Movement Planning at the Unit Level
Successful movement planning requires knowledge of the unit's movement responsibilities, an understanding of the total movement process, and an intellectual appreciation of the link between movement and employment.
2-2. Units prepare detailed movement standing operating procedures (SOPs) to support unit movement planning. The SOP should define the roles and responsibilities of all unit personnel from Brigade to Company level. The SOP should outline preparations for all modes of movement: air, rail, sea and convoy. Functions addressed in SOPs could include unit property disposition, supply issue, equipment maintenance, vehicle and container loading, security, marshaling procedures, purchasing authorities, unit briefings, risk assessment and other applicable deployment activities. (See example of an SOP at Appendix B.)
2-3. To meet their responsibilities to support operational, exercise, and contingency plans, units develop movement plans. Normally divisions, brigades, and battalions create movement plans and companies use extracts from battalion movement plans in company operation orders. Unit movement plans are tailored to the requirements for mobilization, deployments, and exercises, which have specific goals and missions. The plans are written in operation order format and are usually an annex to an operation order. The unit plans the move using the movement plan and executes the move under an operation order. A unit may have several plans, each one supporting a different contingency or exercise, and tailored to support the plan for it. Each plan makes unique demands on the unit. This is the reason separate plans are prepared and tailored to each requirement. (See Appendix L for guidance on developing a movement plan.)
2-4. The JOPES is the system used to conduct joint planning and operations. Each combatant commander conducts deliberate planning to produce a series of OPLANS that provide detail on how to execute potential operations in their area of responsibility (AOR). Source movement data from TC-AIMS II is produced by units to maintain accurate movement data in JOPES. This source data provides the warfighters visibility of personnel, equipment, and supplies available to support his OPLAN. During a crisis, each combatant commander conducts crisis action planning (CAP). Sometimes existing OPLANs are updated and published as OPORDs to support training exercises, mobilization or deployment operations. In this case deployment orders, or DEPORDs, directing unit movement operations are generated very rapidly and sent down the chain of command for action. DEPORDs can be issued in a very short period of time. Units must be prepared to accommodate changes to meet requirements that arise in response to changing events.
2-5. Unit movement plans are the result of either deliberate planning, which occurs as a matter of course in peacetime, and CAP, which is the reaction to an occurring crisis. Both plans are parallel processes in terms of how they are accomplished. However, CAP occurs in a very short period, is much more demanding in needing actions accomplished in a short timeframe, more tolerant of hasty estimates, and accommodates changes more readily to meet requirements that arise in response to changing events. Either variety of movement plan can involve mobilization of Reserve Component (RC) units and can involve movement of assigned personnel, supplies, and equipment from home station and equipment sites to mobilization sites. A comparison of both processes is shown in Figure 2-2, JOPES Movement Planning Processes. See Appendix L for more detailed guidance.
Figure 2-2. JOPES Movement Planning Processes
2-7. Units using TC-AIMS II that deploy under a JOPES OPLAN must coordinate their incremental movements to be consistent with OPLAN TPFDD requirements, as delineated by unit line numbers (ULN).
- The TPFDD includes personnel requirements, equipment requirements by type and quantity, and movement mode data.
- A ULN is a code that describes a unique increment of a unit. For example, it may be used to identify the advance party of a unit going by air when the unit main body and equipment are going by sealift. The ULN enables the advance party (and the main body) to be identified separately in movement planning for any specific transportation segment.
2-8. TPFDD ULNs normally contain Unit Identification Code (UIC) designations. The MACOM or other higher headquarters assigns ULNs to company level deploying units. Units report their movement data in TC-AIMS II by UIC. It is essential that deploying units use the correct ULN for equipment, personnel, and supplies to be scheduled for movement at the right time by the correct mode. This is key to the JOPES database validation process. An incorrect ULN can overstate or understate airlift requirements and delay passenger and cargo movements. ULNs on the TPFDD divide the unit by transportation mode, ports of embarkation or debarkation, and movement dates.
