Success on today's battlefield demands that forces maintain, recover, repair, or replace equipment as quickly as possible. Good maintenance practices, forward positioning of maintenance units, effective repair parts and equipment replacement systems, and clear priorities for recovery and repair are vital. Likewise, sound theater policies on repair and evacuation and sufficient sustainment repair and replacement facilities greatly contribute to battlefield success. This chapter covers the entire spectrum of ordnance support. It includes maintenance, explosive ordnance disposal (EOD), and ammunition support.
MAINTENANCE SUPPORT ACROSS THE LEVELS OF WAR
8-1. Maintenance support includes activities at all levels of war. The following is a brief discussion of each level of war.
8-12. The current Army maintenance program is a flexible, four-level system. The levels are operator/unit, DS, GS, and depot. Each level has certain capabilities based on the skills of the assigned personnel and the availability of tools and test equipment. Force XXI and Stryker brigade employ new maintenance concepts that consolidate levels of maintenance. The thrust of this redesign effort is to position the Army to adopt a two-level maintenance system. In the new system, unit and DS maintenance comprise the first of the two maintenance echelons known as field maintenance. Field maintenance focuses on repairing and returning major end items and components for immediate use by the supported force. The second maintenance echelon is sustainment maintenance. Sustainment maintenance includes GS and depot levels. Sustainment maintenance focuses on repairing major end items and components to support the supply system. (Army aviation maintenance, discussed in paragraph 8-31, has three levels.) When properly integrated, the levels serve as a logistics multiplier, adding an extra dimension to the commander's plan.
8-13. The various management functions required result in classifying maintenance management into two echelons: field and sustainment. Field maintenance managers at corps and lower echelons support commanders by managing operations to enhance equipment readiness. Field maintenance managers maximize combat readiness by coordinating repairs as far forward as possible for quick return into the battle. National sustainment maintenance managers at corps and above focus on repairing components for the supply system and rebuilding end items.
8-14. Sustainment and field maintenance managers coordinate maintenance operations among the various activities. National strategic maintenance managers coordinate sustainment operations in the industrial base, depot activities, and the theater through establishing specialized repair/forward repair activities. U.S. Army Materiel Command (USAMC) is designated as the national maintenance manager (NMM). Field maintenance managers focus on operator/crew, unit, and DS (field) maintenance operations.
8-15. Field maintenance managers assigned to support battalions provide maintenance support to brigade-size units. National sustainment maintenance managers may be assigned to theater and corps support commands. Managers use their maintenance knowledge and experience, along with aid from their management interfaces and combat service support (CSS) information systems, to determine potential and developing maintenance problems and supply shortfalls. Their continuous review aids in developing courses of action, facilitating avoidance or resolution.
8-16. The materiel management center (MMC) is the maintenance manager for deployed Army forces. It is the link between the deployed forces and the support base. The MMC maintains a close working relationship with the logistics support element (LSE). The NMM through the LSE directs the theater-level GS (sustainment) maintenance mission. In addition, these activities may support equipment of other services or multinational forces. The commander of the LSE maintains a coordination relationship with USAMC and other organizations providing assets to the LSE. The NMM distributes the total national maintenance workload across all sustainment maintenance providers, based on the overall national needs. This coordination ensures receiving timely support from the theater or continental United States (CONUS) base maintenance operations.
MAINTENANCE SUPPORT LEVELS
8-17. There are two basic levels of maintenance support: field maintenance and sustainment maintenance.
>Field Maintenance Support
Direct Support Maintenance
Sustainment Maintenance Support
General Support Maintenance
8-27. Depot maintenance supports the strategic level of war. USAMC depots or activities, contractors, and host nation support personnel perform this level of maintenance to support the supply system. Normally, elements perform depot maintenance where it is most appropriate to support the force. This may be in CONUS, in the AO, at an ISB, or in a third country. Production-line operations characterize this support. Such operations support the national maintenance program (NMP) and the overall DA inventory management program. They are an alternative or supplement to new procurement as a source of serviceable assets to meet DA materiel requirements.
8-28. Headquarters, Department of the Army approves and USAMC controls programs for depot maintenance. Army arsenals and depot maintenance facilities execute some approved programs. In other cases, the depot maintenance and interservicing (DMI) program plays an important role in depot maintenance. The DMI program's main goal is the efficient and effective use of depots by using the depot source of repair (DSOR) decision process. The DSOR decision process is a mandatory milestone in the integrated logistics system (ILS) planning and an integral part of maintenance planning. The DSOR process normally results in agreements with the other military services. Agreements with other military services and contractual arrangements with commercial firms carry out some depot maintenance programs. Strategic planners schedule repair programs to meet the needs of the supply system and the reparable exchange program. They also consider availability of repair parts and other maintenance resources.
8-29. When an LSE deploys to a theater, it may act as the command and control element for theater-level sustainment maintenance activities. As discussed in chapter 4, the LSE is a flexible organization. Theater needs and shortfalls in the supply system dictate its capabilities and organization. The LSE may include theater GS maintenance companies FRAs, and SRAs operating within the theater. FRAs are maintenance activities designed to provide limited depot repair support to the theater. SRAs repair components and return them to the supply system or supported customers. SRAs have special tools and test equipment to repair/test components whose associated maintenance requires a high degree of training or specialized TMDE. FRAs and SRAs may employ military personnel, civilians, contractors, or a mixture of all three. These units normally operate from fixed or semi-fixed facilities in the corps rear, theater base, or the CONUS support base.
