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Chapter 8

CSS Operations

CSS SUPPORT STRUCTURE

8-1. The DISCOM is a multi-functional organization capable of providing, coordinating, and synchronizing logistical support to the division. The DISCOM's mission of sustaining the division's combat power is more critical than ever. The DISCOM consists of FSBs, a DSB, a DASB, and the headquarters and headquarters company (HHC). The DISCOM provides combat service support for the division. It provides arming through its Class V operations, fueling through Class III operations, fixing through its maintenance operations, transportation through the truck company in the DSB and the supply and transportation sections in the FSBs, sustaining through the provision of rations, individual equipment, and medical support. The personnel sections throughout the division provide the manning function. This chapter will discuss the six tactical logistics functions throughout the DISCOM to give the FSB commander and battle staff an understanding of what and how CSS integrates from higher, DISCOM and EAD, laterally, with the DSB and DASB, and to the lower supported units. The DISCOM organization is shown in Figure 8-1. Shown in Figure 8-2 are the non-divisional CSS assets, their command and support relationship, and their location in the divisional battlespace.

Figure 8-1. DISCOM Organization

Figure 8-1. DISCOM Organization

Figure 8-2. Non-divisional CSS Assets Inside FXXI Divisional Battlespace

Figure 8-2. Non-divisional CSS Assets Inside FXXI Divisional Battlespace

ARMING THE FORCE

8-2. The division operates four ATPs. These are typically arrayed to support one maneuver brigade each, and one to support the aviation brigade and division cavalry squadron. A DAO representative manages each of the ATPs. In addition to these division ATPs, the corps DS ammunition company establishes an additional ATP, which provides Class V support to both divisional and non-divisional troops in the division area. The corps DS ammunition company also operates an ASP, which provides support to the ATPs in the division and serves as an alternative source of Class V to units not supported by an ATP. Both the ASP and rear ATP are corps assets.

UNIT LEVEL AMMUNITION STATUS REPORTING

8-3. Using the LOGSITREP via FBCB2, unit ammunition on-hand status is reported per unit SOP to the 1SG, with information copies going to the company commander. The 1SG consolidates the unit's on-hand quantities and forwards them using LOGSITREP via FBCB2 to the BN/TF S4, with information copies to the BN/TF commander and S3. Company commanders will indicate in their LOGSITREP remarks about any critical ammunition shortages or forecasted changes in ammunition requirements. At the discretion of the CO/TM commander cross leveling on-hand ammunition within platoons or throughout the company is accomplished.

DETERMINING/REQUESTING BATTALION AMMUNUNITION REQUIREMENTS

8-4. The BN/TF S4 will determine ammunition resupply requirements based on information provided in the LOGSITREP and guidance received from the battalion commander and S3. The BN/TF will consolidate the entire battalion ammunition requirement. He will then submit company roll-ups for ammunition resupply through the LOGSITREP via FBCB2 to the brigade S4. The brigade S4 will consolidate the ammunition request and pass that request to the support operations officer located in the supporting FSB.

8-5. Units in the division rear submit their requests through the LOGSITREP or LOGSTAT report to the support operations officer located in the DSB. The support operations officer for the FSB, DASB, and DSB will request the ammunition support from the division ammunition officer (DAO), located in the Class V section of the division support operations section. The DAO will compare the request with the controlled supply rate (CSR). If the request is within the limits of the CSR, the DAO will order the ammunition from corps either to be issued directly to the FSC, or to replace stocks that will be issued from the ATPs located in the FSBs, DASB, or the rear ATP.

8-6. The ATP, operated by the HDC in the FSB, is responsible for supporting all units located in the brigade that are assigned, attached, have established a support relationship, or as directed by the DISCOM commander. The rear ATP, operated by corps, is responsible for supporting all divisional and non-divisional units in the division rear.

8-7. The ATP is designed to provide the required lift and transload capability associated with high-volume and high tonnage. The support operations officer of the FSBs and DASB, in conjunction with the DAO NCO representative, will coordinate directly with those non-organic units that will be supported by the ATP. The support operations officer/DAO representative will consolidate their ammunition requirements, and their request for resupply will be "rolled-up" with the brigade's request. Ammunition and explosives will be accounted for and provided proper physical security at all times.

AMMUNITION REQUEST VALIDATION

8-8. The DAO validates the brigade's ammunition requests by comparing the amount of ammunition requested against the CSR and the on-hand stocks in the FSB's ATP, DASB ATP, and the rear ATP. The DAO will take into account the current mission posture, scheduled/future mission posture, and operational guidance. Once all of these factors have been considered, the DAO will either validate the request or adjust it to meet the situation in coordination with the brigade S4 and supported unit. The DAO will then determine, based on METT-TC and transportation availability, whether the ammunition resupply will be throughput to the FSB's ATP, task force support area (TFSA) or the FSC forward. Ammunition can be throughput to a cache (a storage location where corps transportation drops flatracks loaded with ammunition, the ammunition will be closer to the maneuver unit to reduce transit time) unless the tactical situation does not allow delivery that far forward. "Prep-fire" ammunition will be delivered as close to the batteries as possible to prevent the artillery ammunition carriers from having to up-load after the "prep-fire." The ammunition resupply requests and transportation requests are then sent to the corps materiel management center/corps movement control center (CMMC/CMCC), with information copies to the brigade DAO representatives, and the brigade and battalion S4s. The brigade DAO representatives will notify the HDC ATP (FSB), HSC ATP (DASB), or rear ATP section (run by corps) of any scheduled ammunition deliveries.

AMMUNITION RESUPPLY

8-9. The CMMC, using SAAS-MOD and recommendations from the DAO, then determines whether the ammunition resupply will come from the ASP or the corps storage area (CSA). The DAO will use the CSSCS Class V ATPs CS5-016 report to determine the ammunition status of the ATPs in the division. This information will determine if ammunition within the division can be cross-leveled to meet ammunition requirements. If the ammunition is coming from the ASP, the CMMC cuts a materiel release order (MRO) directing the ammunition shipment. If the ammunition needs to be brought forward from the CSA, the CMMC will submit a request for ammunition resupply to the corps G4. Ammunition may arrive in theater in strategic configured loads (SCLs). The supporting activity, either the corps ASP in the division area or the CSA, will reconfigure the SCLs into mission configured loads (MCLs) prior to transportation asset arrival. The CMCC will schedule transportation IAW priorities. The ASP is then notified of where and when transportation will arrive by the CMCC. After ammunition has been loaded, the RF tags will be verified along with the correct cargo and destination. All ammunition shipments will be tracked through the movement tracking system (MTS). Delivery coordinates and time will be sent by FBCB2 or CSSCS free text message to the receiving unit/activity, with information copies furnished to the DAO, brigade S4, DAO representative, and respective FSB/DASB/DSB support operations. In the event an ammunition shipment needs to be diverted within the brigade, the brigade commander or designated representative will retain the sole authority to do so. This will be done through the FSB support operations officer using the CSSCS, FBCB2, or MTS through free text. Ammunition shipments that need to be diverted within the division will be directed by the DISCOM commander or designated representative. See Figure 8-3 for Class V distribution within the DISCOM.

Figure 8-3. Class V Resupply

Figure 8-3. Class V Resupply

ATP OPERATIONS

8-10. The ATPs act mainly as a temporary distribution point, conveniently located to facilitate rapid issues to users. The HDCs (FSB) operates the ATPs for the maneuver brigades and the HSC (DASB) for the aviation brigade and division cavalry squadron. The rear ATP, when utilized, is located vicinity of the DSA. It is established and operated by the corps DS ammunition company and is non-organic to the division and is run by corps assets. The rear ATP is responsible for providing Class V support to divisional and non-divisional assets located in the division rear. One DAO representative will be located at each ATP. Units that are directed to pickup ammunition from the ATP will follow the normal request procedures outlined above, and will also prepare a DA Form 581 to be sent to the DAO representative at the ATP. The requesting unit will submit the DA Form 581 through the BN/TF S4 who will approve the request and either forward it to the brigade S4, or have the unit hand carry it to the brigade S4 for approval. The DAO representative will confirm the request through the DAO prior to issue. If the unit has PLS, it will be directed to the appropriate "rack" to be picked up. If the unit requires "break bulk" issue, the ATP section will issue based upon the DA Form 3161 provided by the DAO representative. The DAO representative goes to the respective support operations section and uses CSSCS or MSE to coordinate and confirm. Coordination on the location, amount, and type of ammunition to be received at the ATP will be made via DAO, CMCC, and the respective support operations officer based on guidance from the DISCOM commander, division G4, and G3. Corps transportation assets using PLS trucks and trailers will deliver ammunition on flat racks. The ATP personnel will interrogate RFID tags of arriving PLS shipments to gain immediate visibility of the shipment and enable it to immediately identify the organization it is to be issued to. Units arrive at the ATP to pick up ammunition, drop off empty, or partially empty, ammunition flat racks, and retrieves fully loaded flat racks. The ATP personnel will assist units PLS in transloading ammunition. The ATP section will reconfigure loads to meet mission requirements on a limited basis only. The flat racks will normally be issued as shipped. If partially empty flat racks are returned and the returned ammunition is required within the brigade, the ATP section may consolidate the ammunition from the partially empty flat racks and make full loads for issue within the brigade. All empty flat racks will be shipped back to the ASP or CSA as soon as possible. The ATP representative will report all issues and returns at the ATP to the respective support operations and to the DAO. The corps transportation assets used to deliver ammunition resupply will pick up the unit turn-ins for immediate retrograde. When time and equipment permits, the ATP section will attach RFID tags to the retrograde shipments. The MTS will track the ammunition vehicle returns as they are retrograded to the rear. The MTS provides the ability to redirect the shipment if needed. The ATP will maintain only those limited ammunition stocks that they can transport.

ASP OPERATIONS

8-11. The ASP is located in the vicinity of the DSA, but is non-organic to the division and is run by corps assets. The ASP is run by the corps DS ammunition company and provides support to the ATPs in the division and also serves as an alternative source of Class V to units not supported by an ATP.

