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Appendix C

CONVOY OPERATIONS

C-1. A motor convoy is a group of vehicles organized for the purpose of control and orderly movement with or without escort protection. This appendix provides guidance for planning, organizing, and conducting convoys. A convoy is defined as follows:

  • Any group of six or more vehicles temporarily organized to operate as a column, with or without escort, proceeding together under a single commander.

  • Ten or more vehicles per hour dispatched to the same destination over the same route.

  • Any one vehicle, with or without escort, requiring the submission of a special hauling permit.

CONVOY MOVEMENT REQUESTS

C-2. Civil and or military highway authorities set limits on vehicle weight, length, width, and height to ensure the safety of the highway user and to preclude damage to the highway. Department of Defense (DOD) policy states that vehicle movement that exceeds legal limitations or regulations, or that subjects highway users to unusual hazards, WILL NOT be made without permission from regulating state, local, or toll authorities. Units will transport loads that exceed maximum allowable weight or dimensions by other modes or by commercial transporters that conform to the limits of each state.

C-3. Dimension and weight limitations on vehicles vary. Check local rules and restrictions before any military motor movement.. For gross planning purposes, vehicles are normally considered over dimensional or overweight if they exceed the following:

Width
Height
Weight


Length
102 inches
162 inches (13 feet, 6 inches)
20,000 pounds for single axles
34,000 pounds for tandem axles
80,000 pounds for gross weight
48 to 60 feet for semi-trailers

C-4. Units planning to convoy must request and receive clearance before beginning movement. The request is submitted through command channels to the installation transportation office (ITO) or movement control element within whose area the convoy originates. Requests may be prepared manually or through TC-AIMS II. TC-AIMS II provides the unit the capability to prepare convoy requests and generate calculations based on parameters provided by the unit.

C-5. Once the convoy clearance request has been reviewed and processed by the approving authority, the unit is issued a convoy clearance number (CCN). The movement of the convoy must be conducted as the convoy clearance directs. Deviations are not authorized without prior coordination with the approving authority.

C-6. The convoy commander must ensure that the routing specified on the approved convoy clearance is followed and that the estimated time of departure and estimated time of arrival are met at each of the checkpoints and rest halts.

C-7. Special provisions apply during a national defense emergency and other critical DOD moves. During emergencies, ITOs request permits and clearances by the most expeditious means of communication available. Convoys and oversize/overweight moves must be coordinated with civil authorities to ensure that the selected routes are passable. Verbal coordination is sufficient in emergencies and coordinated moves need not have prior written permits from civil authorities. The unit obtains confirming written approval from state or other authorities after the fact.

CONVOY PLANNING

C-8. All convoy movements must be planned in advance. The following factors and formulas will assist in convoy calculations.

Time-Distance Factors

C-9. Time-distance factors are used to perform calculations for planning highway movements. Understanding time and distance factors is critical when planning a convoy. Figure C-1 shows the relationship between distance factors and time factors.

Figure C-1.  Distance and Time Factors
Figure C-1. Distance and Time Factors

C-10. Distance factors are expressed in kilometers or miles. The following explains distance factors:

  • Column Length is the length of the roadway the convoy occupies, measured from the front bumper of the lead vehicle to the rear bumper of the trail vehicle.

  • Road Space is the length of a convoy plus any additional space added to the length to avoid conflict with leading and following traffic.

  • Gap is the space between vehicles (vehicle interval) or between elements of a convoy (column gap). It is measured from the rear of one element to the front of the following element. (A simple method to use is the "4 Second Rule." It establishes an interval of four seconds between vehicles in the convoy. The interval can be maintained regardless of the speed of the convoy, and it allows for the space between vehicles to be adjusted as the rate of march changes.)
  • Road Distance is the distance from point-to-point on a route.
  • Road Clearance Distance is the distance that the head of a convoy must travel for the entire convoy to clear a given point along the route. It is the sum of the convoy's column length and road distance.

