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Military

Chapter 8

Ordnance Support

Success on today's battlefield demands that forces maintain, recover, repair, or replace equipment as quickly as possible. Good maintenance practices, forward positioning of maintenance units, effective repair parts and equipment replacement systems, and clear priorities for recovery and repair are vital. Likewise, sound theater policies on repair and evacuation and sufficient sustainment repair and replacement facilities greatly contribute to battlefield success. This chapter covers the entire spectrum of ordnance support. It includes maintenance, explosive ordnance disposal (EOD), and ammunition support.

 

CONTENTS
Maintenance Support Across the Levels of War
Maintenance System
Repair Parts Support
Explosive Ordnance Disposal
Ammunition

 

MAINTENANCE SUPPORT ACROSS THE LEVELS OF WAR

 

8-1. Maintenance support includes activities at all levels of war. The following is a brief discussion of each level of war.

STRATEGIC SUPPORT

 

8-2. The strategic base is the backbone of the National maintenance program and the sustainment maintenance system. At this level, maintenance supports the supply system by repairing or overhauling components or end items not available or too costly to procure. Maintenance management concentrates on identifying the needs of the Army supply system and developing programs to meet them. Strategic support also includes maintaining prepositioned equipment.

OPERATIONAL SUPPORT

 

8-3. The goal of the overall maintenance plan is to support the operations plans and objectives of the commander. Its primary purpose is to provide field maintenance, and maximize the number of operational combat systems available to support the tactical battle. Commanders tailor and position maintenance units in the theater to best support this goal. The maintenance-supply interface at the operational level is the fusion point between the field and sustainment maintenance management echelons. Maintenance managers in operational headquarters support the tactical battle by ensuring that the maintenance system supports campaigns and sustains theater forces. Through the judicious use of maintenance assets and review of serviceable backhaul from direct support (DS) units, the commander can overcome shortages in the supply system or support unexpected requirements by pushing maintenance capabilities farther forward on the battlefield.

8-4. The operational support plan ties tactical unit requirements together with the capabilities of the strategic base. The maintenance system drives and supports the supply system. DS (field) maintenance units meet tactical requirements through close support, while general support (GS) (sustainment) maintenance units/activities alleviate maintenance and supply shortfalls. Surge maintenance capabilities from all sources, including the industrial base, meet unexpected demands.

TACTICAL SUPPORT

 

8-5. The nature of the modern battlefield demands that the maintenance system repair equipment quickly and at, or as near as possible to, the point of failure or damage. This requirement implies a forward thrust of maintenance into division and brigade areas. There the battle is more violent and the damage greater. Maintenance assets move as far forward as the tactical situation permits to repair inoperable and damaged equipment and to return it to the battle as quickly as possible.

8-6. The structure of maintenance units includes highly mobile maintenance support teams (MSTs). MSTs provide support forward on the battlefield as directed by the DS (field) maintenance company commander and maintenance control officer. They send people; parts; test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment (TMDE); and tools to forward areas, as required, and redistribute assets when no longer needed.

8-7. Battle damage assessment and repair (BDAR) may be critical at this level. BDAR is the procedure used to return disabled equipment rapidly to the battle by expeditiously fixing, bypassing, or jury-rigging components. It restores the minimum essential combat capabilities necessary to support a specific combat mission or to enable the equipment to self-recover. Crews, unit maintenance teams, MSTs, and recovery teams perform BDAR.

MAINTENANCE PRINCIPLES

 

8-8. Maintenance is central to any mission operational success. A viable maintenance system is agile and synchronized to the combat scheme of fire and maneuver. It anticipates force requirements. A commander who has 65 percent of his tanks operational may wisely delay an attack if he can realistically expect the repair process to have 90 percent ready within 24 hours. Alternatively, he can weight the battle by allocating replacement systems. The guiding maintenance principles are-

  • To replace forward and repair rear. Maintenance activities, with a forward focus on system replacement, task and use the distribution and evacuation channels to push components and end items to the sustainment level for repair.
  • To anticipate maintenance requirements. To maximize the number of combat systems available, maintenance leaders and managers anticipate the requirements for support by using on-board sensors integrated into equipment design and linked by a distributive communication system. The diagnostic data helps anticipate future reliability and provide maintenance managers the ability to preposition repair parts and maintenance personnel.

8-9. Maintenance is a combat multiplier. When opposing forces have relative parity in numbers and quality of equipment, the force that combines skillful use of equipment with an effective maintenance system has a decided advantage. That force has an initial advantage if it enters battle with equipment that is operational and likely to remain operational. It has a subsequent advantage if it can quickly return damaged and disabled equipment to the battle. Securing this advantage is the purpose of a maintenance system.