2-9. Units import their TPFDD data into TC-AIMS II using the JFRG (TC-AIMS II is capable of creating its movement product without a TPFDD). When the TC-AIMS II Movement Plan is created, companies and battalions create a unit deployment list (UDL) by matching their organizational equipment list (OEL) with the TPFDD requirements. The company sends its UDL to the battalion for consolidation with other companies' UDLs. The battalion sends its consolidated UDL to brigade for further consolidation with other battalions' UDLs. The brigade uses the consolidated battalion UDL to create a brigade TC-AIMS II Movement Plan.
- Ready-to-load date (RLD). The RLD is the TPFDD date when the unit must be prepared to depart its origin. For AC (Active Component) units, origin is the installation and for RC units origin is the mobilization station or site.
- Available-to-load date (ALD). The ALD is the TPFDD date when the unit must be ready to load on an aircraft or ship at the POE.
- Earliest arrival date (EAD). The EAD is the earliest date that a unit, a resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can be accepted at a POD during a deployment. It is used with the latest arrival date to describe a delivery window for transportation planning. The supported combatant commander specifies the EAD.
- Latest arrival date (LAD). The LAD is the latest date when a unit, a resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can be accepted at a POD to support the concept of operations. It is used with the EAD to describe a delivery window for transportation planning. The supported combatant commander specifies the LAD.
- Required delivery date (RDD). The RDD is the date when a unit, a resupply shipment, or replacement personnel must arrive at a POD and complete off-loading to support the concept of operations. The supported combatant commander specifies the RDD.
2-11. Schedules. Air Mobility Command publishes airflow schedules to call forward personnel and equipment from the APOE. The call-forward schedules are movement directives that specify when units must have their equipment at the POE to meet ALDs. Based on these schedules, deploying units and intermediate command levels backward-plan movements to the POE. Movement directives (if published) provide windows by mode for cargo arrival at the POE. MTMC performs the same functions for sealift.
- Identify what needs to be moved. Based upon mission requirements (mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, civil considerations [METT-TC] ) and command guidance, deployment planning must reflect personnel, equipment, supplies, and how the unit will accomplish the move. In the absence of guidance, units plan to deploy with assigned personnel and on-hand equipment. Upon execution, the plan may need to be modified if additional personnel are assigned or equipment cross-leveled to bring the unit to the required readiness level. Units should plan to move their basic load of supplies to sustain their operations upon arrival in the AO. The days of supply, by supply class to be deployed, are normally directed in OPLANs, unit SOPs or MACOM instructions. The UMO must have a detailed listing of each piece of equipment to be deployed. This listing is based on the OEL produced by TC-AIMS II. All outsize, oversize, overweight, or hazardous equipment or cargo must be identified as it will require special considerations.
|NOTE: If the deploying unit is authorized to draw Army Prepositioned Sets (APS), the UMO and other appropriate unit personnel should review the battlebook within the Automated Battlebook System (ABS) for the site(s) involved in the operation. The ABS provides reference information and real-time visibility of the afloat and land based APS. Each site may require a different mix of advanced party and main body personnel. Within APS, unit prescribed load list (PLL) and authorized stockage list (ASL) items are often prepositioned with unit equipment sets and must be considered when determining deployment requirements.|
- Identify equipment to accompany troops (yellow TAT), equipment needed immediately upon arrival (red TAT), and equipment which does not have to accompany troops (NTAT). Yellow TAT must accompany troops and be accessible enroute. Examples include Class I basic load items and individual carry on baggage and weapons. For personnel traveling via commercial air, this is generally the baggage that will fit under the seat. Red TAT must be available at the destination before or upon unit arrival. This equipment may be sensitive cargo that requires special security or handling at the POE or POD. Red TAT must be unitized/palletized and reported on the OEL/UDL. Examples include CBRNE (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear explosive) equipment, mechanics tools and generators. NTAT equipment is normally shipped by surface and does not accompany the troops. It consists of all other equipment required by the unit to perform its mission.
- Identify what needs to move by air . Items to move by air could include personnel, advance parties, baggage, and some equipment. The balance of equipment normally moves by sea. For deployments supporting OPLANs and OPORDs, the TPFDD stipulates the movement mode. This TPFDD mode stipulation is provided to the unit by TC-AIMS II.
