOGSITREP (action or information message) have the ability to look one level of command down. This gives that user the ability to see the report submitted at that level for each class of supply and any comments that were made. Comments made with the LOGSITREP cannot be rolled-up. Any comments necessary for further processing up the reporting chain must be reentered in the next report.

2-64. The purpose of the LOGSITREP is to provide the unit commanders and key personnel visibility of the latest logistics status of their unit. A secondary purpose of this report is to provide the CSS unit visibility of a unit's logistics status to better anticipate their logistics requirements. Optimally, the user will not have to request resupply of commodities reported through this report. This is because the CSS unit is aware of their requirements and can begin the necessary CSS action prior to the company needing to ask for it.


2-65. The purpose of this message is to request immediate CSS support. Any platform with an FBCB2 can request CSS support through the CFS message function. The CFS is a templated message and may be sent directly to the supporting logistics activity, but should be sent to the company first sergeant (1SG). This enables immediate support action on the battlefield, a combat multiplier. Any FBCB2 can send or receive a CFS message. The LOGSITREP reports on hand quantities of classes of supply. However, in the event that the support requirement was not or could not be anticipated, the company may specifically request support through this function.

2-66. The CFS is entered as a templated message and is sent, per unit standard operating procedure (SOP), to the supporting logistics organization that will provide the service or support. The FBCB2 system hosts six categories of CFS requests; maintenance, transportation, supply, medical, religious and others. Supply Actions include, Class I, III, IV, IX, laundry and bath, and mortuary affairs; Transportation Actions, pick up, deliver, and information; Maintenance Actions, repair, recover, services, and information; Medical Actions, evacuations, medic, Class VIII, and information; Religious Actions, worship, pastoral care, PW/refugee support, funeral services, memorial services, and information; Other, request not covered in the other 5 categories, sent in free text mode.


2-67. Once the appropriate CSS activity receives the CFS, the CSS manager identifies the most appropriate CSS resource to execute the mission. The CSS manager (tasking authority) sends a LTO to the resource. This message is the same template as the CFS message, therefore, the requesting unit and its location are specified in the order. Once the CSS resource receives the message, the FBCB2 will prompt him to return an acknowledgment message (ACK) stating whether he can, can't, or already has executed the mission (WILCO, CANTCO, HAVECO). If the resource replies with a WILCO, he will also be prompted to send an acknowledgment message of IDLE or ACTIVE. This action specifies whether the resource is actively executing the mission or is working on another mission. Once the acknowledgments have been sent, the resource will conduct synchronization with the requesting unit by sending him a free text message stating that he is on the way, will be there, or at a rendezvous point by a specified time, what he understands the mission to be, etc.


2-68. The FBCB2 transmits personnel strength information through the PERSITREP. The PERSITREP is a CSS report submitted from platform level through the command hierarchy to brigade headquarters (HQ) level. FBCB2 users at platform level submit duty status changes through their 1SGs. The 1SG forwards these changes simultaneously to the battalion and brigade S1. The 1SG can also initiate a duty status change. The S1s update the duty status changes from FBCB2. The personnel functionality will be added into a future version of the CSSCS.

2-69. The PERSITREP provides commanders digitized updates to personnel status. The PERSITREP also provides changes to the deployed personnel database. When soldiers deploy, the brigade S1 manifests every deploying soldier. The S1 builds the deployed personnel database through the manifest process. This deployed database is the baseline of personnel deployed. The PERSITREP provides information to change the duty status of the deployed personnel. These changes update the deployed database. These updates give the S1 the capability to retrieve data that they previously required subordinate units to send through recurring reports.

2-70. The PERSITREP follows the NCO support chain. The 1SG receives copies of all reports as they are distributed to the battalion S1 and the brigade S1. All reports will follow the chain of command specified in the UTO. Key leaders receive copies of the PERSITREP as it is transmitted to the next higher echelon of command. For survivability of the reporting process, key personnel are identified to replace the primary recipients in case of operational failure.

2-71. The battalion and brigade S1 use the information provided through FBCB2 to update the deployed personnel database. This database provides commanders the latest information on their soldiers. It also allows the commander to monitor his personnel resources, assess his needs and allocate his resources to maximize combat power. The brigade S1 is responsible for monitoring the status of all personnel within the brigade area and will assign replacements based upon the commander's priority of fill. When replacements arrive they report into the battalion S1 section and then immediately assigned to their unit. Each unit 1SG must assume responsibility or assign responsibility to specific platforms to report personnel not assigned to a specific vehicle with FBCB2. For example, headquarters section personnel not assigned to the 1SG vehicle (unit armored and unit supply sergeant). 1SG must ensure each member within the unit is accounted by an FBCB2 platform. FBCB2 users at platform level submit duty status changes through their 1SGs. The 1SG conducts a rollup of the PERSITREP and forwards to battalion and brigade S1. Subsequent PERSITREPs should only reflect changes in duty status from individual platforms or in accordance with standard operating procedures. The 1SG can also initiate a duty status change