C-11. Time is expressed in hours or minutes. The following describes time factors:

  • Pass Time is the time required for a convoy or a subgroup to pass a given point on the route.
  • Time Space is the time required for a convoy or one of its subgroups to pass any point along the route plus any additional time required for safety.
  • Time Gap is the time interval between vehicles or elements as they pass a given point. It is measured from the trail vehicle of one element to the lead vehicle of the following element.
  • Time Lead is the time between individual vehicles or elements of a convoy, measured from head to head, as they pass a given point.
  • Time Distance is the time required for the head of a convoy or any single vehicle to move from one point to another at a given rate of march.
  • Road Clearance Time is the total time a convoy or an element needs to travel over and clear a section of road. Road clearance time equals the pass time plus time distance.

Road Movement Calculations

C-12. To complete a movement request, the moving unit must determine the arrival and clearance times at the SP, CPs, halts, and RP. Clearance times must be calculated for all march elements within the convoy. Use the following formula to compute the time distance of the convoy:

Time Distance = Distance/Rate

To calculate the clear times at each point along the route, planners must determine the pass time. Calculating pass time requires two calculations: vehicles per mile (density) and pass time. Use the following formulas to compute density and pass time:

Density = 1 mile (1,760 yards)
vehicle gap (yd) + average vehicle length (yd)
 
Pass Time = number of vehicles X 60 + time gap
density X rate

Preparation Of The Graphic Strip Map

C-13. The strip map shows a picture of the route over which the convoy will travel. The strip map is detailed but not so cluttered with information that it is unreadable (See Figure C-2). The following items must be shown on the strip map:

  • Start point. The SP is the location where the convoy must start and comes under the active control of the convoy commander. As the SP is passed, each element should be traveling at the rate of speed and vehicle interval stated in the OPORD. When selecting an SP, select a place that is easily recognized on the map and on the ground.
  • Release point. The RP is the place where convoy elements are released to their owning units. It must be clearly shown on the strip map. As with the SP, the convoy passes the RP without halting and at the rate and vehicle interval stated in the OPORD.
  • Halts. Scheduled halts provide rest, messing, refueling, maintenance, and schedule adjustment, while allowing other traffic to pass. Halt time is included in the road march. Generally, all elements of the convoy halt at the same time so that the time gaps between elements remain the same. Every effort should be made so that dining and refueling halts coincide.
  • Critical points/checkpoints. CPs are designated along the route for control and maintenance of the schedule. Choose easily recognized features as CPs.
  • Distance between CPs.
  • Arrival and departure times at the SP, CPs, RP, state lines, and all halts.
  • Convoy routes. Route data, including route numbers, major intersections, and mileage between points.
  • Major cities and towns.
  • North orientation.
  • Logistical support data, including the location of all logistical support facilities. This must also include the procedures for requesting/obtaining medical and maintenance support.

Figure C-2. Strip Map
Figure C-2. Strip Map

CONVOY ORGANIZATION

C-14. The organization of a convoy consists of organizational and functional elements.

Organizational Elements

C-15. A convoy commander can better control a convoy if it is broken into smaller, more manageable groups. Whenever possible, convoys are organized along organizational lines, such as platoon, company, and battalion. The three organizational elements of a convoy are a march column, a serial, and a march unit (see Figure C-3). They are described as follows:

  • A march column is a group of two to five serials. It represents approximately a battalion-to-brigade size element. Each column has a column commander.
  • A serial is a subdivision of the march column. It consists of elements of a march column (convoy) moving from one area over the same route at the same time. All the elements move to the same area and are grouped under a serial commander. The serial commander is directly responsible to the convoy commander. A serial may be divided into two or more march units.
  • A march unit is a subdivision of the serial. It comes under the direct control of the march unit commander. It is the smallest organized subgroup of the convoy and usually will not exceed 20 vehicles.

Figure C-3.  Convoy Organizational Elements
Figure C-3. Convoy Organizational Elements

Functional Elements

C-16. All convoys, regardless of size, are made up of three functional elements. These elements are the head, the main body, and the trail (Figure C-4) and are explained as follows:

  • The head is the first vehicle of each column, serial, or march unit. It carries the pacesetter, who sets the pace to maintain the prescribed schedules and rates of march. The pacesetter leads the convoy on the proper route. With the head performing these duties, the convoy commander is free to move up and down the convoy to enforce march discipline.
  • The main body follows right behind the head (pacesetter) and consists of the majority of vehicles in the convoy. It is the largest part of the convoy. It can be subdivided into serials and march units for easier control and management.
  • The trail is the last section of a march element. The trail consists of recovery, maintenance, and medical support. The trail officer is responsible for march discipline, breakdowns, straggling vehicles, and control at the scene of any accident involving his march unit until the arrival of civilian authorities.