8-10. Elements at all levels work together to ensure attaining the strategic goals and objectives. They must have the proper personnel, equipment, tools, and replacement parts. Personnel must be well trained in maintenance theory and maintenance principles of all systems and capable of diagnosing and correcting faults. Additionally, they must have immediate access to high-usage repair parts.

8-11. The type and location of maintenance units that best support the commander's requirements are a prime concern of the theater logistician. A viable maintenance system complements the capabilities of the supply system. When equipment is in short supply or otherwise unavailable to support requirements, commanders use the maintenance system to offset the shortfall. As equipment becomes more technically complicated, it is easier to meet surge requirements by redirecting the maintenance effort than by influencing the supply effort. Therefore, the job of maintenance managers at all levels is to ensure the proper mix (type and location) of maintenance units that best supports the tactical and operational commanders' requirements. In addition, early arrival of essential maintenance capabilities is important in force projection operations to ensure deployed and prepositioned equipment is operational.

MAINTENANCE SYSTEM

 

8-12. The current Army maintenance program is a flexible, four-level system. The levels are operator/unit, DS, GS, and depot. Each level has certain capabilities based on the skills of the assigned personnel and the availability of tools and test equipment. Force XXI and Stryker brigade employ new maintenance concepts that consolidate levels of maintenance. The thrust of this redesign effort is to position the Army to adopt a two-level maintenance system. In the new system, unit and DS maintenance comprise the first of the two maintenance echelons known as field maintenance. Field maintenance focuses on repairing and returning major end items and components for immediate use by the supported force. The second maintenance echelon is sustainment maintenance. Sustainment maintenance includes GS and depot levels. Sustainment maintenance focuses on repairing major end items and components to support the supply system. (Army aviation maintenance, discussed in paragraph 8-31, has three levels.) When properly integrated, the levels serve as a logistics multiplier, adding an extra dimension to the commander's plan.

8-13. The various management functions required result in classifying maintenance management into two echelons: field and sustainment. Field maintenance managers at corps and lower echelons support commanders by managing operations to enhance equipment readiness. Field maintenance managers maximize combat readiness by coordinating repairs as far forward as possible for quick return into the battle. National sustainment maintenance managers at corps and above focus on repairing components for the supply system and rebuilding end items.

8-14. Sustainment and field maintenance managers coordinate maintenance operations among the various activities. National strategic maintenance managers coordinate sustainment operations in the industrial base, depot activities, and the theater through establishing specialized repair/forward repair activities. U.S. Army Materiel Command (USAMC) is designated as the national maintenance manager (NMM). Field maintenance managers focus on operator/crew, unit, and DS (field) maintenance operations.

8-15. Field maintenance managers assigned to support battalions provide maintenance support to brigade-size units. National sustainment maintenance managers may be assigned to theater and corps support commands. Managers use their maintenance knowledge and experience, along with aid from their management interfaces and combat service support (CSS) information systems, to determine potential and developing maintenance problems and supply shortfalls. Their continuous review aids in developing courses of action, facilitating avoidance or resolution.

8-16. The materiel management center (MMC) is the maintenance manager for deployed Army forces. It is the link between the deployed forces and the support base. The MMC maintains a close working relationship with the logistics support element (LSE). The NMM through the LSE directs the theater-level GS (sustainment) maintenance mission. In addition, these activities may support equipment of other services or multinational forces. The commander of the LSE maintains a coordination relationship with USAMC and other organizations providing assets to the LSE. The NMM distributes the total national maintenance workload across all sustainment maintenance providers, based on the overall national needs. This coordination ensures receiving timely support from the theater or continental United States (CONUS) base maintenance operations.

MAINTENANCE SUPPORT LEVELS

 

8-17. There are two basic levels of maintenance support: field maintenance and sustainment maintenance.

>Field Maintenance Support

 

8-18. Field maintenance support includes operator/unit, DS, and component repair capability designed to repair components and end items for customer units versus the supply system. The multicapable maintainer will be the cornerstone of field maintenance support. This individual performs both unit and DS tasks to improve system readiness and reduce repair cycle time.

Operator/Unit Maintenance

 

8-19. Preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS) initiate most maintenance actions. PMCS is the care, servicing, inspection, detection, and correction of minor faults before these faults cause serious damage, failure, or injury. Command emphasis is vital to ensure an effective PMCS program. This program requires trained operator/crews and routine supervisory and implementing procedures. Ineffective command emphasis can lead to cursory PMCS programs that fail to correct deteriorating effects before they adversely affect readiness and combat capability, and unnecessarily burden technical maintenance systems.

8-20. Unit maintenance efforts concentrate on returning equipment to the user quickly enough to influence the outcome of a given task or mission. The operator or crew identifies malfunctions using on-board sensors and visual inspections. Personnel make quick repairs by using on-board spares and tools to perform on system maintenance.