FUELING THE FORCE

8-12. Bulk fuel, Class III(B), is handled by the corps petroleum distribution system, along with 1/2 DOS of reinforcing bulk fuel support to the FSBs and DASB handled by the fuel platoon of the quartermaster (QM) company in the DSB. The reinforcing fuel in the DSB provides capability for surge or pursuit and exploitation operations.

8-13. The Class III(P/B) and water supply branch of the general supplies section in the division support operations controls and manages the supply of bulk fuels to division elements. It determines fuel requirements and recommends priorities, allocations, and other controls for bulk fuels.

8-14. Fuel distribution will be a combination of unit distribution and supply point distribution. The fuel platoon of the QM company (DSB) will provide distribution of Class III(B) to the DSA, and reinforcing support to the FSBs and DASB. The distribution section of the supply and transportation platoon (HDC) is responsible for reinforcing distribution of Class III(B) to the BSA, and distribution to the HEMTT fuelers of the FSCs. The distribution section of the supply and transportation platoons (FSC) is responsible for distribution of Class III(B) to the supported BN/TF. The distribution section of the supply platoon of the HSC in the DASB is responsible for distribution of Class III(B) to the AB and division cavalry squadron.

8-15. Fuel status is initiated at the platoon or company level, and reported daily to the 1SG using the LOGSITREP report in FBCB2. Information copies will be furnished to commanders at each echelon. The 1SG consolidates on hand quantities and submits the fuel status report via FBCB2 to the BN/TF S4, with information copy to the FSC support operations section. The BN/TF S4 consolidates the fuel status report for the CO/TM and submits by company rollup on hand quantities via FBCB2 to the brigade S4, with information copy to the FSC support operations. The brigade S4 consolidates the BN/TFs and brigade troops fuel status reports and submits the report to the FSB support operations via FBCB2, with information copy to the division G4 via CSSCS. The FSC and HDC using FBCB2, submits their bulk fuel status report to the FSB support operations section. The FSB support operations section consolidates the bulk fuel status reports for the brigade and slice elements, and submits it to the division support operations section using CSSCS. Units supported by the DSB submit their bulk fuel status reports to the DSB support operations using LOGSITREP or LOGSTAT. The DSB support operations consolidates the bulk fuel status report for the division troops and submits it to the division support operations using CSSCS. The DASB support operations consolidates the bulk fuel status report for the AB and division cavalry squadron and submits it to the division support operations using CSSCS. The division support operations uses the bulk fuel status reports from the FSBs, DSB, and DASB to compute the Class III(B) requirements for the division. The division support operations submits the consolidated division requirements to the corps support command (COSCOM) CMMC using CSSCS, with information copy to the division G4.

8-16. The COSCOM resupplies the division with bulk fuel twice daily based on METT-TC. It may be transported into the division by tanker, railway, or pipeline. A transportation medium truck company usually makes deliveries directly to the DSB, DASB, and FSB units. The division support operations, with guidance from the division G4, will coordinate the bulk fuel distribution into the division. Throughput will be maximized down to the BSA, and down to lower levels on a case-by-case, exception, or mission dependent basis. Due to EAD time/distance factors, OPTEMPO, and the challenges in synchronizing deliveries forward, this throughput to the lowest level will be coordinated through support operations channels. If direct re-supply from EAD assets to FSC is required, the FSB support operations needs to have the FSC conduct a reverse LRP operation in concert with the already coordinated delivery time and location. The preferred method of distribution is via LRP operations as coordinated with the DSB, DASB, and FSB support operations.

8-17. Bulk fuel will be issued based on priorities established by the division G4 with guidance from the division commander. The QM company of the DSB provides DS fuel to division troops and reinforcing support to the FSBs and DASB. The QM company provides supply point and unit distribution to the division troops, as determined by fuel consumption/distances/METT-TC. The DASB HSC provides bulk refueling to the AB and the division cavalry squadron. The FSB support operations is responsible for coordinating the resupply of bulk fuel to the FSCs and the HDC. The location of the bulk refueling site and the quantity of issue is transmitted using FBCB2 to the receiving unit and the supply and transportation platoon. The HDC provides DS support to the brigade troops and backup/reinforcing support to the FSCs. The FSC support operations and the BN/TF S4 will coordinate the refueling site and quantity of issue for the maneuver companies using FBCB2. Fuel HEMTT tankers located in FSC accomplish the tactical refueling operations for the maneuver companies. To optimize bulk fuel storage capacity forward and ensure HEMTT tankers have smaller turns to refuel, the FSB commander has the flexibility to position HDC 5K tankers forward in the FSC's. If the FSB support operations officer and/or the FSB commander need additional fuel assets they can request for DSB 5K tankers forward in the BSA. Tasking authority to position the DSB tankers in the forward areas normally resides with the DISCOM support operations. Figure 8-4 depicts Class III(B) operations.

Figure 8-4. Class III(B) Operations

Figure 8-4. Class III(B) Operations

FIXING THE FORCE

8-18. The overarching principle of performing maintenance as far forward as possible on the battlefield remains unchanged. Mechanics accomplish their mission by using advanced diagnostics and prognostics to diagnose to the major component fault, at which point, the component is replaced under the "Replace Forward" concept. "Replace Forward" focuses on "on-system" maintenance tasks or those tasks that can be performed at the breakdown site, if possible, or UMCP. In the redesigned division, maintenance doctrine and procedures have been changed to gain greater effectiveness and efficiencies. In the maneuver BN/TF, field maintenance (organizational and direct support maintenance levels) is consolidated in the forward support company (FSC), maintenance platoon. By combining organizational and direct support maintenance levels, the FSC has greater flexibility to perform maintenance farther forward on the battlefield unencumbered by job ordering equipment from one level of maintenance to another. The multi-capable maintainer (MCM), which are Abrams and Bradley system mechanics, have both organizational and on-system direct support level maintenance skills. Coupled with the forward repair system (FRS), the multi-capable maintainer now has the skills and the tools necessary to better execute the replace forward mission. The base maintenance platoon, brigade support company (FSB) provides similar field maintenance support to HDC FSB, BSC, engineer battalion, HHC brigade, and the brigade recon troop with a combination of organizational and direct support level mechanics. Field artillery units retain their unit maintenance sections and are provided a DS artillery support team from the BSC, forward repair platoon. The BSC maintenance platoons provide direct support level maintenance on an area basis to those units operating within the brigade area.

CONTROLLED EXCHANGE

8-19. Controlled exchange is the removal of serviceable parts, components, or assemblies from unserviceable, but economically reparable equipment and their immediate reuse in restoring a like item of equipment to combat operable or serviceable condition. Published guidance for the use of controlled exchange should be in unit SOP.

CANNIBALIZATION

8-20. Cannibalization is the authorized removal of parts, components, or assemblies from economically non-repairable or disposable end items. Cannibalization supplements and supports the supply operation by providing assets not readily available through the normal supply system.

MAINTENANCE PLATOON, FORWARD SUPPORT COMPANY

8-21. The maintenance platoon, FSC, provides field maintenance (organizational and DS level) to its supported maneuver BN/TF. The platoon consists of a headquarters section, maintenance control section (MCS), recovery section, maintenance and service section, and the combat repair teams. The maintenance platoon provides command and control and reinforcing maintenance to the CRTs. The CRTs provide field maintenance and battle damage assessment and repair (BDAR) to the maneuver companies. As a maneuver commander task organizes the force, all or part of a CRT goes with the company teams in order to maintain habitual support. The platoon maintains a limited quantity of combat spares (PLL and shop stock) in the MCS. The FSC operates the UMCP in what is known today as the task force support area (TFSA) or in the FSC forward location, depending on METT-TC.

BASE MAINTENANCE PLATOON, BRIGADE SUPPORT COMPANY

8-22. The BSC base maintenance platoon provides field maintenance (organizational and direct support) to the HDC FSB, BSC, FSMC, HHC brigade, and brigade recon troop. It also provides DS maintenance support to other units operating in the brigade support area. The platoon performs and coordinates backup and reinforcing support to the FSC maintenance platoons and the ESE forward engineer repair teams. The goal of the "replace forward" concept is to repair systems forward on the battlefield returning combat systems to battle as rapidly as possible. The base maintenance platoon consists of the maintenance control section, automotive maintenance section, GSE repair section, and armament repair section.

FORWARD REPAIR PLATOON, BRIGADE SUPPORT COMPANY

8-23. The forward repair platoon provides field maintenance to brigade and divisional units not supported by FSCs or the DSB on an area basis. The service and recovery section provides welding services and limited recovery/lift support. The missile/electronic maintenance support team provides land combat missile systems (LCMS) and communications/electronic maintenance support either forward on-site, or at the base shop as directed by the MCS. The artillery support section provides on-site DS level maintenance to the artillery battalion in support of the maneuver brigade. The wheel/track section is capable of providing contact (on-site) support to the brigade headquarters, brigade recon troop, engineer battalion, and reinforcing support to the FSCs as directed and also provides limited reinforcing and back up support to the FSCs.

ENGINEER SUPPORT ELEMENT

8-24. The engineer support element (ESE) is a multi-functional unit that includes a food service section, a distribution section, and maintenance sections organized to provide habitual support to divisional engineer battalion. The new engineer support element is as mobile as the unit it supports. It is modular enough to be broken into three multi-functional engineer support teams (EST) each capable of providing habitual combat service support to an engineer company. These ESTs can co-locate or be attached to maneuver FSCs that are in support of the battalion task force that the supported engineer company is in support of. The ESE can also consolidate all of the ESTs with the ESE headquarters and form a separate engineer task force support area based on METT-TC.

8-25. The brigade support company maintenance control section manages limited combat spares consisting of major assemblies and key combat system components. During combat operations, these combat spares are maintained by the engineer CRT, engineer support element and managed by the MCS. When task organized, the BSC MCS sends the accompanying ULLS-G box and an operator with each engineer CRT to facilitate parts requests and maintenance management. The FBCB2 calls for support and logistic task orders follow the same lines of communication as the CRT in the FSC.

FIX - INTERNAL SUSTAINMENT

8-26. The BSC is resourced to perform its own field maintenance. Requests for maintenance of organic equipment are submitted by FBCB2, voice, or face-to-face to the BSC MCS. An information copy is sent to the 1SG. If the equipment can move, the section takes it to the maintenance area for repair. If the equipment cannot move, the repair team assesses the system and updates the MCS on its status. Parts are ordered and the repairs are made. Repairs can be made at the point of repair or the equipment can be recovered to the maintenance collection point.