Figure C-4.  Functional Elements of a Convoy
Figure C-4. Functional Elements of a Convoy

TYPES OF FORMATIONS

C-17 . The convoy must be organized to meet mission requirements and provide organizational control. The convoy commander decides how the convoy is formed for movement. The three basic types of formations are close column, open column, and infiltration. They are described as follows:

  • Close column provides the greatest degree of convoy control. It is characterized by vehicle intervals of 25 to 50 meters and speeds under 25 mph. Close column is normally used during limited visibility or on poorly marked or congested roads.
  • Open column is the preferred formation used during movement. It is characterized by vehicle intervals of 100 meters or more and speeds in excess of 25 mph. Open column is normally used on well marked open roads with good visibility.
  • Infiltration has no defined structure. Vehicle intervals and speeds may vary. This type of formation is normally not used during movement. Infiltration should only be used as a last resort in extremely congested areas or when the mission dictates.

CONVOY COMMANDER

C-18. Each convoy will be organized under the control of a convoy commander. Since the convoy commander must be free to supervise the movement of the convoy, there is no specified location for him in the convoy. The convoy commander should have contact with all subordinate commanders during the movement. (See Convoy Commander Checklist at Annex 1.)

SERIAL and MARCH UNIT COMMANDERS

C-19. Serial and march unit commanders are positioned where they can best control their convoy element. Although commanders may want to place themselves at the head of their units, it is not recommended because this restricts their ability to control all of their vehicles.

NOTE
Convoy, serial, and march unit commanders should avoid driving in the left hand lane because the limited speed of military vehicles can easily cause them to become a hazard to faster moving civilian traffic.

PACESETTER

C-20. The convoy commander will designate a pacesetter for the convoy. The pacesetter is in the first vehicle in the march element, normally the slowest, heaviest vehicle, excluding oversize and overweight vehicles. The pacesetter performs the following:

  • Maintain the rate of march established by the convoy commander.
  • Meet all established times at SP, CP, and RP.
  • Inform the convoy commander of any obstacles or hazards that may cause a deviation from the established route, such as construction, detours, or other obstacles.

TRAIL OFFICER

C-21. The trail officer is positioned at the rear of a march element. He checks and observes vehicles at the SP and keeps the convoy commander informed on the status of vehicles that fall out of the convoy. He oversees all maintenance, recovery, accident investigation, medical aid, and disposition of disabled equipment. He picks up all guides and markers left by preceding march elements.

GUIDES

C-22. Guides are used to ensure the convoy follows the prescribed route and become very important when operating in an area where road signs are poor or nonexistent. They assist convoys in locating supported units, preventing conflict with other convoys, and providing information on the route.

C-23. Guides are instructed that the convoy does not have priority over civilian traffic when not on a military reservation. Guides do not have authority to disregard traffic lights or other traffic devices on public roads.

CIVILIAN POLICE ESCORT

C-24. If civilian or military police escort is required, the UMC coordinates with the appropriate officials to secure the assistance of civilian and military police areas through which the convoy will pass. These areas include the following:

  • Major intersections.
  • Entrances to and exits from expressways, interstates, and other main routes.
  • Densely populated and industrial areas.
  • Entrances to and exits from rest halt areas.

VEHICLE PLACEMENT

C-25. The placement of the vehicles in an organizational element of a convoy is determined by many factors. One of the major factors is the danger of rear-end collisions. To reduce the possibility of injury to personnel, place vehicles transporting troops in the first march unit of the main body of the convoy. When empty trucks or trucks loaded with general cargo are available, use them as buffer vehicles between those transporting personnel and those loaded with hazardous cargo. Other factors to consider include the following:

  • Position those vehicles that require the longest unloading time near the front of the main body of the convoy. This will shorten the turnaround time.
  • Position one prime mover without trailer (bobtail) per 10 vehicle-trailer combinations to support the recovery operations.
  • Place vehicles transporting hazardous cargo in the last serial of the convoy but not in the trail party.