8-21. Most Army of Excellence (AOE) and Force XXI units, organizations, and activities have organic unit maintenance personnel to perform unit maintenance on equipment assigned to, or used by, them to accomplish their missions. Some Force XXI maneuver units receive maintenance support from support companies tailored for their unique mission requirements. Mobility considerations and time available for repairs are the critical factors that limit the organizational maintenance capability.

Direct Support Maintenance

 

8-22. DS (field) maintenance organizations consist of a base maintenance company augmented with commodity-specific modules that allow tailored support for supported units. The composition of the supported units determines the type and number of teams assigned or attached to the base company. These teams directly support units on an area basis or dedicated basis. Those that support units on a dedicated basis accompany the supported unit as it moves around the AO. They receive repair parts and backup maintenance support through the nearest DS (field) maintenance company.

8-23. DS (field) maintenance units and maintenance teams expected to operate in forward areas must be as mobile as the supported customer. Maintainers in these units focus on repair by replacement. If these units cannot repair equipment due to lack of time, or specialized tools, and/or test equipment, supporting teams from a higher maintenance echelon repair the equipment on site or evacuate it. As with unit maintenance elements, maintainers in DS (field) maintenance units may repair selected components to eliminate higher echelon backlogs and maintain technical skills when mission, enemy, troops, terrain and weather, time, civilian considerations (METT-TC) permits.

Sustainment Maintenance Support

 

8-24. Sustainment maintenance support includes maintenance performed by depots, directorate of logistics (DOL) assets, special repair activities (SRAs), and forward repair activities (FRAs). There are also a limited number of specialized GS units that provide missile and signal-unique support.

8-25. GS and depot repair activities locate where they can best support the theater operations plan. They support the theater supply system through table of organization and equipment (TOE)/table of distribution and allowances (TDA) units, host nation support, and contracted personnel. These activities generally move into available fixed or semi-fixed facilities in the theater. They remain there for the duration of operations. While they are able to displace forward, it is a very time-consuming, labor- and equipment-intensive process. However, they can deploy platoons, sections, or teams as far forward as required to support the tactical situation. When deployed forward, the elements are attached to the nearest maintenance company, and all requirements pass through that headquarters.

General Support Maintenance

 

8-26. The primary mission of GS repair activities is repairing components to support the supply system. Managers set priorities on anticipated consumption rates of components. Sustainment maintenance managers determine consumption rates. GS maintenance activities, placed in a theater, perform component repair when no other assets are available or when the supply pipeline is insufficiently viable to accept the disruption in operations. GS maintenance activities also serve as training bases to develop specialized maintainers.

Depot Maintenance

 

8-27. Depot maintenance supports the strategic level of war. USAMC depots or activities, contractors, and host nation support personnel perform this level of maintenance to support the supply system. Normally, elements perform depot maintenance where it is most appropriate to support the force. This may be in CONUS, in the AO, at an ISB, or in a third country. Production-line operations characterize this support. Such operations support the national maintenance program (NMP) and the overall DA inventory management program. They are an alternative or supplement to new procurement as a source of serviceable assets to meet DA materiel requirements.

8-28. Headquarters, Department of the Army approves and USAMC controls programs for depot maintenance. Army arsenals and depot maintenance facilities execute some approved programs. In other cases, the depot maintenance and interservicing (DMI) program plays an important role in depot maintenance. The DMI program's main goal is the efficient and effective use of depots by using the depot source of repair (DSOR) decision process. The DSOR decision process is a mandatory milestone in the integrated logistics system (ILS) planning and an integral part of maintenance planning. The DSOR process normally results in agreements with the other military services. Agreements with other military services and contractual arrangements with commercial firms carry out some depot maintenance programs. Strategic planners schedule repair programs to meet the needs of the supply system and the reparable exchange program. They also consider availability of repair parts and other maintenance resources.

8-29. When an LSE deploys to a theater, it may act as the command and control element for theater-level sustainment maintenance activities. As discussed in chapter 4, the LSE is a flexible organization. Theater needs and shortfalls in the supply system dictate its capabilities and organization. The LSE may include theater GS maintenance companies FRAs, and SRAs operating within the theater. FRAs are maintenance activities designed to provide limited depot repair support to the theater. SRAs repair components and return them to the supply system or supported customers. SRAs have special tools and test equipment to repair/test components whose associated maintenance requires a high degree of training or specialized TMDE. FRAs and SRAs may employ military personnel, civilians, contractors, or a mixture of all three. These units normally operate from fixed or semi-fixed facilities in the corps rear, theater base, or the CONUS support base.

SPECIFIC MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS

 

8-30. Several types of equipment have special maintenance considerations associated with them. The following is a discussion of maintenance of aviation, watercraft, signal, and information systems. It also covers maintenance in an NBC environment.