8-27. The MCS reports the ULLS-G automated materiel condition status report (MCSR) to the BSC commander. The BSC commander signs the MCSR and forwards it the FSB S4. This allows the BSC commander to maintain oversight of all organic maintenance issues and the BSC's external support mission.

DSB AND DASB

8-28. When the brigade organizes for combat, typically, elements from the DSB may be in the brigade battlespace in DS support to the slice elements in support of the brigade (MP, signal, MI, etc...). The area support maintenance company (ASMC), organic to the division support battalion (DSB) provides direct support level maintenance support for the division troop units and CSS elements operating in the division rear area. The ASMC also provides unit level maintenance to itself and the HHC DISCOM. See FM 4-93.55 (63-21-1) (DSB Digitized). The division troops, division cavalry squadron, and field artillery retain their organic unit maintenance sections. The ground maintenance company (GMC) of the division aviation support battalion (DASB) provides field maintenance support to the aviation brigade and division cavalry squadron. See FM 4-93.55 (63-23-1) (DASB Digitized). Figure 8-5 depicts maintenance relationships in the division.

Figure 8-5. Fix-Division XXI

Figure 8-5. Fix-Division XXI

AUTOMATION SUSTAINMENT

8-29. The digitized division depends on a significant number of automated systems to accomplish its missions in both peacetime and wartime operations. Automation is a critical component of gaining information dominance, shaping the battlespace, conducting decisive combat, and protecting the force.

8-30. A major part of the success in leveraging all this automation involves the development of an integrated maintenance plan for keeping all the associated hardware and software operational and functioning. The maintenance plan must be integrated to maximize operator level, organizational, and direct support maintenance capabilities within the division and the reinforcing direct support and contractor maintenance capabilities at echelons above division.

8-31. Development of a successful automation maintenance plan at the FSB level in support of a maneuver brigade's battlespace involves the following considerations:

  • A viable PMCS program for all automated systems that can be executed at operator level (this may entail the local development of automation PMCS kits that consist of compressed air, keyboard covers, lint sheets, and disk drive cleaners for CD ROM disks, magnetic optical disks, and floppy disks). This must be coupled with an established maintenance cycle for automation that focuses on periodic checks and services.

  • Clearly defined levels of maintenance responsibility for soldiers (31U/74B/35J) and contractor personnel that define who is authorized to perform certain maintenance related functions as well as identification of any warranty exceptions that may be required.

  • Proper positioning on the battlefield of automation related "combat spares"/ASL (cables, T-connectors, keyboards, disk drives, motherboards, UPS, etc...) that supports the replace forward/fix rear maintenance concept.

  • Identification of applicable tool sets and kits needed to support automation maintenance and equipping maintainers at appropriate levels with the proper tools to perform their mission.

  • A clearly defined division automation evacuation and repair plan that contains procedures and SOPs for contacting "help desks", packaging and preparation of hardware for evacuation to higher echelons, and issuance of spare or "float" automation equipment. The focus of this plan must be on maximum reduction of repair cycle time.

8-32. Other considerations at division level for automation maintenance include:

  • A comprehensive training plan for exposing soldiers to automation maintenance at the operator level. This must parallel vehicle maintenance programs to the degree that maintenance of automation becomes a periodic, sustained process. Automation, like vehicles, must be viewed as combat systems and cared for accordingly.

  • Increase operator confidence in troubleshooting and repairing automation systems. Reduce operator dependency on contractors and logistics assistance representative (LARs) from AMC electronic systems support center (ESSC) to solve operator and organizational problems. Free ESSC personnel to focus on isolation and repair of maintenance faults that cannot be resolved by division's organic maintenance assets.

  • Proper positioning of contractor personnel and LARs from AMC ESSC in the division area. Consider establishment of various "help desks" at different echelons within the division battlespace (i.e. at brigade level).

  • Identify duties and responsibilities of various personnel, units, and battle staff sections regarding automation maintenance. Clearly define what tasks and functions that the operators, the CSSAMO, the various S6 sections at different echelons, maintenance units, and contractors are responsible for.

  • Rehearse evacuation and replacement procedures for combat critical automation systems such as FBCB2, ABCS (MCS, CSSCS, AFATDS, ASAS, AMDWS, and selected GCSS-A systems.

MOVING THE FORCE

DIVISION TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS

8-33. The division support command (DISCOM) provides direct support CSS to the division. The foundation of this support is a single CSS operator providing unity of command and centralized distribution management at all echelons to meet the maneuver commanders' intent. Under Force XXI operations, this doctrinal premise is dependent upon battlefield distribution, throughput to forward areas, and improved situational awareness through the application of enabling technologies.

8-34. Significant changes in division transportation operations under Force XXI operations include: an improved division transportation motor transport (TMT) company design that replaces the M931 tractors/M871 trailer combinations with palletized load systems (PLS); merger of movements and materiel management at the DISCOM distribution management center (DMC); reliance on corps throughput for sustainment resupply; transportation assets forward in the supply & transportation platoons of the support companies (HDC and FSCs); and movement managers located in the FSB support operations to provide movement control and transportation coordination for the maneuver brigade.

8-35. In order to maximize division transportation capability, planners and operators must employ the Force XXI CSS imperatives discussed below as the basis for all transportation operations.

Unity Of Command, Centralized Distribution Management

8-36. Synchronizing movement and materiel management and maintaining integrated end-to-end visibility of transportation assets is key to the successful operation of an efficient, fully integrated transportation system at the division level. The DISCOM movement control officer (MCO) performs this function for the division as a member of the DISCOM commander's battle staff and is located in the DISCOM's distribution management center. The movement control NCO performs this function for the maneuver brigade and is located in the supply and service cell of the FSB support operations section.

Increased Velocity, Throughput To Forward Areas

8-37. Throughput operations bypass one or more echelons in the distribution network or system to minimize handling of cargo and improve velocity on the battlefield. Direct throughput relies on unity of command and situational awareness to effectively implement the use of transportation assets and to divert, re-route, and ensure continuous movement of supplies into, through, and out of the division area. The DISCOM MCO maintains constant in-transit visibility (ITV) of corps sustainment resupply convoys entering the division rear boundary through MTS and other ATCCS. The movement control NCO in the FSB support operations maintains constant ITV of all corps (or division) sustainment resupply convoys in/out of the BSA through movement tracking system (MTS). The FSB movement control NCO also synchronizes delivery schedules via Force XXI battle command brigade and below (FBCB2) with customer units to complete throughput to forward areas.

Increased Velocity, Minimize Load Handling

8-38. Minimizing load handling of cargo and reducing materiel handling equipment requirements are essential to successful throughput to forward areas under Force XXI CSS doctrine. Transportation corps materiel enabling technologies such as the PLS, HEMTT-LHS, and CROP significantly reduce handling requirements over break-bulk methods. These systems extend distribution throughput capability and enhance velocity through flatrack exchange at the division, brigade, and task force support areas. Transportation managers will coordinate efficient flatrack exchange and maximize flatrack load capacity and retrograde operations.

MOTOR TRANSPORT AND MOVEMENT CONTROL OPERATIONS IN THE DIGITIZED DIVISION

8-39. Movement and maneuver of combat forces are normally given priority over other movements, even though CSS traffic is essential to the success of battles. Movements planning and execution in the division are battle staff responsibilities, rather than being vested in operational units found at corps and above. Transportation mode operators and movement control elements at division level manage the movement of non-committed units in the division area and require close coordination between the division's G3 and G4. The G3 plans and directs maneuver. The G4, through the division transportation officer (DTO), DISCOM distribution management center (DMC), and DISCOM MCO coordinates and controls division transportation operations. Planning and regulating movement requires close coordination among the division battle staff and the commanders and battle staffs of the brigades, separate battalions, and separate companies.

8-40. The division G4 DTO is the primary advisor to the division commander, the coordinating special staff for transportation matters, and is the formal link between the division and corps. The DTO plans for movement of the division by all modes based on the division commander's guidance. The DTO develops and coordinates movement control and highway planning with division battle staff, the corps transportation officer (CTO), and division support movement control team (MCT) habitually supporting from corps. The division G3 prioritizes CSS movement and tactical maneuver missions in support of division operations and the DTO incorporates these priorities into all movement planning. The DTO participates in the military decision making process as a member of the division planning staff and recommends the allocation of division transportation assets and establishment of MSRs/ASRs. The DTO will provide the DISCOM MCO with broad policy guidance and basic plans for the division road network written in the highway regulation and traffic circulation plans (movement annex) of the division OPLAN/OPORD.

8-41. The DISCOM MCO supports movement control through planning, and controlling the taskings to the TMT company. The TMT company commander provides a current status of fleet availability to the MCO. The FSB, DASB, and DSB support operations sections, as well as separate companies and battalions supported by the DISCOM pass requests for movements to the MCO. The MCO balances the requests to the availability of TMT company assets, and then assigns the missions to the TMT.

8-42. When transportation requirements exceed capabilities, the MCO must decide whether to wait for TMT company assets to become available or forward the mission to corps for support. If forwarded to the corps, the request is submitted through the DTO or directly to the supporting area MCT with a copy furnished to the DTO/division support MCT. The supporting division MCT/DTO submits the request to the corps support group forward CSG(F)'s supporting area MCT. The transportation support will come from the supporting corps support group's (CSG) transportation units. The MCO is responsible for ensuring that transportation assets are properly employed and promptly released when missions are completed.

8-43. The DISCOM MCO develops the division movement program based on the G4 logistics planner's combat service support annex of the division OPLAN/OPORD and adheres to guidance within the division movement annex. The MCO coordinates with the materiel managers of the DISCOM DMC to determine and plan for transportation of materiel and assists in the development of the CSS synchronization matrix.