CONVOY COMMUNICATIONS

C-26. Convoy commanders and NCOICs must effectively communicate with their subordinate leaders and vehicle drivers. Communications must be well planned and understood by all personnel involved in the movement. Radio is the principal means of communications within a motor convoy. Radio allows for the rapid transmission of orders and messages between widely separated elements in a convoy. Plans for radio use must be given in orders, in the unit SOP, and in the movement plan. Consideration needs to be given to the number of radios in the unit and distance over which elements of the convoy are trying to communicate.

C-27. Other means of communication are visual communications. These may involve hand and arm signals, flags, headlights, and protechnic signals and messages. In addition to hand and arm signals, messages may be written on a board and posted along the route or displayed by a guide in view of the oncoming vehicles. In the event of radio silence or for other reasons, the drivers or their assistants can use visual signals for convoy control. These signals should be specified in an SOP so that drivers are completely familiar with them. The signals must also be trained and rehearsed.

C-28. The next group of signals include audio, which consists of the use of horns, whistles, and verbal messages. When possible, serial commanders should be equipped with loudspeakers to issue verbal instructions.

CONVOY IDENTIFICATION

C-29. Convoy identification includes CCN and vehicle identification. These are discussed below.

Convoy Control Number

C-30. Within CONUS the UMO coordinates with the UMC on submitting DD Forms 1265/1266 for convoy clearance and permits for moving oversized/overweight vehicles. TC-AIMS II provides the capability for preparing the DD Form 1265 and DD Form 1266. The UMC provides the clearance request to the state area command (STARC). The STARC is responsible for processing all convoy clearances and special hauling permits through the STARC MOBCON system. The STARC consolidates the requirements and uploads the requirements into MOBCON. MOBCON is used to schedule the road use and generate approved clearances. The STARC returns the approved convoy clearances to the originating UMC. MOBCON approves and provides convoy clearance numbers and secures routing through all states involved with the convoy. Limitations, including hours of movement for oversized, overweight shipments, are predicated on traffic congestion periods and hazardous operating conditions. Limitations are determined by each state and can vary considerably and may specify a different schedule or route of march than was requested. Each convoy is identified by its CCN. The CCN identifies the convoy during its entire movement. It is placed on both sides of each vehicle in the convoy. The CCN is also placed on the top of the hood of the first and last vehicles of each march element.

C-31. The MOBCON prepared CCN has eight digits. The first two digits identify the location (post or state) from which the convoy originates. The next five digits (3-7) are a number assigned in sequence by fiscal year (FY). The last is a single character indicating the type of movement. The type of movement designators are as follows:

Outsize/overweight vehicles
Explosives
Hazardous cargoes
All other convoys.

Example is VA-04326-H, a convoy in VA hauling HAZMAT, sequence number 04326 in this FY.

- S
- E
- H
- C

 

NOTE: In other countries, the CCN may be different than what is described above based on command directives, HN, or STANAG. The request for a CCN is submitted to the MCT which will issue the CCN under the local governing regulations and directives.

There are provisions for a manually prepared CCN. It is usually composed of ten digits. The first two digits identify the location (post or state) from which the convoy originates. The next four digits (3-6) represent the Julian date, followed by the a three digit sequence number (7-9). The tenth character is the movement designator.

Vehicle Identification

C-32. The first vehicle (pacesetter) in each element of the convoy must have on its front a sign with 4-inch black letters on a yellow background reading CONVOY FOLLOWS. The last vehicle of each convoy element will have on the rear a sign reading CONVOY AHEAD. CONVOY AHEAD signs are not on maintenance or medical vehicles unless that vehicle's purpose is to represent the end of the convoy.

C-33. Mark each march element of a convoy with flags 12 inches in height and 18 inches in length. The lead vehicle is fitted with a blue flag and the rear vehicle with a green flag. Mount the flag on the left front of the lead and trail vehicle so that it will not interfere with the vision of the driver or with any functional component of the vehicle (see Figure C-5).