Aviation Maintenance

 

8-31. The objective of Army aviation maintenance is to ensure maximum availability of fully mission-capable aircraft to the commander. Aviation maintenance elements accomplish this by performing maintenance on all aviation items, including avionics and weapon systems, as far forward as possible.

8-32. The aircraft maintenance system consists of three levels: aviation unit maintenance (AVUM), aviation intermediate maintenance (AVIM), and depot maintenance.

8-33. The aircraft crew chiefs and AVUM unit comprise the first line of aircraft maintenance. AVUM units are organic to aviation battalions and squadrons. They provide support as far forward as possible. Forward support teams perform on-aircraft maintenance tasks that require minimal aircraft downtime. AVUM elements also perform more extensive recurring scheduled maintenance tasks in rear areas. AVUM tasks include replacing components; performing minor repairs; making adjustments; and cleaning, lubricating, and servicing the aircraft.

8-34. The AVIM, or second-level maintenance element provides one-stop intermediate maintenance support and backup AVUM support. It performs on-aircraft system repair and off-aircraft subsystems repair. AVIM units also provide aviation repair parts to supported units. AVIM tasks normally require more time, more complex tools and test equipment, and higher skilled personnel than the AVUM element has available.

8-35. Depot maintenance is the third level of maintenance. Depot maintenance includes very detailed and time-consuming functions. It requires sophisticated equipment and special tools, special facilities, and maintenance skills. Typical depot tasks include aircraft overhaul, major repair, conversion or modifications, special manufacturing, analytical testing, and painting. FM 3-04.500 has details on aviation maintenance.

Army Watercraft Maintenance

 

8-36. Maintaining watercraft used in Army water terminal operations poses problems and requires arrangements that are somewhat different from those for other types of equipment. Supporting maintenance facilities for watercraft must locate at or near the water's edge. Rather than echeloning these facilities along the forward axis of a theater as in other systems, they generally spread out laterally along the theater's rear boundary. Except for some inland waterway systems, their orientation is toward the rear. Watercraft units typically get support from civilian shipyards either in theater or in other countries. Also, given the Military Sealift Command's worldwide access to ship/watercraft repair capabilities, it may be efficient to use that network as well as current Army procedures for repairing Army watercraft.

Signal-Peculiar Equipment Maintenance

 

8-37. Maintenance for signal units has unique characteristics. Companies of a signal battalion may operate far from division or corps maintenance units. However, they must maintain exceptionally high levels of readiness. Combat electronic warfare intelligence battalions have highly complex, low-density equipment. In such exceptional cases, the battalions rely on-

  • An organic maintenance capability to perform diagnostics and minor repairs.
  • On-board spares.
  • Forward deployment of MSTs from rear areas by surface or air transportation.

Support to Information Systems

 

8-38. The Army is rapidly transforming into a highly lethal, technologically advanced fighting force through digitization of its information systems. This transformation to a digital, information-based Army requires a substantial investment in information systems. Thousands of computers are currently being developed, tested, and fielded to enable this transformation. These systems will link commanders and leaders at every level and provide a near real-time common operational picture (COP) of the battlefield. This COP permits commanders to make timely decisions based on accurate information to better control forces, synchronize battlefield operating systems, and achieve decisive victories with minimal casualties.

8-39. Information system support presents a unique challenge for the Army of the 21st century. The spiral development and streamlined acquisition of computer hardware and software have rapidly exceeded the Army's ability to logistically support these systems. The increased involvement of contractor support on the battlefield further complicates this challenge. Unique, stovepipe systems support many information systems today, particularly command and control devices. These stovepipes often involve a mix of military, DA civilian, and contractor personnel for both maintenance and supply support.

Maintenance in an NBC Environment

 

8-40. Logisticians avoid operating in a chemically contaminated environment, when METT-TC permits. Reduction in manual dexterity and effects of petroleum product spills on protective overgarments particularly degrades maintenance operations. Rather than conduct operations in a contaminated area, CSS units displace at the earliest opportunity, decontaminate their equipment, and resume support operations.

8-41. Avoiding contamination of equipment is easier than decontaminating it. Decontamination is time-consuming and may corrode and damage some types of equipment. When possible, maintenance activities should occupy protected areas like underground garages or concrete buildings to provide overhead cover from liquid chemical agents and shielding from radioactive contamination. Using units decontaminate their own equipment within their capabilities. Equipment turned over to maintenance personnel must be as free of contamination as the using unit can make it. Using units must establish standing operating procedures (SOPs) for recovery, handling, and decontamination of their own equipment.