Supply Point and Field Services Status Report

2-72. The supply and field services status report is designed to support the customer with specific information on supply or field service being provided. The supply point and field service report can be used to report on the following: ambulance exchange point (AXP), caches, logistics release points (LRPs), ammunition supply point (ASP), ammunition transfer point (ATP), forward arming and refuel point (FARP), Class I, II, IIIP, IIIB, IV, V, VII, VIII, IX supply points, aviation refuel point, ground refuel point, trailer transfer points (TTPs), water supply point, salvage point, maintenance collection point (MCP), shower, laundry, clothing repair point, and mortuary affairs collection point (MACP). The report can either be broadcast as SA depicting opening/closing times, location, type of supplies or services available, and available quantity of the type of logistics support being provided. Opening and closing times can be established which will aid both the customer and support operations in management of the supply point types. All direct support stock status will be reported via this report. The LOGSITREP will report organic stocks and supply point and field services status report will be used to provide status on direct support stocks of Class I and water, II, IIIP, IIIB, IV, V, VII, VIII, and IX. Management of supply point and field services status report icons are a responsibility of the owning unit and their respective support operations section at both the FSC and FSB.



2-73. The FBCB2 operator can gain situational understanding by activating the overlay feature of the FBCB2. The CSS overlay depicts the various CSS assets in the brigade sector. The overlay has icons depicting CSS assets (for example supply points, CSS CP, logistics release points (LRP)). The brigade S4 posts these points to the CSS overlay. Supply points send their locations to the brigade S4 with an information copy to the DASB support operations cell through free text message for posting or updating the CSS overlay. This feature significantly assists supported elements in locating key CSS supply activities during supply point distribution. It also assists the supporting CSS units in locating supported units when conducting unit distribution.


2-74. The FBCB2 operator can pick up visibility of assets within the brigade. These assets will automatically transmit position reports that will update each FBCB2 screen within his autonomous system. The updates are frequent and will maintain near real-time position awareness. This feature allows significant asset visibility of key CSS assets with FBCB2. CSS synchronization with the supported element will depend heavily on this feature of FBCB2. For example, if an M2A3 Bradley needs recovery, the driver submits a CFS through the platoon sergeant (PSG) and the 1SG. The CFS messaging will task a recovery vehicle (M88) to recover the track. If the M88 is FBCB2 equipped, the LTO message received identifies the platform requesting recovery. During the synchronization process, the M88 will send a free text message to the supported 1SG stating that it will conduct the recovery mission and will coordinate the most appropriate time to conduct the recovery mission. The M88 then identifies and selects the M2A3's icon on the situational understanding map on the screen. The M2A3 can do likewise to observe the supporting M88 as it approaches the M2A3. This feature prevents any confusion in locating the M2A3 and significantly increases the tempo of CSS support on the battlefield.


2-75. The ATCCS integrates five of the seven battlefield operating systems (BOS), maneuver, fire support (FS), air defense (AD), combat service support (CSS), and Intelligence that the DISCOM/DSB/FSB/DASB has the capability to interface with. Each of these functional areas is supported by a control system designed to provide leaders and planners with information to effectively plan, coordinate, control, and direct the battle. These BOS control systems are oriented toward combat operations and provide the commanders and staffs at corps and below with situational information and decision support in executing operational/tactical battle. A brief description of the various ATCCS listed in Figure 2-1 as part of the DISCOM automation architecture is discussed in this section.


2-76. The MCS is the maneuver component of ATCCS. It is the primary information system supporting the BN/TF commander and staff. MCS provides the principal operational interface with necessary applications to access and manipulate the force level database to realize the force level commander concept. There are a wide array of capabilities available, which make planning and executing a battle plan more efficient. Capabilities range from modifying UTOs to creating overlays. Commanders and staffs update the MCS database by entering readiness data, battle plans, and battle plan changes as they occur at each echelon.

2-77. The MCS system consists of window and menu-based software allowing system operators to process, retrieve, store, and send information in textual or graphical form. Reports, operation orders (OPORD), overlays, UTO, and messages are available to the user.


2-78. The ASAS-RWS is a functionally integrated intelligence support system component of ATCCS. It manages sensors and other resources; collects, processes, and fuses intelligence data; stores, manipulates, and displays this data; and quickly disseminates information to the commander by providing situational understanding of enemy activity.

2-79. The ASAS-RWS supports the commander's decision-making process 24 hours a day whether on the battlefield or in rear support areas. It prioritizes and manages collection assets; processes, receives, and correlates data from strategic and tactical sensors and other sources to produce ground battle situation displays. The system then disseminates intelligence information to assist the commander in refining that guidance, aids in target development, and provides recommendations.


2-80. The CSSCS is the CSS component of ATCCS. As this is the primary CSS tool used within the DISCOM, it will be discussed below in more detail. CSSCS provides a concise picture of unit requirements and support capabilities by collecting, processing, and displaying information on key items of supplies, services, and personnel that the commanders deem crucial to the success of an operation. The CSSCS does not duplicate STAMIS functions. The management of all items within a class of supply or support function remains STAMIS functions. Items tracked in CSSCS represent a small portion, but critical, list of the items managed by STAMIS.