8-44. The MCO coordinates with subordinate support operations movement/materiel managers to ensure delivery of sustainment resupplies to the correct location and integrates retrograde movement of equipment, flatracks, and personnel. Throughput distribution is the preferred method of delivering commodities and supplies to requesting supply support activities or to the user. Sustainment materiel delivered to the DSB, DASB, and FSB will normally be scheduled deliveries and synchronized with subordinate support operations sections and customer units. Corps transportation assets contact the movement managers (MCO and DSB/DASB/FSB support operations) through MTS when entering the division/brigade rear boundary(s) and delivering to the DSA, ASA, or BSA logistics release points (LRPs). The movement managers will forward the coordinating information to the division support operations via MTS. All divisional and non-divisional units operating in the division rear area will submit transportation requests and movement clearance requests to the DISCOM MCO. Figure 8-6 depicts division movement control.

Figure 8-6. Division Movement Control

Figure 8-6. Division Movement Control

8-45. Transportation operations and movement control in the maneuver brigade is a CSS staff responsibility. The brigade S4 provides the brigade commander with overall battle staff responsibility for highway regulation and MSR/ASR establishment in the brigade area in coordination with the brigade S3's priority of movement and the DTO's highway regulation and traffic circulation plans. Movement control at the brigade level requires close coordination between the brigade S4, DISCOM MCO, FSB support operations, and the battalion S4/forward support company (FSC) support operations at the BN/TF.

8-46. The movement of the brigade is coordinated and synchronized with the division G3, G4, and the DTO. Unless the movements are planned concurrently with the tactical plan, the best plans can be thwarted by road congestion. The brigade S3 manages and approves all tactical movements in the brigade's battlespace. The brigade S3 must also monitor that all CSS movements are synchronized with the scheme of maneuver. The brigade S4 plans, manages, and monitors all CSS movements with the FSB support operations. The FSB support operations manages and executes the movements through CSSCS and maintains visibility through MTS.

8-47. The FSB support operations section assumes the distribution management center's role in providing continuous and responsive sustainment to the brigade through a variety of STAMIS and the CSSCS managed by the section. The FSB's limited distribution capability relies heavily on support from the DISCOM and corps for sustainment throughput. The FSB's distribution manager synchronizes the delivery schedule with customer units and transfers information between the brigade S4 and the battalion S4/FSC support operations section (via MTS) to schedule and synchronize transportation requirements within or in direct support of brigade or battalion operations. For supplemental transportation support and coordination on inbound and outbound shipments the FSB movement control NCO coordinates with the DISCOM MCO through MTS.

8-48. The FSC support operations section assumes the movement and materiel management and maintenance (evacuation) functions of a DMC at the lowest echelon of support to a BN/TF. The FSC support operations coordinates with the BN/TF S4 and synchronizes the delivery of all classes of supply with customer units and transfers requirements and capabilities to the FSB support operations (info copy to FSC commander). The FSC support operations schedules and synchronizes transportation support and the FSC rear CP coordinates inbound and outbound shipments with the FSB movement control NCO through MTS.

FIRST DESTINATION REPORT POINT

8-49. A first destination reporting point (FDRP) is normally established along a MSR at or near the division rear boundary. The FDRP is a point manned by a movement regulating team, a movement control team, or military police that diverts a driver and cargo to an alternate consignee or destination. Basically, FDRPs are logistical information checkpoints. FDRPs support velocity management and situational awareness.

8-50. Even though the division is digitized, a FDRP is routinely required since many echelon above division (EAD) supporting units, host nation support, and/or contractors will be non-digitized. Either the division or an EAD unit can operate the FDRP. Optimally, both the division and supporting EAD headquarters have representatives located at the FDRP continuously. Security arrangements, command and control, and communications support must be addressed prior to FDRP establishment. Further amplification of FDRP operations can be included in unit SOPs. Some tasks performed at the FDRP are below:

  • Track location of critical supplies.

  • Perform movement control functions.

  • Provide instructions to convoys.

  • Provide and receive latest intelligence.

  • Reroute convoys/vehicles.

  • Provide information on routes and weather.

  • Establish division "light line" for black-out driving.

  • Linkup point for armed convoy escort vehicles.

FLATRACK MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS

8-51. Flatracks offer tactical efficiencies that serve an increased pace of logistical operations and significantly alter the speed at which service support is provided to the warfighters. The key to sustaining these efficiencies and maintaining improved throughput velocity is flatrack employment, management, and retrograde procedures at each echelon of support. An increased battlespace depth and a reduction of CSS force structure challenge flatrack management and ultimately sustainment of combat power within the FXXI division area of operations. Flatrack management is a challenge that must be met in order to successfully sustain combat power on the FXXI battlefield.

8-52. Flatrack employment, management, and retrograde operations are the responsibility of distribution managers integrated at each echelon of support throughout the division area. Flatracks will be dispersed throughout the distribution pipeline, particularly from the division rear boundary to the combat trains command post of a maneuver task force. It is imperative that stringent flatrack management procedures be implemented at the tactical level on an area basis.

Task Force Support Area Flatrack Management Operations

8-53. The FSCs operating TFSAs face increased flatrack management challenges because they are mobile units with limited transportation assets to move supplies and retrograde flatracks. Flatrack management responsibilities within the TFSA rest with the FSC support operations officer and the FSC S&T platoon leader. The FSC support operations officer flatrack responsibilities include:

  • Identifying a proposed flatrack collection point (FRCP) upon occupation of the TFSA in coordination with the FSC S&T platoon leader.

  • Managing all common user flatracks on an area basis.

  • Ensuring flatrack exchange (providing a back hauled flatrack for every received) procedures are adhered to as a matter of priority.

  • Maximizing the use of FSC S&T LHS for retrograding flatracks from the FRCP back into the distribution pipeline.

  • Reporting flatrack on-hand quantity by location, status, and condition to the FSB support operations office movement control (MC) NCO.

  • Coordinating with the FSB support operations MC NCO for supplemental transportation support when retrograding flatracks from the TFSA FRCP.

  • The FSC S&T platoon leader flatrack responsibilities include:

  • Identifying a proposed flatrack collection point (FRCP) upon occupation of the TFSA in coordination with the FSC support operations officer.

  • Ensuring flatrack exchange procedures are adhered to as a matter of priority.

  • Collecting and consolidating empty flatracks across the BN/TF sector.

  • Reporting flatrack on-hand quantity by location, status, and condition to the FSC support operations officer.

  • Back hauling/cross leveling items on flatracks such as ammunition residue, trash, remains, unserviceable parts/assemblies, as directed by the FSC support operations officer.

8-54. Flatrack exchange is the preferred method for retrograding flatracks from the TFSA. The FRCPs are designated for flatrack consolidation purposes when required and this proposed location is reported to the FSB support operations officer. Logistics release points (LRPs), supply routes, feeder routes accessing supply routes, other collection points, and force protection measures are considered when selecting these locations. The FRCPs can also be collocated within the existing TFSA FSC perimeter or consolidated with adjacent FSCs to maximize force protection resources.

Brigade Support Area Flatrack Management Operations

8-55. The FSB operating in the BSA has flatrack management responsibilities for all flatracks throughput to and retrograding from the brigade area. Flatrack management responsibilities within the BSA rest with the FSB support operations office, supply & services movement control (MC) NCO and the HDC S&T platoon leader.

8-56. The FSB support operations MC NCO flatrack responsibilities include:

  • Identifying a proposed flatrack collection point (FRCP) upon occupation of the BSA in coordination with the HDC S&T platoon leader.

  • Managing all common user flatracks on an area basis.

  • Ensuring flatrack exchange procedures are optimized using division and corps throughput assets as a matter of priority.

  • Maximizing the use of HDC S&T LHS for retrograding/back hauling flatracks from the FRCP back into the distribution pipeline.

  • Reporting flatrack on-hand quantity by location, status, and condition to the movement control office (MCO), DMC, and DISCOM.

  • Monitoring the status and location of FSC FRCPs.

  • Coordinating with the DISCOM MCO for supplemental transportation support when retrograding flatracks from BSA FRCP.

8-57. The HDC S&T platoon leader flatrack responsibilities include:

  • Identifying a proposed flatrack collection point (FRCP) upon occupation of the BSA in coordination with the FSB support operations office MC NCO.

  • Ensuring flatrack exchange procedures are adhered to as a matter of priority.

  • Collecting and consolidating empty flatracks/back haul items across the brigade rear area and at TFSA FRCPs.

  • Reporting flatrack on-hand quantity by location, status, and condition to the FSB support operations MC NCO.

  • Retrograding unserviceable assemblies/parts, supplies, trash, remains, or any back hauled/cross-leveling item on flatracks as directed by the FSB support operations office movement control MC NCO.

8-58. The preferred method for retrograding flatracks from the BSA is flatrack exchange with the FSCs, division rear support units, and corps sustainment resupply convoys. The FRCPs are designated for flatrack consolidation purposes when required and this proposed location is reported to the DISCOM MCO. When selecting the LRPs, supply routes, feeder routes, accessing supply routes, supply support activity, and other collection point locations, force protection measures must be considered. The FRCPs can also be collocated within existing logistical nodes to maximize force protection resources.

Division Rear Area Flatrack Management Operations

8-59. The division support operations office has flatrack management responsibilities for all flatracks throughput to and retrograding from the division rear area. Overall flatrack management responsibility within the division rear area rests with the DISCOM MCO. The DISCOM MCO has flatrack management and status reporting responsibility to the supporting area movement control team (MCT) of the supporting corps support group.

8-60. Within the division rear area, flatrack management responsibilities are delegated further on an area support basis. The DSA and the ASA assume flatrack management responsibilities for their respective areas. The DSB support operations office, transportation section (in the DSA) and the DASB support operations office (in the ASA) are charged with collecting empty flatracks within their area of responsibility and providing a daily flatrack status report to the DISCOM MCO.

8-61. The preferred method for retrograding flatracks for the DSB and the DASB is flatrack exchange with corps sustainment resupply convoys. The DISCOM MCO, in coordination with the DSB and DASB, identifies proposed FRCPs upon occupation within the division rear area. The FRCPs are designated for flatrack consolidation purposes when required and this proposed location is reported to the supporting area MCT.