Figure C-5.  Flag Placement on a Vehicle
Figure C-5. Flag Placement on a Vehicle

C-34. The vehicles of the column, serial, and the march unit commanders must carry on the left front bumper a white and black flag. Trail party vehicles will carry an international orange safety flag. Local police or MP escort vehicles will not display convoy identification flags. Convoy identification flags are available through local supply channels as follows:

  White and Black Flag   8345-00-543-6911
  International Orange Flag   NSN NOT AVAILABLE
  Green Flag   8345-00-543-6913
  Blue Flag   8345-00-543-6912

C-35. A rotating amber warning light will be placed on cranes (wreckers), oversize or overweight vehicles, and the first and last vehicles in a convoy. The lights will be on at all times when the convoy is operating outside a military installation.

Other countries may have additional or conflicting marking requirements for safety and identification. When convoys are operated in other countries, the laws and regulation of those countries prevail. The servicing MCT has information on HN marking requirements.

SAFETY EQUIPMENT AND WARNING DEVICES

C-36. While moving at night or during periods of reduced visibility, lead, trail, and oversize and overweight vehicles will operate four-way flashers. Convoy vehicles will also display reflective L-shaped symbols 12 inches long and 2 inches wide at the lower corners of the vehicle's body. (See Figure C-6.)

Figure C-6.  Reflective L-Shaped Symbol
Figure C-6. Reflective L-Shaped Symbol

C-37. Headlights of all vehicles moving in convoy or halted on road shoulders must be on low beam at all times except where prohibited by local ordinances. While halted on shoulders, vehicles equipped with emergency flasher systems must also have these lights operating. The following safety equipment is needed in all vehicles:

  • A fire extinguisher suitable for a petroleum fire.
  • A first aid kit.
  • A set of tire chains when snow or ice conditions may be encountered.
  • A highway warning kit (that complies with local and national requirements).

C-38. Road guides must wear high visibility devices such as a reflective vest. Baton flashlights must also be provided when the convoy operates during darkness or when visibility is reduced to 500 feet or less.

FINAL ACTIONS BEFORE DEPARTURE

C-39. The convoy commander or his designee inspects all vehicles in the convoy staging area to ensure that they are in satisfactory condition. He ensures on-the-spot corrections are made as soon as possible. Vehicles should be checked for:

  • Completed dispatch.
  • Completed PMCS and deficiencies and shortcomings are corrected.
  • Required basic issue items.
  • Appropriate fuel levels.
  • Appropriate safety equipment (fire extinguishers, first aid kit, and so on.)
  • Secured secondary loads.
  • Correct CCN, flags, signs, lights, and placards.
  • Activated headlights (low beam).

C-40. The convoy commander or his designee inspects the drivers and ensures the following:

  • Drivers and assistant drivers possess a valid operators licence.
  • Drivers with experience are selected to operate vehicles on public highways.
  • Drivers are prepared, are in the proper uniform, and have required equipment.
  • Drivers have 8 hours of rest within 12 hours before the convoy departs.

NOTE: The assistant driver remains awake at all times and keeps the driver alert. The use of an assistant driver DOES NOT double the amount of driving time for the convoy.

C-41. After vehicles and drivers have been inspected and the convoy is organized and ready to move, the commander assembles the convoy personnel for a final briefing before the convoy departs. The commander issues orders and strip maps to drivers and uses an enlarged strip map (a blackboard drawing or other drawing) to explain details of the route. A sample briefing is at Attachment 2. The commander briefs the following topics:

  • Convoy organization and vehicle assignments.
  • Departure and arrival times.
  • Compliance with traffic signals.
  • Route of march.
  • Maximum and minimum speeds.
  • Actions at halts.
  • Route and highway markers in accordance with the strip map.
  • Vehicle gaps or intervals (for urban areas, expressways, conventional routes, and entrance and exit routes).
  • Rest stops and refuel points schedules.
  • Vehicle recovery operations.
  • Obedience to civil authorities and MP.
  • Location and time of scheduled halts.
  • Action to take if separated from the convoy.
  • Actions in the event of breakdown or accident.
  • Procedures for refueling.
  • Communications/signal procedures.
  • Light discipline.
  • Security en route and during halts.
  • Weather forecast and actions during inclement weather.
  • Chain of command and locations.
  • Safety during movement and during halts.
  • Tolls or other fees arrangements.

CONVOY EXECUTION

C-42. Convoys must depart staging or marshaling areas in sufficient time to pass the SP at the prescribed time. Convoy commanders should use the close column formation when moving from the staging area to the SP of the main convoy route.