SPECIFIC MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS
8-30. Several types of equipment have special maintenance considerations associated with them. The following is a discussion of maintenance of aviation, watercraft, signal, and information systems. It also covers maintenance in an NBC environment.
8-31. The objective of Army aviation maintenance is to ensure maximum availability of fully mission-capable aircraft to the commander. Aviation maintenance elements accomplish this by performing maintenance on all aviation items, including avionics and weapon systems, as far forward as possible.
8-32. The aircraft maintenance system consists of three levels: aviation unit maintenance (AVUM), aviation intermediate maintenance (AVIM), and depot maintenance.
8-33. The aircraft crew chiefs and AVUM unit comprise the first line of aircraft maintenance. AVUM units are organic to aviation battalions and squadrons. They provide support as far forward as possible. Forward support teams perform on-aircraft maintenance tasks that require minimal aircraft downtime. AVUM elements also perform more extensive recurring scheduled maintenance tasks in rear areas. AVUM tasks include replacing components; performing minor repairs; making adjustments; and cleaning, lubricating, and servicing the aircraft.
8-34. The AVIM, or second-level maintenance element provides one-stop intermediate maintenance support and backup AVUM support. It performs on-aircraft system repair and off-aircraft subsystems repair. AVIM units also provide aviation repair parts to supported units. AVIM tasks normally require more time, more complex tools and test equipment, and higher skilled personnel than the AVUM element has available.
8-35. Depot maintenance is the third level of maintenance. Depot maintenance includes very detailed and time-consuming functions. It requires sophisticated equipment and special tools, special facilities, and maintenance skills. Typical depot tasks include aircraft overhaul, major repair, conversion or modifications, special manufacturing, analytical testing, and painting. FM 3-04.500 has details on aviation maintenance.
Army Watercraft Maintenance
Signal-Peculiar Equipment Maintenance
Support to Information Systems
Maintenance in an NBC Environment
REPAIR PARTS SUPPORT
EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL
8-51. The mission of EOD is to support U.S. security operations across full spectrum operations by reducing or eliminating the hazards of explosive ordnance that threaten personnel, operations, installations, or materiel. EOD elements participate in security and advisory assistance, antiterrorism, counterdrug operations, training, ordnance disposal, arms control, treaty verification, and support to domestic civil authorities, and other stability operations and support operations. Many of their tasks are routinely performed in CONUS and include the following:
8-52. During war, preserving the commander's combat power becomes more challenging for EOD because of the increasingly complex and lethal battlefield. EOD integration into staff planning must be sufficiently explicit to provide for battle synchronization, yet flexible enough to respond to change or to capitalize on fleeting opportunities. EOD missions include-
8-53. EOD provides the force-projection Army with rapidly deployable support for eliminating UXO from any operational environment. EOD serves as a combat force multiplier by neutralizing UXO that is restricting freedom of movement and denying access to supplies, facilities, and other critical assets. For detailed information on EOD support, see FM 9-15.
COMMUNICATIONS IN EOD
8-58. A range of EOD organizations allow for mission flexibility. The types of EOD units available to support operations include the following.
EOD Response Team
EOD Company (CONUS-Based)
Ordnance Group (EOD)
8-65. The ordnance group (EOD) has two major functions: theater EOD planning and EOD command and control. This group is composed of two to six EOD battalions. The EOD group is 50 percent mobile.
User Level Support
THE AMMUNITION SYSTEM
AMMUNITION SUPPORT ACTIVITIES
8-75. Combat forces initially deploy into theater with their ammunition basic loads. Commanders estimate their Class V needs (required supply rates) in accordance with combat priorities to weight the battle. The ARFOR commander determines the controlled supply rate (CSR) by comparing the total unrestricted ammunition requirements against the total ammunition assets on hand or due in. Forces receive resupply in the forward areas from tactical ammunition support activities (ASAs).
8-76. The three types of ASAs in the theater are: theater storage areas (TSAs), corps storage areas (CSAs), and ammunition supply points (ASPs). An ammunition transfer point (ATP) is not considered an ASA because of its temporary nature. The ASA mission is to receive, store, issue, and maintain theater conventional ammunition stocks. In addition, ASAs configure ammunition into mission-configured loads (MCLs). Once configured, MCLs ship forward to ATPs for issue to units. When published, FM 4-30 will detail the doctrinal layout of a mature ammunition system in a developed theater.
Theater Storage Area
8-77. The TSA encompasses the storage facilities located in the COMMZ. This is where the bulk of the theater reserve ammunition stocks are located. Modular ammunition companies, with a mixture of heavy- and medium-lift platoons, operate and maintain TSAs. Besides shipping ammunition to CSAs, the TSA provides area ammunition support to units operating in the COMMZ. The ASCC determines the TSA stockage objective. AR 710-2 contains basic days of supply (DOS) policy for Class V. The TSC ammunition group must keep the TSC materiel management center (MMC) informed of storage limitations or shortages in each TSA.
Corps Storage Area
Ammunition Supply Point
Ammunition Transfer Point
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