8-62. The DISCOM MCO, DSB, and DASB manage all common user flatracks on an area basis, ensure flatrack exchange procedures are optimized using division and corps assets as a matter of priority, and maximize the use of TMT company PLS for retrograding flatracks from the FRCPs back into the distribution. The DSB and DASB support operations offices coordinate with the DISCOM MCO for supplemental transportation support for flatrack retrograding from their respective areas. The DISCOM MCO submits requests for supplemental transportation support to the supporting area MCT for flatrack retrograding from the division rear support area FRCPs.

Flatrack Reporting Procedures

8-63. Accurate daily reporting of flatracks in a unit's area of responsibility by location, status, and condition is critical to efficient management of this crucial asset within the distribution pipeline. A separate report is not required for reporting flatrack status. Flatrack managers roll flatrack status into existing reports. Requests for supplemental transportation to retrograde flatracks on the battlefield are submitted as routine transportation requests through support operations channels. Flatrack procedures outlined in this appendix will be incorporated into unit tactical standing operating procedures (TACSOPs). Figure 8-7 depicts division flatrack management operations.

Figure 8-7. Digitized Division Flatrack Management Operations

Figure 8-7. Digitized Division Flatrack Management Operations

ARMY AIRCRAFT SUPPORT

8-64. Logistics planners categorize air movements' requests as pre-planned or immediate. Units submit pre-planned requests to satisfy programmed requirements within 24-hour advance notice. Immediate requests are initiated when there is less than 24-hour notice, support is absolutely essential to the survival of the unit, or when lack of support will result in complete mission failure.

8-65. Units submit requests to the FSB movement control NCO who forwards requests to the MCO at the DISCOM DMC. If the MCO determines use of aviation assets is appropriate, the request is forwarded through the DTO to the division G3 air officer. The G3 air officer allocates helicopter lift support by balancing combat, combat support, and CSS requirements. If assets are not available internal to the division, the DTO submits requests through CMCC channels for pre-planned missions. For immediate use, the DTO coordinates through division G3 air with corps G3 air for allocation of assets.

8-66. When aviation assets are dedicated to CSS distribution missions for certain periods of time, the aviation brigade sends a liaison officer to the DMC movement control office of the division support operations. If aviation assets are required for CSS distribution missions, the MCO submits pre-planned requests for these assets from the flight opns/S3 of the aviation brigade through the liaison officer (info copy to DTO). This liaison officer advises the MCO on capabilities and limitations of the aircraft, particularly the lift capability for current environmental conditions.

8-67. The MCO provides movement requirements including size of the load, pickup and delivery times, location of landing zones, and any special handling requirements pertinent to aircraft operations. The MCO also coordinates with the appropriate commodity manager within the DMC for transportation of supplies. If the aviation brigade is unable to support requirements, the MCO contacts the DTO. The DTO coordinates with the G3 air officer for verification and forwards the request to the corps through the division support MCT.

8-68. Units submit immediate requests for resupply and transportation through the same logistics channels as preplanned requests. However, the requests are submitted simultaneously through command channels from the unit to G3. The MCO will submit the request through the DTO, who verifies the request. Once verified the DTO forwards the request to the G3 air via CSSCS. At the same time the G4 coordinates for immediate resupply with the DMC commodity manager to identify the appropriate supply company to prepare the immediate shipment (reference: FM 4-20.199 (10-450-5)). Information is passed to both the supporting and supported units as well as the responsible operations center/battle staff proponent.

GENERAL HELICOPTER CSS MISSION AREAS

Transition to War

  • Self-deploy to area of operations.

  • Provide early in-theater transport.

  • Move priority cargo, weapons, ammo, POL and barrier material forward from ports/staging areas to establish supply points.

Deep Battle

  • Move troops, equipment, weapons systems, ammo, POL, priority supplies from rear to forward staging areas to support deep battle operations.

  • Deploy reinforcing units; evacuate wounded, recover battle-damaged equipment, and forward repositioning of artillery.

Covering Force and the Main Battle

  • Support air assault units with rapid resupply of ammo and POL.

  • Augment reaction forces into blocking positions to contain enemy.

Rear Battle

  • Move forces and equipment to counter operations in rear.

  • Augment reaction forces into blocking positions to contain enemy.

Combat Support

  • Emplacement, repositioning, resupply of forward area refueling points (FARPs).

  • Rapid repositioning of reinforcement troops, equipment, artillery etc...

  • Transport barrier materials, mines, bridging equipment for engineering support.

Combat Service Support

  • Provide logistical air transport of cargo from rear to as far forward as brigade rear areas meeting time sensitive and surge demands.

  • Deliver critical loads to areas not accessible by ground or Air Force airlift.

  • Employed to move priority cargo to overcome congestion and enemy inflicted gaps in transportation system.

SUSTAINING THE FORCE

8-69. Sustainment is the provisioning of personnel, logistics, and other support required to maintain and prolong operations or combat until successful accomplishment or revision of the mission or of the objective.

CLASS I

8-70. Food is one of the most important factors affecting a soldier's health, morale, and welfare. However, the acquisition, storage, transportation, distribution, preparation, and serving of food have always been a logistics challenge. The Army field feeding system (AFFS) is based on the requirement to serve "three quality meals per day, with the capability to distribute, prepare, and serve a unitized group ration "A" (UGR-A), a "heat and serve" UGR meal, and a meal, ready to eat (MRE) individual ration (Chapter 1, FM 4-20.2 (10-23) after initial entry into the theater."

8-71. As the operational situation permits, efforts are made to distribute, prepare, and serve the UGR-A. This requires extensive planning and coordination. Some key points planners need to consider with UGR-A are: refrigerated storage and distribution equipment and the availability of ice for unit storage.

8-72. The FSC provides consolidated food preparation for the FSC and BN/TF. The FSC has the ability to prepare meals forward in each company area based on METT-TC. The food service section cooks UGR-A or heats the heat and serve meal in its organic mobile kitchen trailer (MKT). Food can be packed in insulated food containers and sent with the LOGPAC to CO/TM location where CO/TM soldiers serve the meals. The HDC, FSB provides food service support to itself, BSC, HHC brigade, brigade recon troop, and FSMC. In the brigade support company (BSC) the engineer support element (ESE) provides food service support to the engineer battalion. Food and beverage containers are sent back for reuse. Where practical, small units are fed by units designated on an area basis.

8-73. The DISCOM receives headcount data for Class I from the FSB, DSB, and DASB support operations sections from CSSCS, and in turn sends it to CMMC. These Class I headcounts should be rolled up by BN/TF sets to their respective support operations before being forwarded to the DISCOM food service section. Corps or EAC will configure rations in BN/TF sets and push them forward to the FSB, DSB, and DASB field ration issue point IAW the ration cycle. The FSB, DSB, and DASB support operations sections coordinate with supported units for the location of ration issue point and pick-up schedule. Figure 8-8, shows Class I resupply.

Figure 8-8. Class I Distribution

Figure 8-8. Class I Distribution

8-74. Rations are pushed forward to the FSB, DSB, and DASB field ration issue point based on personnel strength reports, planned operations, and anticipated task organization. The Class I field ration issue point verifies shipping documentation with the shipment received. They also inspect shipments of rations for type, number, and condition or items received.

8-75. When the division is engaged in combat, the ration supplement health care package (HCP) is usually issued with the rations. Issue is to division troops and those attached troops operating in the division area. These supplement HCPs should not be confused with Class VI supplies. The HCP is composed of items essential to the health and comfort of troops. These items include toilet articles and confections. Pending establishment of adequate service facilities, this packet is made available in theaters of operations for issue.

WATER

8-76. The Class III and water supply branch of the division support operations will manage water distribution within the division. Figure 8-9 shows the DISCOM water distribution organization. Water production and storage is provided to the division by an augmentation team from the COSCOM. This water augmentation team is capable of establishing water points that produce, store and issue potable water. The augmentation team will establish water points in the DSB, DASB, and each FSB. The team is dependent on the division for life support and force protection. Water points are normally attached to the support battalions.

Figure 8-9. Water Purification/Distribution

Figure 8-9. Water Purification/Distribution

8-77. Water augmentation teams/sections may produce, store, and issue or (without the availability of a suitable water source) simply store and issue potable water. In an arid environment, water points will receive additional storage capacity from the COSCOM. Within an arid environment or where there is no suitable water source, the COSCOM will deliver water as part of normal sustainment pushes. An adequate water source should be a consideration when selecting the division, aviation, and brigade support areas. Limited water sources may require massing production assets from the augmentation team/section and transporting the water to support area water points.

8-78. Water distribution within the DSA, ASA, and BSA will be normally through supply point distribution at the water points. The HDC's hardwall tankers or semi-trailer mounted fabric tanks (SMFTs) will be used to distribute water to maneuver battalions. Maneuver company supply sergeants fill their water trailers at the TFSA according to an established schedule. Figure 8-9 shows water purification and distribution.

8-79. Bottled water may be locally procured or shipped from outside of the theater of operations. Bottled or packaged water is particularly well suited for reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (RSOI) and initial operation, however (situational dependent) may be routinely issued throughout an operation or conflict. It is normally distributed along with Class I. The Army Medical Command has the responsibility for quality surveillance and quality assurance for bottled water.

CLASSES II, III(P), AND IV

8-80. Classes II, III(P), IV, and unclassified maps include a wide variety of supplies and equipment from clothing to tools, to packaged petroleum products, to barrier materials. The FSC of the FSB issues Class II, III(P), and IV to units in the maneuver BN/TF. The HDC of the FSB will maintain limited stockage for support of the brigade supply point distribution to brigade troops. The QM company out of the DSB will issue Class II, III(P), and IV to division troops. Stockage for the support of division troops is kept in the supply platoon of the QM company. This stockage is not based on maneuver brigade consumption. The HSC of the DASB will maintain stockage for support of the aviation brigade and division cavalry squadron.

8-81. Unclassified maps follow the same requisition flow as Classes II, III(P), and IV supplies. They are stored in the receipt, storage, and issue section. Maps are issued through supply point distribution to supported units according to established tables of allowances or to fill special requirements. Classified maps are handled through S2 channels.