- Identify hazardous (also sensitive and classified cargo) for packaging, labeling, segregation and placarding for movement . Appendix D to this manual provides general guidelines for commanders and UMOs concerning general HAZMAT procedures and documentation requirements. Appendix D also provides guidelines for classified and sensitive cargo movement. TC-AIMS II identifies HAZMAT equipment.
- Identify bulk cargo that needs to be moved and develop packing lists. All consolidated cargo (boxed, crated, etc.) loaded in vehicles, containers, and on 463L pallets must display a separate packing list that shows complete contents. Packing lists are not required for items that do not need identification such as empty vehicles, nested cans, or bundled shovels. These items must, however, be listed on the load diagram if loaded in a truck or container. Packing lists are usually distributed based on unit commander or MACOM guidance.
- Develop vehicle load plans for unit equipment. Vehicle load plans are created for organic vehicles and trailers carrying secondary loads. Equipment that cannot be loaded on organic vehicles should be planned for movement by other means (container, commercial rail or highway, other military assets). Additional guidance for preparing vehicles for movement is contained in Appendices E and F of this FM. The ITO or MCT is the POC for obtaining commercial transportation to move equipment to POE that is beyond the unit's organic capability. Transportation support requests are created in TC-AIMS II and provided to the ITO or MCT.
- Unit cargo (vehicles and equipment) is prepared for shipment according to the mode of transportation and the type of move. Preparing vehicles for shipment requires that unit personnel ensure that equipment conforms to clearance and space restrictions. Reducing the profile and footprint of equipment for movement is referred to as "reduction". Depending on the strategic lift for deployment, full reduction may or may not be required. Reduction details are normally in the MTMC port call message or the operations order for sealift. For deployment by air, reduction is determined by type of aircraft.
- Vehicle modifications (e.g., shelters, bumper modifications, etc.) made by the unit which change the vehicle configuration, dimensions, or weight must be approved by the unit's MACOM and ultimately by MTMC Transportation Engineering Agency (TEA). Modified vehicles cannot be deployed without this approval. Vehicle modifications must be reflected on the OEL and UDL. Information on dimensions, weights, and cubes for all Army equipment is in CD-ROM and worldwide web versions.
- Identify BBPCT (Blocking, Bracing, Packing, Crating & Tie-Down) requirements. All crates, containers, boxes, barrels, and loose equipment on a vehicle must be blocked, braced, and tied-down to prevent shifting during transit. The POC for blocking and bracing requirements is normally the UMC or the BMC.
- Appendix E to this FM describes the policy for obtaining and stocking BBPCT materials and related railcar loading equipment for all mobilizing and deploying units. Various FMs and MTMC pamphlets provide guidance for securing loads moving by air, rail, and vehicle.
- Translate what needs to be moved into transportation terms. Personnel and equipment data are translated into meaningful transportation terms as unit movement data and recorded on the OEL. During predeployment preparation, units use TC-AIMS II to update the OEL and create the UDL.
- An OEL is a computerized listing (in printed and data file formats) of on-hand equipment, personnel and supplies in a unit. The OEL supports cargo manifesting for movements and provides input to transportation managers to identify movement requirements. The UDL has evolved to mean an OEL tailored for a specific move. The UDL shows the equipment, personnel, and supplies that will actually deploy. Both the OEL and UDL are created in TC-AIMS II.
- Determine how the personnel and equipment will move to the POEs. In CONUS, wheeled vehicles normally move to the POE in convoy when distances are less than a one day drive (< 400 miles), with tracked vehicles going via military heavy equipment transporters or commercial rail, motor, or inland waterway. Unit personnel usually move to the POE by organic vehicles or by military or commercial buses. Army rotary wing aircraft normally self-deploy to the POE, where they will be disassembled for shipment. TC-AIMS II provides the UMO with the capability to create convoy movement and special hauling permits for submission to the UMC or the BMC.
- Prepare the unit movement plan. The administrative, logistical, and coordination requirements for the plan must be determined. Items such as enroute medical, messing, and maintenance for movement to POEs must be coordinated and documented. Appendix L provides a sample movement plan that can be tailored to a deploying unit's requirements.