8-42. When using unit personnel are not able to decontaminate equipment, they should mark the equipment with the type and the date/time of contamination. If feasible, they should identify the specific areas of equipment contamination to alert maintenance personnel of the danger. They should also segregate contaminated materiel. When using units cannot decontaminate damaged or inoperable equipment that is critical to the battle, materiel managers should consider equipment replacement.

REPAIR PARTS SUPPORT

 

8-43. Class IX items (repair parts) consist of any part, subassembly, assembly, or component required for installation in maintaining an end item, subassembly, or component. They support maintenance and repair functions performed throughout the Army on all materiel except medical materiel. They range from small items of common hardware to large, complex line replaceable units.

8-44. Managing repair parts is proportional to the contribution they make to the operational readiness of the end items they support. The type and quantity of stocked items directly relate to readiness requirements. The following paragraphs discuss responsibilities at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of CSS.

8-45. Managing repair parts at the national strategic level normally depends on the general classification of the item rather than its end item use. In these instances, requisitions to support a unit maintenance mission go to more than one national inventory control point (NICP) or commodity command. When the end item is a major system (for example, an M1A1 tank), a program manager ensures that the CSS for that end item is effective and efficient. Therefore, units experiencing problems have a single point of contact to handle their concerns. At the national level, supply requirements may drive the NICP manager to use, through the NMM, sustainment maintenance to repair unserviceable assets to support supply requirements.

8-46. The operational level of supply focuses on providing repair parts and a level of stockage for items not sent to the theater by aerial lines of communication (ALOC). Easing these supply requirements are serviceable assets generated by the sustainment maintenance of line replaceable units. These items become theater-generated assets that can offset a requirement to provide support from the strategic level of supply.

8-47. Repair parts at the tactical level support unit and DS (field) maintenance missions. Organizations can stock a limited number of items on the prescribed load list (PLL) to support their maintenance mission. Normally, the number of lines is restricted to 150; however, they should be demand supported and combat essential. The commander has some latitude to accommodate expected requirements and for other justifiable reasons. Mobility of PLL items is also a consideration. The PLL should be 100 percent mobile on unit transportation. Unique maintenance elements that support strategic signal, air traffic control, and missile systems maintain authorized stockage list (ASL) items for their supported customer units.

8-48. GS maintenance units maintain shop stocks to support authorized maintenance tasks. They requisition replenishment stocks through their supporting MMCs and do not maintain ASLs. This does not apply to AVIM units.

8-49. The commander who owns unserviceable equipment decides whether to perform cannibalization or controlled exchange. Cannibalization is the authorized removal, under specific conditions, of serviceable and unserviceable repair parts, components, and assemblies from unserviceable, uneconomically reparable, or excess end-items authorized for local disposal. Controlled exchange is removing serviceable parts, components, assemblies and subassemblies from unserviceable, economically repairable equipment for immediate use in restoring a like item of equipment to a combat mission-capable condition. Commanders may use supervised battlefield cannibalization and controlled exchange when parts are not available from the supply system.

8-50. Commanders as close to the site of damaged equipment as possible make cannibalization and exchange decisions consistent with Army regulations and major command (MACOM) policies. They base their decisions on guidelines established at higher headquarters. Cannibalization is a major source of critical repair parts in a combat environment. Maintainers use it aggressively according to the command's established policy.

EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL

 

8-51. The mission of EOD is to support U.S. security operations across full spectrum operations by reducing or eliminating the hazards of explosive ordnance that threaten personnel, operations, installations, or materiel. EOD elements participate in security and advisory assistance, antiterrorism, counterdrug operations, training, ordnance disposal, arms control, treaty verification, and support to domestic civil authorities, and other stability operations and support operations. Many of their tasks are routinely performed in CONUS and include the following:

  • Providing EOD support to the U.S. Secret Service (USSS) and other Federal agencies for Presidential and very important person protection.
  • Advising and assisting the civil authorities in removing military ordnance that threatens public safety.
  • Examining, identifying, and reporting new and unusual explosive ordnance for technical intelligence purposes.
  • Supporting nuclear and chemical weapons shipments.
  • Conducting range clearances. EOD supports range clearance operations by disposing of unexploded ordnance (UXO) on impact areas.
  • Destroying ammunition (see FM 9-15).
  • Neutralizing government-owned ordnance shipments (see FM 9-15).
  • Responding to improvised explosive devices (IEDs).
  • Advising on mines and minefield clearance. Mines and minefields are not specifically an EOD matter. EOD personnel give technical advice and assistance when asked and when priorities allow. Large-scale minefield breaching is an engineer mission.
  • Supporting the clean-up of UXO from formerly used defense sites and active installations.
  • Providing instruction to host or allied nation military or civilian EOD personnel on UXO hazards and disposal techniques.