8-82. Units in the brigade area submit their requests for Class II, III(P), and IV items through the appropriate STAMIS (ULLS-S4), to their supporting FSC. The S&T platoon issues the item to the customer. If supplies are not on hand at the FSC, the request is sent to division support operations (SARSS-2A). Personnel in the Class II, III(P), and IV supply branch of division support operations check within SARSS-2A. If they find the items are on hand in the SSAs, they will release it or forward the request to the corps SARSS-2A. The division support operations can also direct cross leveling of items within FSBs. The supporting COSCOM activity delivers the supplies to the respective SSA according to the department of defense activity address code (DODAAC). Units in the division rear submit their Class II, III(P), and IV request through the appropriate STAMIS (ULLS S4) to their supporting QM company in the DSB. Units in the aviation brigade and division cavalry squadron submit their Class II, III(P), and IV request through the appropriate STAMIS (ULLS S4) to their supporting HSC in the DASB. Figure 8-10 shows the DISCOM supply operations for Class II, III(P), and IV as well as Class VII and IX supply operation, and Figure 8-11 shows the requisition flow for Classes II, III(P), and IV.

Figure 8-10. Classes II, III(P), IV, VII, and IX Resupply

Figure 8-10. Classes II, III(P), IV, VII, and IX Resupply

Figure 8-11. Classes II, III(P), and IV

Figure 8-11. Classes II, III(P), and IV

8-83. The limited stockage of Class II items may include MOPP gear, environmental protection items (boots, overshoes, parkas, and helmets), and mechanics' tools. Distribution plans for protective clothing and equipment must consider the threat and the service life of protective overgarments and filters. Unit priorities for issue must be established.

8-84. The QM company of the DSB, the HDC of the FSB, and the HSC in the DASB, or, if appropriate, the gaining unit's supply element, reequip soldiers returning to duty from medical treatment facilities (MTFs) in the division rear area. The FSB/DASB may reequip return to duties (RTDs) in the brigade area. If the gaining unit has support elements operating in the vicinity of the MTF, SOP may require that the unit bring personal equipment when it picks up personnel returning to duty. If the gaining unit does not have elements operating near the medical treatment facility (MTF), SOP may require medical personnel to pick up clothing and essential protective gear at the supply point to provide minimum protection before the soldier returns to duty. The MTF cannot issue individual weapons.

8-85. The engineer battalion S4 officer determines and requests Class IV requirements for upcoming operations in coordination with the assistant brigade engineer (ABE). He passes the request to the FSB support operations section, with a copy furnished to the brigade S4. Then the request is sent to HDC to be inputted into the SARSS-1. The request is then sent to division support operations from the SARSS-1 to the SARSS-2A, and subsequently to the CMMC SARSS-2A. If available in the corps, the Class IV package is then released and delivered as close to the emplacement site as possible, METT-TC dependent. Once released from the corps, the requesting unit is notified by electronic means of the amount and composition of the mission configured load (MCL) available for delivery. Coordination is made for the delivery location.

CLASS VI

8-86. Class VI supplies are those items used for personal hygiene, comfort, and welfare. They include such things as candy, gum, dental care products, soap, and stationery. Initially the soldier carries these personal items with him. As the supply system adjusts to demand, resupply is by HCP where personal demand items are issued gratuitously. The HCPs, as already mentioned, are issued with Class I items. When the situation permits, tactical field exchanges provide services to specified units to troop concentrations.

CLASS VII

8-87. Class VII items are intensively managed and are normally command controlled. Class VII replacement is based on combat losses reported through command channels to the division G3 and G4 via MCS and CSSCS. This permits the commander to remain apprised of the operational status of subordinate commands and to direct the distribution of items to those units having the most critical need. Weapon systems such as tanks are intensively managed by weapon system replacement operations (WSRO). If the item is a WSRO weapon system, the primary linkup points of the item with its crew may occur in the DSA/ASA/BSA or in designated assembly areas.

8-88. Class VII requests will be accomplished by using the FBCB2 to submit combat loss reports from company level to the BN/TF S4. The CO/TM rollups will be consolidated by the BN/TF S4 and submitted to the brigade S4, with an information copy provided to the FSC support operations. The brigade S4 will consolidate and submit battalion combat loss reports to the division support operations via CSSCS, with information copies provided to the division G4 and FSB support operations. The Class VII/PBO representative from the division support operations will enter the requests into the appropriate STAMIS (SPBS-R to SARSS-1). The DSB support operations will consolidate and submit division troops battle loss reports for Class VII to the division support operations, with a copy provided to the G4. The DASB support operations will consolidate and submit aviation brigade and division cavalry squadron requests for Class VII to the division support operations, with a copy provided to the G4.

8-89. A predetermined amount of Class VII may be maintained and issued to division organizations upon division support operations approval, based on guidance from the division G4. Upon corps approval of division support operations Class VII requisitions, COSCOM units transport Class VII equipment to the supporting SSA (QM CO, HSC, HDC, or FSC) or directly to the requesting unit when possible. Class VII supply operations is shown in Figure 8-10.

CLASS VIII

8-90. Typically, there are four Class VIII DSUs within the division (DSMC, 3-FSMCs). These DSUs will forward their requisitions to the DISCOM medical material management branch (MMMB). The MMMB will have asset visibility of on-hand quantities of Class VIII supplies. The MMMB can authorize and direct one DSU to fill another DSUs supported unit requisition. If the MMMB elects not to cross level from one DSU to another DSU, then it forwards requisitions from the division to the supporting medical logistics company. Class VIII management in the Army's Force XXI division will be accomplished by medical units/elements using the combat health logistics (CHL) functional module of theater medical information program (TMIP)/medical communications for combat casualty care (MC4) system, when fielded. Currently the functional business system for Class VIII wholesale/retail management at echelons above division (EAD) is the theater Army medical management information system (TAMMIS) that is a legacy system. This system will be replaced in the future by the MC4/TMIP system. This system provides brigade medical elements a direct link with the FSMCs and division rear medical elements a direct link with the DSMC. Also, this system provides corps medical units/elements a direct link with the supporting MEDLOG battalion's units. The health service materiel officer (HSMO) of the division surgeon's section (DSS) and the DISCOM medical materiel management branch (MMMB) in the division support operations section, coordinates Class VIII resupply for division medical units/elements. Each medical unit maintains its own basic load of 3 to 5 days of medical supplies. The MEDLOG battalion assigns one MEDLOG company in direct support of each division. Once established, it provides Class VIII resupply for the division and corps medical elements operating in the division AO.

8-91. During deployment, lodgment, and early buildup phases, medical units operate from planned, prescribed loads and from existing pre-positioned war reserve stockpiles identified in applicable contingency plans.

8-92. During the initial employment phase, each FSMC will receive a preconfigured medical resupply push-package every 48 hours, as required, from pre-positioned stock or the continental United States (CONUS) base. Preconfigured medical resupply push-packages will continue until appropriate units of the corps medical logistics (MEDLOG) battalion are established.

8-93. Initial resupply efforts may consist of preconfigured medical supply packages tailored to meet specific mission requirements. Preconfigured push-packages will normally be shipped directly to the division support medical company (DSMC) and FSMCs until replenishment line item requisitioning is established with the supporting MEDLOG company. During this time, medical company treatment and ambulance teams deployed with maneuver or other division elements are re-supplied from their medical company. Maneuver battalion medical platoons/battalion aid stations (BASs) will receive standard push-packages every 12-24 hours, as required. Contents of push-packages can be adjusted as the battle changes. Line item requisitioning will be by exception only during this time. While resupply by preconfigured packages is intended to provide support during the initial phase, continuation on an exception basis may be dictated by operational needs. Planning for such a contingency must be directly coordinated with the DSS HSMO who coordinates further Class VIII resupply requirements with the supporting MEDLOG battalion. Other than line item requisitioning from the FSMCs and DSMC, the HSMO of the DSS and the DISCOM MMMB will coordinate all Class VIII requirements for the division with the supporting MEDLOG battalion and/or MEDLOG company as appropriate.

8-94. Divisional medical elements will use TMIP/MC4 system, when fielded, to requisition Class VIII. Users of this system in the division include maneuver battalion medical platoons, FSMCs, the DSMC, and the DISCOM MMMB. The TMIP/MC4 system is the primary source for Class VIII line item requisitions from the FSMCs and DSMC. Forward support medical companies and the DSMC request Class VIII resupply from the supporting MEDLOG company.

Routine Requisitions

8-95. Routine requisitions from maneuver battalion medical platoons for Class VIII resupply from their supporting FSMC will be via a digital request. An information copy of all requisitions within the brigade will be forwarded by the FSMC on-line to the DISCOM MMMB and also an information copy to the brigade surgeon's section (BSS). Routine requisitions submitted by FSMCs, division or corps medical elements operating in the BSAs are forwarded directly to the supporting MEDLOG company. An information copy goes to the DISCOM MMMB. The MMMB coordinates shortfalls in throughput distribution with the DSS and divisions support operations branch. The MMMB may update priorities with the MEDLOG company to correct deficiencies in the delivery system. If the requested items are available for issue, a materiel release order is printed and the requested supplies are prepared for shipment. For items not available for issue, the requests are passed to the MEDLOG battalion's logistics support company. Using TAMMIS, the MEDLOG company forwards information to the unit on items shipped and on those requests that were not filled. An information copy is forwarded to the MMMB.

Immediate Requisitions

8-96. Immediate requisitions from maneuver battalion medical platoons are submitted to the supporting FSMC. When the supporting FSMC is unable to fill the request, the requisition is forwarded to the DISCOM MMMB. The DISCOM MMMB will expedite handling of this request to ensure tracking of critical Class VIII items and timely delivery. Cross-leveling in the division may be accomplished if it is the most expedient method of obtaining and shipping required items to the requesting unit/element. If the DISCOM MMMB is unable to locate requested item(s) in the division, the request is forwarded to the supporting MEDLOG company. Immediate requisitions from FSMCs are sent through the DISCOM MMMB for management and to ensure visibility of the requisitions. The DISCOM MMMB maintains a record of the requisition until it is filled. All immediate requests received by the MEDLOG company are processed for shipment by the most expedient transportation available. The MEDLOG company forwards all immediate requests not filled, to the MEDLOG battalion's logistics support company located in the corps rear. The DISCOM MMMB has the responsibility of monitoring all immediate requisitions not filled by the MEDLOG company. The DISCOM MMMB reports all immediate Class VIII requests to the DSS/CHS cell.