- Maintain the movement plan . Keep the OEL current with changes in unit equipment, personnel, and supplies. Update the UDL as changes occur in the OPLAN, CONPLAN, and commander's intent. The importance of maintaining the OEL, which is updated to produce the UDL, cannot be overemphasized. This is the data used to produce the unit's equipment, supplies, and personnel manifests and military shipping labels (MSLs) and radio frequency-automatic identification technology (RF-AIT) tags. Errors can result in the unit's cargo being frustrated at the POE.
2-13. TC-AIMS II provides the UMO an information management capability to -
- Extract unit personnel and equipment records from standard Army systems.
- Prepare the UDL identifying equipment, personnel, basic load and sustainment supplies for movement.
- Plan convoy movements and propose convoy routing for movement to POE.
- Create DTR-approved shipping documentation, HAZMAT documentation, and military shipment labels (MSL) for all deploying equipment.
- Prepare RF-AIT tags and MSLs.
- Develop internal deployment schedules.
- Report unit level deployment information to higher headquarters.
- Allow merging of deployment information at higher headquarters.
- Request transport services from the ITO or the MCT.
- Create TC-AIMS II movement programs.
- Create and maintain the unit OEL.
- Create unit transportation support requests.
- Receive TPFDD from the JFRG.
- Life Support . The supporting installation or area command normally provides life support at staging, marshaling areas, and POEs. Non-deploying units can also be designated to provide this support.
- Materiel Handling Equipment . Units must identify requirements for MHE and container handling equipment (CHE). Requests for support must be specific and identify the exact weight, dimensions, and characteristics of what must be moved, lifted, or loaded.
- Container Movement . Units may be provided containers for the movement of supplies and equipment, or have unit-owned containers without organic prime movers. Requests for spotting and moving containers are coordinated with the ITO or the MCT.
- Purging Operations . The supporting installation or area command provides a purge capability to ensure bulk fuel carriers are vapor free for movement.
- Waste and Excess Fuel . Deploying units that need to drain fuel tanks or remove excess fuel must plan for proper disposal and reclamation of the drained fuel. Units must plan for hand pumps and containers for contaminated fuel, coordinate for disposal of waste fuel, and arrange any transportation needed.
2-18. In addition to unit actions, the supporting SRP Team normally performs an annual SRP check. The team checks personnel, medical, dental, legal affairs, training, and security clearance requirements IAW the appropriate SRP level. The SRP Team also performs SRP checks within the 30 days prior to actual deployment. The team normally consists of representatives from the following installation staff agencies: personnel, chaplain, medical, dental, provost marshal, finance, security, and legal.
2-22. The deploying unit creates a UDL by identifying items from the OEL for deployment. It verifies the shipping information (size, weight, line identification number [LIN], model, and configuration) of the equipment selected for the UDL. The deploying unit also begins preparing other required deployment documentation such as HAZMAT certification.
2-23. Upon notification of a potential deployment, the unit reviews its deployment readiness status. The deploying unit's higher headquarters confirms readiness status of all its units and identifies actions needed to raise deficient units to standard. The deploying unit also begins gathering information to identify any special needs (e.g., clothing, equipment) based upon climate, location, or current unit configuration. In reviewing and determining its readiness status, the deploying unit:
- Updates its OEL and develops a UDL based upon personnel, on-hand equipment, and supplies.
- Identifies equipment shortages (long-term maintenance problems and actual equipment on-hand shortages) and inventories on-hand unit basic load (UBL) items.
- Reviews and updates unit training status.
- Reviews unit maintenance posture; begins expediting maintenance fixes on organizational equipment; conducts scheduled services; and calibrates test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment.
- Identifies personnel shortfalls by military occupation specialty (MOS) and grade, and prioritizes them for fill.
- Reviews leave and pass status of personnel. Takes action as necessary.
- Conducts an SRP review. (See previous SRP discussion at para 2-17 and 2-18.)
- Updates and submits the unit status report (USR) as required.
- Updates personnel data (clothing sizes) for issue of organization clothing and individual equipment.
- Reviews and tests unit recall procedures.
- Reviews and updates vehicle load plans, packing lists, and movement plans.
- Validates existing requisitions and takes action as required.