8-52. During war, preserving the commander's combat power becomes more challenging for EOD because of the increasingly complex and lethal battlefield. EOD integration into staff planning must be sufficiently explicit to provide for battle synchronization, yet flexible enough to respond to change or to capitalize on fleeting opportunities. EOD missions include-

  • Detecting UXO hazards.
  • Identifying unexploded U.S. and foreign ordnance.
  • Rendering safe UXO.
  • Recovering UXO for technical intelligence exploitation.
  • Disposing of UXO.
  • Advising commanders on UXO hazards and protective measures.

8-53. EOD provides the force-projection Army with rapidly deployable support for eliminating UXO from any operational environment. EOD serves as a combat force multiplier by neutralizing UXO that is restricting freedom of movement and denying access to supplies, facilities, and other critical assets. For detailed information on EOD support, see FM 9-15.

CONTROL PROCEDURES

 

8-54. The limited EOD assets available to the commander are force multipliers that far exceed their actual numbers. For that reason, EOD operations must be controlled in a manner that has the greatest impact on supporting the commander's mission. Centralized control and decentralized control are the two methods of controlling the operations of EOD units.

Centralized Control

 

8-55. Centralized EOD control relies on good communications and a complete and accurate evaluation of the threat to the war effort. Once an EOD battalion receives a request for EOD support (relayed through the TSC or corps command post from the requesting unit operations channels), the EOD battalion assigns the incident to an EOD company. The EOD company then dispatches an EOD response team to handle the incident.

Decentralized Control

 

8-56. Decentralized EOD control occurs most often in peacetime operations. A unit needing EOD support requests that support directly through operational channels. The EOD company receives the request, notifies the EOD battalion, and dispatches a response team. Decentralized control works well in peacetime or when there is no requirement for a massive response by a large number of EOD assets to a major incident (such as a large-scale attack with denial-type munitions on a key facility).

COMMUNICATIONS IN EOD

 

8-57. EOD units need a wide range of communications to accomplish their mission. Long-range communications are required among the deployed teams, the companies, the EOD battalions, and the EOD group. EOD units link to the area communications network through the mobile subscriber equipment (MSE). In addition, EOD response teams and units require a data processing capability for electronic transmission of record traffic. When operating at an incident site, EOD response teams need secure short-range, wireless inter-team communications for coordinating team activities and safety. The response teams dispatched on the battlefield require a position navigation device with digital data capability for precise location determination.

EOD ORGANIZATIONS

 

8-58. A range of EOD organizations allow for mission flexibility. The types of EOD units available to support operations include the following.

EOD Response Team

 

8-59. A two- (light) or three-person (heavy) response team organic to an EOD company normally provides basic EOD support. The team may function independently of the parent company for an extended period. Several light teams can work together on large, multi-UXO incidents or other high-priority incidents. If required, a response team may be collocated with a unit other than its parent company for rations, quarters, and other logistical support. However, command and control remain with the parent company. A responding EOD team may need added support (such as engineers or medical) to reduce potential and/or actual hazards.

EOD Company

 

8-60. The EOD company provides command and control for its organic EOD response teams. The mission of EOD companies is to provide EOD support to corps and ARFOR/TSC units. In the TSC, they provide DS by covering the ASG AO and all units within it. Any EOD companies not DS to the ASG are in GS to the TSC.

8-61. In the corps, the COSCOM commander positions the EOD companies throughout the CSG AO; they are normally collocated with a CSB. Command and control remains with the parent EOD battalion. EOD companies provide GS to the corps on an area basis and can be DS for a specific maneuver unit, normally a division or task force equivalent element.

8-62. Because of limited personnel and equipment assigned to an EOD company, the company depends on the unit to which it is attached or supporting for rations and other administrative and logistical support. The EOD company is 100 percent mobile. EOD companies have a limited number of personnel available for base security and other details.

EOD Company (CONUS-Based)

 

8-63. The CONUS support EOD company provides command and control for its organic EOD response teams. Its mission is to reduce or eliminate the hazards of munitions and explosive devices throughout the continental United States. This company provides EOD service on an area basis for a maximum routine incident response capability of 120 incidents per day (based on 12 teams). It may also respond to civilian requests for EOD support and assist public safety and law enforcement agencies in handling improvised explosive devices (IED) and terrorist threats. The CONUS-based EOD company may provide support to other Federal intelligence agencies, as outlined in directives, and support installations by clearing ranges and destroying unserviceable ammunition.

EOD Battalion

 

8-64. An EOD battalion provides command and control for three to ten EOD companies. A battalion with eight EOD companies is allocated to a TSC. A corps is allocated one EOD battalion with ten subordinate EOD companies. The EOD battalion has a limited number of personnel and equipment. Therefore, it is dependent on the unit to which it is assigned or attached for rations and other administrative and logistical support. The EOD battalion is 100 percent mobile.