Delivery of Class VIII

8-97. Delivery of throughput Class VIII to the requesting medical units in the division is accomplished by logistical packages (LOGPACs) and non-medical transports. Shipment of these Class VIII LOGPACs from the MEDLOG company is coordinated with the corps support battalion and the corps movement control officer (MCO). The management and in-transit visibility of Class VIII delivery is accomplished through document number and transportation number tracking. The systems that work together to provide this management and coordination are TAMMIS, transportation coordinator's automates information for movement system (TC-AIMS), MTS, and global traffic network (GTN). These systems are located in the MEDLOG company and the DISCOM MMMB. In some cases, delivery of medical materiel into the division AO may also be achieved through use of the directed Class VIII resupply using medical evacuation resources that are returning to the division medical units. From the FSMCs, delivery of Class VIII to maneuver battalion medical platoons via LOGPAC or non-medical transports is coordinated by the FSMC with the FSB support operations section. For directed Class VIII resupply, medical transports may be used. Immediate Class VIII resupply will be processed for shipment by the most expedient means available. Based on casualty estimates, medical push-packages may be pre-positioned with maneuver battalion medical platoons or with the FSMC. Figure 8-12 provides an overview of Class VIII requisitions and resupply flow at Echelon I. Figure 8-13 provides an overview of Class VIII requisitions and resupply flow at Echelon II.

Figure 8-12. Overview of Class VIII resupply at Echelon I

Figure 8-12. Overview of Class VIII resupply at Echelon I

Figure 8-13. Overview of Class VIII resupply at Echelon II

Figure 8-13. Overview of Class VIII resupply at Echelon II

Assemblage Management Reporting Under USR

8-98. Unit status reporting (USR) of medical equipment sets (MESs) in the division will be created using the TMIP/MC4 USR feeder report. This is not a classified report. It calculates percent fill of sets according to AR 220-1 and AR 40-61 and does not create a roll-up of equipment on hand calculations. Minus the potency or dated items while units are not deployed, 70 percent fill of the combined expendable, durable, and non-expendable items within a set constitute an on-hand set for accountability purposes. Medical equipment must be maintained at an acceptable degree of readiness above 70 percent as determined by the division surgeon and unit commander.

8-99. Division medical units/elements will prepare a requisition plan to immediately replenish all potency, dated, and other items that are not being maintained and missing items from sets. Units will coordinate with the supporting MEDLOG company prior to implementation of the plan.

8-100. Transmission of Class VIII requisitions and status reports data will be accomplished by one of a number of ways. The baseline method will always be by disk and hard copy. The preferred method will be by radio or MSE transmission if signal capabilities allow. At the battalion level, units will attempt to transmit requisition and report data using SINCGARS systems improvement program (SIP) or enhanced position location reporting system (EPLRS) linked to the hyperlink or modem capability of MEDLOG-D. Given the line of site limitations of FM radio, this attempt is best accomplished in synchronization with previously coordinated retransmission. Within the BSA and higher, transmission of data will be by either MSE or amplitude modulation (AM) radio if allowed. Note that if MSE is used, the unit must accomplish prior coordination with the division G-6 to obtain a net encryption system or other encryption hardware system in order to send data.

Division Blood Management

8-101. Blood requirements for the division are determined by the division surgeon. Only packed liquid red blood cells are expected to be available to the division. Blood products are shipped to Army MTFs in the division by the blood support detachment of the MEDLOG battalion. The DSS (HSMO) coordinates with the blood support detachment for division blood requirements. Shipment of blood from the corps to the division is coordinated by the blood support detachment with the corps movement control center (CMCC). It is then transported to the requesting MTF by dedicated medical vehicles (air and ground). The blood support detachment notifies the DISCOM MMMB when blood is shipped. Emergency resupply can be accomplished by air ambulances from the medical battalion, evacuation or by medical personnel on nonstandard medical transports.

8-102. Blood support is a combination of four systems (medical, technical, operational, and logistical). Blood support must be considered separate from laboratory support. In the long term, theater blood management is based on resupply from the CONUS donor bases (armed services whole blood processing laboratories [ASWBPLs]). At the corps level, storage and transportation refrigerators allow the blood support detachment to provide blood as far forward as the FSMCs of the division. See FM 4-02 ( 8-10), FM 4-02.1 (8-10-9), FM 4-02.55 (8-55), and TM 8-227-12 for definitive information on blood management. Also refer to TM 8-227-12, Armed Services Blood Program Joint Blood Program Handbook, January 1998.

CLASS IX

8-103. As a result of the implementation of field maintenance (organizational and DS level maintenance) in FXXI, the maintenance control section (MCS) is now responsible for maintaining what we know as prescribed load lists (PLL) and shop supply items. For this reason we have designated the new term for these consolidated inventories as "combat spares." Both of these inventories have very different requirements for adding and maintaining parts on inventory. The MCS will manage the PLL using the ULLS-G and the shop stock using the SAMS-1. With the fielding of GCSS-Army, the maintenance module's consolidated ULLS-G and SAMS-1 functionality will have the ability to manage the combat spares. Combat spares are not meant to bring back the "iron mountains". Combat spares consist of a broad but shallow inventory of high use, combat essential parts that support a replace forward maintenance philosophy. Combat spares provide a buffer for the lead-time it takes the distribution system to deliver a required part and also acts as insurance against interruptions in the distribution pipeline. In FXXI parts can be stocked in several different ways. If there is a high use, combat essential part the support units believe needs to be stocked to support combat operations they can do it several different ways. If the part does not meet the stockage criteria for PLL it may be able to be carried on the shop stock. If an essential item fails to meet the criteria for both it may still be stocked at the MCS but will be centrally managed as ASL in the HDC. The SARSS1 box has the ability to just change the location of where the part is physically stored.

8-104. Combat spares for the CO/TM are received, stored, and issued by the maintenance control section of the FSC. An operator identifies a fault and requests assistance from the CRT via FBCB2 (free text) or FM radio. The CRT will diagnose the fault and identify the required Class IX supplies. The DSU supporting the brigade troops is the HDC. The ASL for the brigade is maintained by the Class IX section in the HDC. The PLL for the HDC of the FSB, FSMC of the FSB, HHC brigade, engineer battalion, and the brigade recon troop may be managed by the MCS of the BSC. The Class IX supply section of the QM company, DSB, provides direct support to division troops. This section receives, stores, and issues Class IX (ground and missile) supplies. The section also maintains the division troop's ASL, and operates the reparable exchange service. The Class IX supply section of the HSC, DASB provides direct support to aviation brigade units and the division cavalry squadron. The section also maintains the aviation brigade/division cavalry's ground ASL, and operates the reparable exchange for ground equipment.

Class IX Request

8-105. An operator identifies a fault, annotates the fault and notifies the CRT. The CRT will diagnose the fault, identify the repair part required, and forward the request to the maintenance control section (MCS) of the FSC. The MCS will either issue the part if it is on hand or it will pass the requisition on to the Class IX section supply platoon of the HDC via ULLS-G or SAMS, and if the part is on hand in the Class IX section of the HDC it is released. If the requested repair part is not on hand, the Class IX section will process the requests via SARSS-1 and forwards to the DISCOM support operations SARSS-2AD. The FSB's HDC maintains the brigade's ASL. The MCS in the BSC and the FSCs maintain the brigade's combat spares. The supply & transportation platoon, HDC will process the ULLS-G and SAMS class IX requisitions via SARSS-1 for brigade troops and the MCSs. The QM company of the DSB will process the ULLS-G and SAMS Class IX requisitions via SARSS-1 for division troops. The HSC of the DASB will process the ULLS-G request data via SARSS-1 for the aviation brigade and division cavalry squadron. Figure 8-14 shows the requisition flow of Class IX within the division.

Figure 8-14. Requisition Flow Class IX

Figure 8-14. Requisition Flow Class IX

Class IX Resupply

8-106. Upon receipt of a requisition, the DISCOM/COSCOM SARSS-2A will conduct a subordinate search of all SSAs to locate the requested repair part. Once SARSS-2A identifies the location of the repair part, a MRO is processed to the lowest level SSA. The COSCOM's CSG units will throughput Class IX supplies to the QM company of the DSB, the HSC of the DASB, the S&T platoon of the HDC, and when possible the supply section of the FSC. The QM company and S&T platoon will conduct supply point distribution for division and brigade troops. The HSC of the DASB will conduct supply point distribution for aviation brigade and the division cavalry squadron. The S&T platoon of the HDC provides unit distribution to the FSC in support of the maneuver companies. The COSCOM units will transport Class IX (A) supplies to the supply platoon of the AMC in the DASB. Class IX supply operations is shown in Figure 8-8.

FIELD SERVICES

8-107. Field services, such as showers, laundry, and textile renovation, are provided by the corps field services companies. The unit makes request for field services to the DSB, DASB, and FSB support operations section. The requesting support operations section will make the appropriate coordination with DISCOM.

MORTUARY AFFAIRS

8-108. A well-organized mortuary affairs program in the division helps to ensure the following:

  • Prompt and effective recovery of all remains from the division area of responsibility.

  • Prompt tentative identification of the remains.

  • Prompt recovery, inventory, and security of personal effects found on remains.

  • Evacuation of remains, with their personal effects secured to them out of the division area to the corps mortuary affairs collection point (MACP).

  • Prompt, accurate, and complete administrative recording and reporting.

  • Prompt and adequate care for deceased allied and threat personnel IAW current united nation (UN) agreements.

  • Reverent handling of remains and adequate ceremonies and services for deceased.

  • Temporary interment of remains (when required and authorized).

8-109. All commanders are responsible for unit level search, recovery, and evacuation of remains to a MACP. Digital FBCB2, or per the TSOP, will be used to transmit the initial findings of the unit search and recovery teams to the MA team.

8-110. Upon deployment and transition to the concurrent return program, a MA forward collection platoon is detached from the corps' QM collection company and attached to the DISCOM. The MA forward collection platoon consists of a platoon headquarters and four forward collection teams. The MA forward collection platoon functions include:

  • Conduct limited search and recovery missions, as required.