2-81. The CSSCS also supports the decision making process with course of action (COA) analysis. Staffs can analyze up to three COAs for a 4-day period. Variables include combat posture, unit task organization, miles traveled, and geographical region.

2-82. The CSSCS maintains a database of unit personnel and equipment authorizations by standard requirement code (SRC) similar to table of organization and equipment (TOE) and unit and equipment planning factors. CSSCS includes a database of equipment and personnel called a baseline resource item list (BRIL). The items that a commander identifies as critical to the operation can be selected from the BRIL to establish the commander's tracked item list (CTIL).

2-83. The CSSCS currently provides situation awareness of critical elements within supply Classes I, II/IV, III(B), III(P), V, VII, VIII and personnel strength management. Maintenance, transportation, and medical functionality are a few features to be added as the system matures.

2-84. The commander identifies a CSSCS manager who is responsible for developing and coordinating the plan to establish the CSSCS nodes and network. The CSSCS manager responsibilities include:

  • Ensure that each echelon is resourced and trained properly to operate CSSCS.

  • Coordinates acquisition of information to build the CSSCS database.

  • Ensures that CSSCS operations are integrated into all OPLANS, OPORDS, and annexes.

  • Ensures that TSOPs contain current CSSCS operations.

  • Coordinates training, maintenance, and fielding of CSSCS.

2-85. The seven critical steps in establishing the CSSCS network and database are:

  • Configure the unit task organization (UTO) IAW the current OPORD.

  • Develop data flow diagrams and build message handling tables IAW the diagrams.

  • Develop the commander's tracked item list (CTIL).

  • Establish status threshold percentages.

  • Determine and set support to supported relationships.

  • Establish reporting procedures and schedules for the command.

  • Establish continuity operations (CONOPS) pairing.


2-86. Units supply status and requirements can be entered manually using standard input forms (screens) at the brigade S4, DSB, DASB, or FSB CSSCS terminal. Electronic interfaces to systems such as FBCB2 will greatly enhance the entry of unit data. CSSCS tracks unit information down to the company level.

2-87. Battle loss spot reports are input to the CSSCS node at any level (brigade, division, or corps). Information is inputted either manually, as in the case of Class III, or by electronic transfer as when a STAMIS disk is downloaded into the CSSCS terminal. The CSSCS automatically updates the database.

2-88. The data is then distributed to other CSSCS nodes. The primary means of communication is MSE. CSSCS nodes then manipulate the data through a series of algorithms that are based on Army planning factors, the specified task organization, and the established support relationships. This way, large quantities of data are presented in comprehensive, but useable, decision support information formats. This information is graphically portrayed to the commander through green, amber, red, and black bubble charts, situational understanding, subordinate unit locations, and supply point status. Status may be projected out to four days using a combination of planning factors and manually generated estimates. The commander and his staff can further evaluate simplified color status by accessing more detailed numerical data that supports the color status displayed.

2-89. At the brigade level, two CSSCS devices (or nodes) will exist. One is located in the brigade S1/S4 operational facility and the other in the DASB support operations section. The brigade node is the point of entry in CSSCS for all organizational level CSS status and requirements of the brigade and its subordinate units. The brigade S1/S4 can also view the status of its supporting FSB/DASB and higher echelon supply points. Through interfaces to the other ATCCS, a CSSCS node provides the brigade S1/S4 with the battlefield common picture.

2-90. The FSB, DASB, and DSB CSSCS node serves as the entry point for some supply point data that is not supported by a STAMIS and all organizational status of their elements. The FSB, DASB, and DSB use CSSCS to:

  • Provide common relative picture for CSS.

  • Identify CSS commanders logistic posture.

  • Enhance C2, decision support, planning, and forecasting.

  • Provide CSS status reports for item status, unit status, and supply point status.

  • Track and anticipate customer logistics status and requirements.

  • Track supply point status, issues, receipts, and dues-in of CTIL items.


2-91. All CSSCS nodes will be able to interface with all other CSSCS devices and are also able to interface with other ATCCS. CSSCS may connect to FBCB2 via LAN at the brigade S1/S4 level. The FBCB2 will serve as a data source for CSSCS by passing aggregate data (LOGSITREP and PERSITREP) that has been rolled up from squad/section, platoon, and company. The LOGSITREP includes roll-ups of Classes I, III(P), III(B), IV, V, VII, and VIII. Class VII data also includes non-mission capable information. The CSSCS consolidates battalion data selected by the commander on the CTIL, up to 120 items. The CSSCS reports to higher HQ and then provides lower echelons the location of supply points via FBCB2. The FBCB2 transmits personnel strength information by officer/warrant officer/enlisted through the PERSITREP. This information is rolled up from platform through battalion to brigade S1 where it may be entered directly into CSSCS. The CSSCS uses this information to update its database on those personnel categories listed on the CTIL. The CSSCS updates supply point locations whenever supply points move in an electronic map overlay format and passes it down to platform level via FBCB2.

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