Traffic

C-43. Main convoy routes are usually characterized by heavy, fast-moving traffic. Entering the route is a critical operation, but the risk can be reduced when civilian police assist by controlling traffic.

C-44. Ensure that all vehicles remain in the right lane after the convoy has entered the flow of traffic. Where the right lane is reserved for traffic turning off at the next exit, the convoy should use the next adjacent lane. Drivers must be alert and drive defensively.

C-45. To leave the route, either to enter a rest area or to take another route, move vehicles to the deceleration lane at the earliest opportunity and reduce to a safe speed to exit. Commanders should ensure that all vehicles remain with the convoy element.

Scheduled Halts

C-46. Schedule halts so that the convoy will halt for 15 minutes at the end of the first hour of operation and 10 minutes every 2 hours thereafter. Minor adjustments to this schedule can be made when a suitable area is not available at these time periods. Schedule all meals and refueling halts at the same time. Take the following precautions when halting the convoy:

  • Avoid areas on curves or reverse sides of hills.
  • Leave enough room to allow the vehicles to park off the paved portion of the road and return to the road safely.
  • Maintain a minimum distance of three feet between parked vehicles.
  • Do not permit convoy personnel on the traffic side of vehicles except to perform prescribed maintenance.
  • Make sure drivers and assistant drivers perform prescribed maintenance and check the security of cargo.

  • Post guards at least 50 meters behind the last vehicle to warn traffic when departing a rest area.
  • Ensure that there is space for other vehicles. Convoy vehicles should not occupy more than 50 percent of the parking area at any time.
  • Maintain a sufficient time gap between serials to allow one to clear a rest area before the following serial arrives.

Unscheduled Halts

C-47. Move a disabled vehicle immediately from the traffic lane to a location where it will not be a hazard to other traffic. If a breakdown occurs, place a highway warning device either in the obstructed lane or on the shoulder of the road if the vehicle is on the shoulder. Do this before any attempt is made to repair the vehicle. DO NOT use military personnel to warn traffic by manual flagging except where warning devices do not give adequate warning.

C-48. In the event of an accident, make every effort to minimize its effects and keep the convoy moving. Do the following if an accident happens in the convoy:

  • Keep moving. Only the vehicle immediately behind the vehicle should stop and render assistance.
  • Give first aid. Give immediate attention to injuries.
  • Report any accident to civilian police and wait for assistance. Do not move the damaged vehicle until an accident investigation has been completed by civilian police.
  • Trail parties will assist civil authorities, investigate, and recover the vehicle as required.
  • Clear the traffic lane. The crew of the affected vehicle should make every effort to clear the traffic lane as soon as possible.
  • Complete accident report forms needed for US Army and any state and federal requirments.

C-49. The first officer or NCO to arrive at the scene of the accident will take charge by supervising emergency aid, directing military traffic, warning civilian traffic, and directing the placement of warning devices until the trail officer arrives. The trail officer, aided by available medical and maintenance personnel, will supervise and direct care of the injured and disposition of the damaged vehicles. Further assistance needed should be requested from the agencies listed in the convoy OPORD.

MOVEMENT REPORTS

C-50. The convoy commander normally provides a movement report to the next higher HQ. During deployment and selected exercises, special instructions included with the approved convoy clearance directs the convoy commander to report to the appropriate HQ upon departure, at selected halt locations, and upon arrival. As a minimum, the report should contain the following:

  • Convoy clearance number and convoy commander's name.
  • Time of arrival at scheduled halts.
  • Time of arrival at state lines or country borders.
  • Complete details and circumstances of any accident or incident.