  • Set up and operate collection points with refrigeration capability in the maneuver brigade area.

  • Set up and operate a division main collection point with refrigeration capability.

  • Conduct temporary interments and disinterments when directed by the geographic combatant commander. This mission is not resourced by the TOE and may require augmentation from the FSB commander.

  • Maintain essential records and reports.

  • Maintain security over collection points.

8-111. Once the forward collection platoon is attached to the division, the platoon leader and platoon sergeant works with the division support operations or G4 as liaison officer and NCO technical representative. Forward collection teams establish MACPs at key locations within the division. Each forward collection section has seven personnel and can receive, process, and coordinate evacuation of about 20 remains and associated personal effects per day. The division commander has the flexibility to employ collection teams as the mission dictates, consolidating or shifting assets as need. Normally one forward collection team is attached to the DSB (division collection point) and each FSB. These forward collection teams setup and operate MACPs.

8-112. The forward collection point NCOIC in the BSA reports to the FSB commander for command and control. The collection point receives staff supervision from the FSB's MA staff NCO assigned to support operations. The FSB's MA staff NCO is the commander's advisor for all MA issues. The FSB MA staff NCO's responsibilities include:

  • Advising the FSB commander on MA issues.

  • Training the brigade and FSB units and personnel on performing search and recovery, tentative identification, and evacuation of remains to the mortuary affairs collection point (MACP).

  • Establishing the MACP within the BSA.

  • Advising on temporary interment policy and the security and disposition of remains and personal effects.

  • Planning and coordinating escort of remains.

  • Maintaining files, reports, and a situation map on MA support activities.

8-113. The support operations MA staff NCO recommends to the FSB commander the best location within the BSA for the MACP. The FSB commander may have to supply personnel to operate the MACP until the forward collection team arrives. MACP sites are screened from passing troops and access to the site will be the responsibility of the NCOIC at the MACP. Collection points should be located near medical evacuation lines or the ATP. They are usually located near the MSR. Once the site has been approved, administrative orders are published detailing the location of the MACP.

8-114. The FSB's support operations coordinates the transportation of remains within the BSA. All personal effects found on the remains will accompany the deceased when evacuated to the division collection point. Vehicles bringing supplies (except Class I) to the BSA evacuate remains to the DSA collection point as a backhaul mission or by throughput to the corps collection company or theater mortuary evacuation point (TMEP). The recommended method of evacuation of remains is air evacuation (fixed or rotary wing) in coordination with the FSB support operations and G3 Air. The G3 approves, requests, and tasks the aviation brigade to perform the mission. Applying the throughput concept, remains may be evacuated directly to the rear TMEP for shipment to the supporting mortuaries. This method of evacuation allows for expeditious processing and minimizes advanced stages of decomposition of remains. For morale purposes and respect for the deceased, remains should always be covered and screened from sight during transportation.

8-115. Temporary interment of remains OCONUS is permitted as a last resort. Every effort should be made to return remains to CONUS as soon as possible. The geographic combatant commander may authorize temporary interments only when operational constraints prevent the evacuation of remains out of the AOR. The expedient and respectful evacuation of deceased personnel is a top priority. However, during extreme situations when the tactical and logistical situations leave no alternatives, a program of temporary interment may be implemented. Temporary interments are a last resort used for health, safety, sanitation, and morale reasons at unit levels and are conducted IAW Joint Pub 4-06 and FM 10-64. These burials are fully documented and promptly reported through MA channels.

8-116. In extreme circumstances, when a unit is cut off and has no means to communicate with higher headquarters, the senior commander is responsible for deciding whether temporary interment will be utilized after all known support options have failed.

MANNING THE FORCE

8-117. Manning is the process of recording, reporting, verifying and processing personnel strength and casualty information at the unit level.

8-118. Proper and effective manning is essential to the operational success of any military mission. Manning the force involves the uninterrupted flow of soldiers from mobilization and deployment through redeployment and demobilization. The manning process includes the tasks of predicting personnel requirements, resourcing units with personnel assets in accordance with the commander's guidance, monitoring the personnel strength posture, assessing unit combat power, and adjusting personnel resources to provide the optimum combination of manpower and equipment to maximize combat power. Manning the force impacts force ratio evaluations and all logistical requirements. To optimize and sustain the commander's lethality, survivability, and high OPTEMPO requirements, the personnel operator must place the right soldier, at the right place and time with the right capabilities. This process combines anticipation, movement and skillful positioning of personnel assets. The Force XXI commander must integrate manning information with other combat power factors in a near real-time to execute combat operations successfully.

8-119. The FSB S1 is the battle staff officer for the FSB commander on all matters concerning human resources. Manning the force encompasses the tasks that current doctrine associates with personnel readiness management, replacement management, and casualty management. In information age operations the commander must also have digitized manning information integrated with other decision support data in order to execute combat operations successfully. Enabling Force XXI technologies include the tactical personnel system (TPS), personnel module of CSSCS, and FBCB2/PERSITREP. The lethality and digitization capabilities associated with the DISCOM and the 21st century battlefield require that manning be divided into discrete tasks. These tasks are iterative and do not follow a prescribed order or sequence. PSS organizations are provided the minimum assets necessary to conduct the tasks required at their echelon.

8-120. Predicting is the process of anticipating the number, grade, and skill of personnel resources required to sustain the battlefield operating system (BOS) of the DISCOM as they execute the operational patterns that destroy the enemy's will to fight. The S1 must complete a loss estimate based on threat and friendly force capabilities. This estimate provides planning parameters for replacements, medical facility/support requirements and MA assets. In the DISCOM the personnel operator will use the digitized capabilities within CSSCS to anticipate casualties.

8-121. Resourcing is the process of bringing units to their required strength according to the commander's priorities. Although it occurs at every echelon of command, resourcing is the primary focus of the national provider. The department of the army deputy chief of battle staff for personnel (DA DCSPER) executes the task at the national level in order to structure, acquire, train, distribute, and separate the force. Individual replacements move from the central receiving center (CRC) under the direction of the DCSPER and CONUS major commands (MACOMs) to resource the force projection theater. At all levels, personnel operators provide commanders combat power visibility by properly identifying the status of available personnel resources. The S1 then recommends the allocation of available resources to meet current and future requirements. The DISCOM cannot resource itself and must be provided assets from division to accomplish this task.

8-122. Monitoring is the process of gathering unit strength data on a real time basis through digitized systems and communications. With digitization, we will eliminate the requirement for unique personnel reporting systems by having the capability to absorb personnel information from tactical communications. The task of digitized strength monitoring begins with establishing the strength baseline. S1s, under the direction of the division G1, manifest all deploying personnel. Inbound or prepositioned asset information is available through information systems of the manning the force automation architecture. It is transmitted to personnel operators performing manning tasks at the strategic and/or operational level and provided to the division. The deployed database and personnel asset visibility establishes the strength baseline. The DISCOM S1 maintains unit status by getting updates through ABCS.

8-123. Assessing is the process of comparing current and projected unit strength data to personnel capabilities required maintaining OPTEMPO and achieving operational success. It starts by determining the personnel required maintaining BOS combat power IAW the commander's priorities and intent. The S1 matches current assets with projected losses and replacements and recommends the method to properly resource units.

8-124. Adjusting is the process of packaging, positioning and dispatching replacements to deliver them when and where needed. The G1 notifies the DMC of movement requirements as commanders direct the proper adjustment of personnel assets to accomplish pending missions. Personnel operators both in one division and at EAD, in coordination with logisticians match personnel and equipment during the adjustment process by providing unit, squad, crew, team, or individual replacements according to the commander's operational requirements and the needs of the BOS. Movement time and distance factors influence the positioning of personnel replacement units that hold and process replacements until they are dispatched to the gaining unit. The division G1 does not have the resources to accomplish the adjustment task and may direct the dispatch of replacements directly from EAD to the gaining unit. In this case he synchronizes the adjustment task by sending teams from his operations cell to the EAD PSS unit where replacements are positioned as well as to the gaining units. If the commander desires to provide replacements indirectly to the gaining unit by holding them at the division level, the personnel group or personnel command must attach a replacement unit to the division. The G1 then uses his operations cell to directly manage the packaging, positioning, and dispatching of replacements.

8-125. When soldiers deploy to an area of operations, the battalion S1 manifests soldiers using smart card technology and the tactical personnel system (TPS) to create the deployed database. Once that the S1 establishes that baseline, unit leadership (FBCB2 platform level) report changes to the baseline through FBCB2s PERSITREP. As the S1 updates the duty status changes in the personnel module of CSSCS, all subsequent reports and queries reflect the changes. This reduces the need for the 1SG to send up reoccurring personnel status reports.

8-126. Upon receipt of a mission, the S1 completes a loss estimate based on the various courses of action proposed to the S3. When the commander selects a course of action, the S1 completes a loss estimate using the appropriate casualty estimator, which resides on the personnel module of CSSCS. This prediction allows the S1 to requisition replacements to preposition on the battlefield as operations commence. The S1 can reinforce the main effort units using the prepositioned replacements.

8-127. Personnel service support is the management and execution of personnel services, chaplain activities, command information services, and legal service support. In the DISCOM, the S1 is responsible for coordinating and managing PSS. At the commander's discretion, the S1 may be delegated responsibility to serve as the organization public affairs officer. The S1 develops the administration SOP for the battalion. The S1 with the S4, prepares the administration and logistics portion of the battalion tactical SOP. S1 participates in the OPORD process and develops administrative annex materials.

8-128. S1 ensures personnel service support is fully coordinated with other battle staff elements. S1 pays particular attention to the areas where close coordination is vital to the S1 section mission. These areas include MA, transportation, and combat health support. The S1 directs the activities of the battalion S1.

8-129. The S1 manages personnel services in the DISCOM. Personnel services, that include family and community support may also be provided by the installation directorate of personnel and community support at the division home station. Personnel services on the force projection battlefield provide postal operations; personnel information (records) management; morale, welfare recreation; and essential services including identification, awards, evaluations, promotions, transfers, discharges, reenlistment, leaves, line-of-duty investigations, and band operations. Other personnel services include voting and safety.



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