- Verifies quantity and serviceability of available containers.
2-24. The Army MACOM normally passes a JCS project code to its subordinate elements which allows units to commit resources for deployment preparation. Deploying units receive the project code and funding guidance and use them to begin requisitioning necessary supplies, equipment, and unit basic loads for deployment. To improve its readiness posture, the deploying unit cross-levels equipment and submits requisitions for needed supply classes. The deploying unit's higher headquarters may direct supply levels. Requisitions may be filled at point of origin and incorporated into the UDL, received at the POE and added to the UDL, or shipped separately to arrive at the POD. The deploying unit identifies and sends unit shortfalls through appropriate automated systems. It verifies unit deployment requirements and submits requisition documents for equipment and supply shortfalls and to fill personnel shortages. It also receives confirmation on availability of Army prepositioned stocks. If stocks are available, the unit can begin planning the UDL and adjusting equipment preparation priorities. The unit also validates its external support requirements for containers, 463L pallets, surface transportation, BBPCT, and MHE and CHE.
2-25. Based on its validation of BBPCT requirements, the unit requests supplies to support movement operations (BBPCT, dunnage, and pallet covers). It prioritizes personnel fill requirements (mission essential positions) and submits them to the installation and higher headquarters.
2-26. The installation and supporting units (sometimes known as "push units"), if designated, have specific responsibilities to support the deploying unit. These responsibilities are normally documented in higher headquarters and installation SOPs or deployment regulations. Upon initial movement notification, the installation reviews and prepares to implement its deployment support requirements. Specific installation activities may include outload support (e.g., providing MHE, spotting and picking-up of containers and 463L pallets, etc), operation of a departure airfield control group (DACG), and formation of a port support activity (PSA).
2-27. Supporting units include non-deploying combat, combat support, and combat service support units from the installation, other supporting installations, area support groups, and provisional task organizations. These units assist the deploying unit in packing, uploading equipment, loading and documenting containers, training, and moving personnel and equipment as required
- Maintenance lead times and maintenance priorities for deploying equipment.
- Requisition and personnel fill times.
- Train-up completion time (if required) for unit movement personnel.
- Container availability (pack, load, certify, and transport to POE) time.
2-29. If the deploying unit is drawing APS, the unit deploys or prepares to deploy the APS advance party and unit representatives to the survey, liaison, reconnaissance party, and the off-load preparation party. These soldiers coordinate with the gaining command and act as liaison in preparing for reception and staging. (See Chapter 5.)
2-30. During warning order activities, the deploying unit continues cross-leveling equipment and submits requisitions for needed supplies that were not identified earlier. As in the initial notification, supply levels may be directed in the alert order or by the deploying unit's higher headquarters. Requisitions may be filled at point of origin and incorporated into the UDL, received at the POE and added to the UDL, or shipped separately to arrive at the POD.
2-31. Refinement of the UDL is a continuing process with the deploying unit based on unit status and changes imposed as a result of force tailoring or higher headquarters guidance. The unit verifies equipment status compared to the UDL and updates load plans, equipment dimensions and weight, and HAZMAT shipping declarations. Once corrections are made, the unit prints and applies military shipping labels (MSLs; DD Form 1387) to supplies and equipment. Additionally, the red and yellow TAT, and NTAT equipment are identified (See para 2-12). The unit finalizes the UDL as early as possible.
2-32. Unit equipment must be safeguarded IAW governing regulations and SOPs, while it is being transported to and staged at installations, marshalling areas, and POEs. Beyond usual unit safeguarding provisions, certain cargo categories require care while in transit and some special cargo categories require extraordinary protection and monitoring while in transit. Figure 205-1, DOD Regulation 4500.9-R, the Defense Transportation Regulation (DTR), establishes the specific governing requirements to be followed when moving arms, ammunition, and explosives. Figure 205-2 of the DTR does the same for classified material. The DTR assigns various levels of required protection and monitoring to material based on categories of risk. Measures of protection and monitoring range from continuous surveillance to a simple seal used in shipping. The DTR establishes protection requirements for air, rail, water, and motor transport and outlines the Transportation Protective Service means available in the transportation community to meet them.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|