ANNEX 1: CONVOY COMMANDER'S CHECKLIST

Here is an example of a Convoy Commander's Checklist:

CONVOY COMMANDER'S CHECKLIST
  YES  NO   NA 
Has a reconnaissance of the approved route been made and a strip map prepared?      
Have overweight, oversize, or exceptionally slow vehicles been identified and provisions made for their movement?      
Is there a listing of contacts, available along the route in case of incident or accident?      
Are specific provisions made to preclude the carrying of passengers in the last vehicle of an element?      
Are convoy identifying signs available and in good repair?      
Are trucks that are to carry personnel equipped with first aid kits?      
Do vehicles that are required to operate at night have the "L" shaped reflective symbol in the lower left corner of the tailgate?      
Are flags (BLUE for lead vehicle, GREEN for trail vehicle, and BLACK and WHITE for the convoy commander) available and in good order?      
Does each vehicle of the proposed convoy contain a basic highway warning kit appropriate for the vehicle?      
Do vehicles transporting compressed gases, explosives, or flammables have flashing lanterns in lieu of flares or fuses?      
Have HAZMAT been packed, marked, and placarded according to law and regulation?      
Have packing, marking, and placard of HAZMAT items been certified by a properly trained individual?      
Have provisions been made to pay for toll roads, bridges, etc.?      
Have possible rest stops or break areas along the route been identified on strip maps?      
Is a comprehensive checklist for the convoy available?      
Have provisions been made for inoperable vehicle recovery?      
Has a start point been identified?      
Have all host nation convoy requirements been met?      
Have shipping papers for HAZMAT been completed and signed by a DOD school-trained certifier?      
Has the release point been identified?      
Has the convoy movement order been reviewed to determine the route?      
Can bridges and narrow passageways safely accommodate all loaded or tracked vehicles?      
Are critical points known and listed on strip maps?      
Has the size of march units been determined?      
Has the rate of march on the convoy movement order been verified?      
Has the vehicle interval on open road been determined?      
Has the type of column been determined?      
Have provisions been made for refueling, if required?      
Has a suitable bivouac site been selected, if required?      
Have convoy clearances been obtained, if required? Is clearance documentation available for inspection en route?      
Is escort required and has it been requested?      
Are spare trucks available for emergencies?      
Are vehicles fully serviced, clean, and ready for loading?      
Are loads proper, neat, and balanced?      
Are drivers properly briefed?      
Is the convoy marked front and rear of each march unit?      
Are guides in place?      
Are blackout lights functioning?      
Are maintenance services alerted?      
Is maintenance truck in rear?      
Are medics in rear?      
Is there a plan for casualties?      
Are all interested parties advised of the estimated time of arrival?      
Are all vehicles properly marked and do they have a military shipment label (MSL) applied?      
Is officer at rear of convoy ready to take necessary corrective action such as investigating accidents, unusual incidents, and changing loads?      
Has a trail officer been identified?      
Is there a personnel/cargo loading plan?      
Has a plan been made for feeding personnel?      
Has time been established for formation of convoy?      
Has time been established for releasing trucks?      
Is a written operations order on hand, if required?      
Will a log of road movement be required at end of trip?      
Has weather forecast been obtained?      
Do all personnel have proper clothing and equipment?      
Is there a communications plan?      
Are personnel prohibited from riding in the cargo compartments of vehicles transporting ammunition?      
Are drivers of ammunition vehicles briefed on accident emergency response procedures and the required withdrawal distances in the event of a fire? (DD Form 836)      
Are the marshaling areas for ammunition or explosive laden vehicles separated from unrelated personnel, equipment, and facilities by the appropriate distance?      

ANNEX 2: SAMPLE CONVOY BRIEFING

Here is a sample outline for a convoy commander's briefing:

 Situation:
Friendly forces.
Supported Units.
Enemy situation.

 Mission:
Type of cargo.
Origin.
Destination.

 Execution:
General organization of the convoy.
Time schedule.
Routes.
Convoy speed.
Catch-up speed.
Vehicle distance.
Emergency measures.
Accidents.
Breakdowns.
Obstacles.
Separation from convoy.
Ambush.
Action of convoy personnel if ambushed.
Action of security forces during ambush.
Medical support.

 Administrative and Logistics:
Control of personnel.
Billeting arrangements.
Messing arrangements.
Refueling and servicing of vehicles, complying with spill prevention guidelines.

 Command and Signal:
Location of convoy commander.
Succession of command.
Action of security force commander.
Serial commander's responsibility.
Arm and hand signals.
Radio frequencies and call signs for
Control personnel.
Security force commander.
Fire support elements.
Reserve security elements.
Medical evacuation support.

 Safety:
Hazards of route and weather conditions.
Defensive driving.

 Environmental protection:
Spill prevention.
Transporting HAZMAT.


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