Ordnance Group (EOD)

 

8-65. The ordnance group (EOD) has two major functions: theater EOD planning and EOD command and control. This group is composed of two to six EOD battalions. The EOD group is 50 percent mobile.

User Level Support

 

8-66. Any unit can report an EOD incident through operational or command channels to a central operations center. The center operations officer, with the assistance of the EOD staff officer, sets the priority of EOD incidents. Priority coincides with the threat posed by the incident. Incidents are coordinated, based on the operational mode used, through the EOD battalion or company for assigning an EOD response team. Lastly, the EOD response team dispatches to the scene.

AMMUNITION

 

8-67. Munitions are a dominant factor in determining the outcome of offensive, defensive, and often stability operations. Munitions provide the means to defeat and destroy the enemy. Due to limited quantities of modern munitions and weapon systems, commanders must manage munitions to ensure availability and enhance combat readiness. Most major military operations are joint and multinational and based on unexpected contingencies. These operations require the munitions logistics system to be modular, tailorable, and easily deployed. Ammunition units deploy based on operational needs and are essential to moving Class V.

8-68. Planning logistics munitions support must be coordinated and synchronized across the levels of war. The mission at every level of war is to ensure munitions arrive in the right quantities and proper types at the decisive time and place. Having munitions in the right quantity, type, and place enhances the Army's ability to engage the enemy decisively and sustain the operations culminating with the successful accomplishments of objectives.

THE AMMUNITION SYSTEM

 

8-69. The ammunition logistics system provides to the force the right type and quantity of ammunition in any contingency. The challenge is to move required amounts of ammunition into a theater from the CONUS sustaining base and other prepositioned sources in a timely manner to support an operation. The system must be flexible enough to meet changing ammunition requirements in simultaneous operations around the world. The objective of the system is to provide configured Class V support forward to the force as economically and responsively as possible to minimize handling or reconfiguring; quickly adapt to changes in potential threat; introduce new/improved weapons and ammunition; and be more responsive in getting the product to the forces. The unique characteristics of ammunition complicate the system. These factors include its size, weight, and hazardous nature. It requires special handling, storage, accountability, surveillance, and security.

8-70. Effective and efficient ammunition support requires integrated information and distribution management at all levels from the combat user to the CONUS sustainment base. Ammunition managers manage ammunition in terms of days of supply. The amount of Class V a unit can carry into combat on its weapon systems is measured in terms of combat or turret loads, except for field artillery, where the unit of measure is the battalion load. That is the amount of Class V that an artillery battalion can move uploaded on its weapon systems as well as with all its organic supply vehicles.

8-71. The structure of ammunition units and the munitions support concept evolves to meet changes in combat doctrine. Maneuver-oriented ammunition distribution system (MOADS) doctrine and force structure support a forward-deployed force. In the near future, MOADS will transition to a more flexible distribution system based on the concept of modularity. A munitions structure based on modularity will more effectively meet the needs of a force-projection Army. Under this concept, units only deploy the number of soldiers and the equipment needed to support the force.

8-72. The advent of modular munitions units has drastically increased the flexibility of the ASCC/ARFOR commander and JFC during operations. Unlike maneuver-oriented ammunition distribution system palletized loading system (MOADS-PLS) units, modular companies and platoons are 100 percent mobile (less munitions stocks). This mobility is particularly important for contingency operations. The ability of a modular platoon to deploy independent of its company headquarters allows the commander to right size his forces for combat and the operations. Although modular platoons and companies are 100 percent mobile, they are not 100 percent sustainable. These units must attach to a higher headquarters (company or battalion) for administrative and logistical support and C2.

AMMUNITION MANAGEMENT

 

8-73. The management process begins during peacetime planning. Combatant commands, ASCCs, ARFOR, and service/readiness commands determine Class V requirements for possible contingencies. They consider the concepts of operation and task organization including the projected force deployment sequences, the availability of stocks, storage locations, deployability into various theaters, and the responsiveness of the production base to meet shortfalls. It is unlikely that future conflicts will require the massive volumes of stocks needed to support the cold war forces of the 1980s.

8-74. As the force receives these new weapon systems and munitions, there will be an evolving mix of high-low technology munitions, which the logistics system must be able to support. The Class V system must also be capable of supporting joint forces and a variety of multinational forces. Multinational forces may not be able to use efficiencies of U.S. logistics technologies, such as the palletized load system or container/materials-handling equipment. Ammunition planners must integrate these factors into the LPT (discussed in chapter 5). Integral to the LPT and requirements determination process is the planned development of the theater. Modular ammunition units deploy to handle in-coming stocks and support the force as it matures to meet the combatant commanders plan. Initial theater Class V unit requirements may be small. For example, they may include the organic support for an airlifted light brigade, LSE, and a modular platoon to handle initial receipt of prepositioned stocks and support a brigade combat team. The theater, however, requires follow-on ammunition capabilities in proportion to the combat forces deployed. Along with being rapidly deployable, these ammunition units require mobility and the information systems to control operations and provide the critical decision support and management link within the theater and with the CONUS sustaining base.

AMMUNITION SUPPORT ACTIVITIES

 

8-75. Combat forces initially deploy into theater with their ammunition basic loads. Commanders estimate their Class V needs (required supply rates) in accordance with combat priorities to weight the battle. The ARFOR commander determines the controlled supply rate (CSR) by comparing the total unrestricted ammunition requirements against the total ammunition assets on hand or due in. Forces receive resupply in the forward areas from tactical ammunition support activities (ASAs).

8-76. The three types of ASAs in the theater are: theater storage areas (TSAs), corps storage areas (CSAs), and ammunition supply points (ASPs). An ammunition transfer point (ATP) is not considered an ASA because of its temporary nature. The ASA mission is to receive, store, issue, and maintain theater conventional ammunition stocks. In addition, ASAs configure ammunition into mission-configured loads (MCLs). Once configured, MCLs ship forward to ATPs for issue to units. When published, FM 4-30 will detail the doctrinal layout of a mature ammunition system in a developed theater.

Theater Storage Area

 

8-77. The TSA encompasses the storage facilities located in the COMMZ. This is where the bulk of the theater reserve ammunition stocks are located. Modular ammunition companies, with a mixture of heavy- and medium-lift platoons, operate and maintain TSAs. Besides shipping ammunition to CSAs, the TSA provides area ammunition support to units operating in the COMMZ. The ASCC determines the TSA stockage objective. AR 710-2 contains basic days of supply (DOS) policy for Class V. The TSC ammunition group must keep the TSC materiel management center (MMC) informed of storage limitations or shortages in each TSA.

Corps Storage Area

 

8-78. The CSA is the primary source of high-tonnage ammunition for the division and corps. Modular ammunition companies, with a mixture of heavy- and medium-lift platoons, operate the CSA. The number of units assigned to operate a CSA depends on the corps authorized ammunition stockage level. CSAs receive 50 percent of their ammunition from the POD and 50 percent from the TSA. At a minimum, each corps identifies an ASA to meet these requirements. The COSCOM establishes stockage objectives for the CSA and bases them on projected theater combat rates. Initially, the stockage objective of a CSA should be 10 to 15 days of supply. After the initial combat draw down, the CSA should maintain 7 to 10 days of supply. When a CSA wartime stockage objective exceeds 25,000 short-tons, the commander should establish a second CSA.

Ammunition Supply Point

 

8-79. ASPs are another source of ammunition for a division. ASPs receive, store, issue, and maintain a one- to three-day supply of ammunition. ASP stockage levels are based on tactical plans, availability of ammunition, and the threat to the resupply operation. ASPs are located in the division rear. Normally, three ASPs support a division and provide manning for the division rear ATP. A modular ammunition company, with one or more medium-lift modular ammunition platoons, normally operates one large ASP behind each brigade. By doctrine, Class V containers go only as far as the CSA.

8-80. ASPs provide 25 percent of each ATP ammunition requirement in the form of MCLs. Besides supporting ATPs, ASPs provide ammunition to units operating in the division rear area. These nondivisional and corps units normally receive support from the closest ASA.

Ammunition Transfer Point

 

8-81. ATPs are the most mobile and responsive of the munitions supply activities. CSAs and ASPs deliver ammunition to the ATP using corps transportation assets. This ammunition is kept loaded on semitrailers, containerized roll-on/off platforms (CROPs), or PLS flatracks until ATP personnel transload it to using unit vehicles. If the situation demands, personnel can transfer the ammunition immediately to using unit tactical vehicles.

8-82. ATPs are located in each brigade support area (BSA) with an additional one in the division support area (DSA). The mission of each ATP is to provide 100 percent of the ammunition required by all infantry, armor, artillery, combat aviation, combat engineer, and air defense units in its sector. This includes divisional and nondivisional units (such as corps artillery) operating in the brigade area. A division ammunition representative is located at each ATP to control the issue of munitions.

8-83. Each maneuver divisional brigade is supported by a forward support battalion (FSB) that operates an ATP. The ammunition section of the supply company in the FSB operates ATPs. These ATPs provide ammunition support to all units in the brigade support sector and receive mission guidance from the division ammunition officer (DAO). Units arriving at the ATP to pick up munitions drop off empty, or partially empty, PLS flatracks and retrieve fully loaded flatracks. ATP personnel assist units without the PLS to transload munitions. The unit normally issues uploaded flatracks in the same configuration as received.



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