Army transportation plays a key role in ensuring that Army and joint forces can execute global force projection and sustain forces in operations. Supporting the JFC and the Defense transportation system (DTS), Army transportation is essential to effective and efficient force generation and sustainment.
Army transportation operates as a partner in the DTS to deploy, sustain, and redeploy forces in all military operations. Transportation provides vital support to the Army and joint forces across the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war. It is a seamless system that unites the levels of war with synchronized movement control, terminal operations, and mode operations. Army transportation incorporates military, commercial, and host nation capabilities. It involves the total Army (active and Reserve Components). More detailed information on Army transportation is in the FM 4-01-series of manuals.
OPERATIONAL AND TACTICAL TRANSPORTATION
7-10. Movement control is the linchpin of the transportation system. Movement control units and staffs plan, route, schedule, and control common user assets, and maintain in-transit visibility (ITV) of personnel, units, equipment, and supplies moving over lines of communication. They are the using unit point of contact for transportation support. Units request transportation assets from the servicing movement control team (MCT) in their area. The MCT commits (tasks) allocated transportation modes and terminals to provide support in an integrated movement program according to command priorities. Movement control remains responsive to changes in METT-TC, which require adjustments to the plan. A responsive theater distribution system, operating over extended distances, requires centralized control of transportation platforms and synchronized movement management allowing commanders to shift limited transportation resources to move assets forward to influence the tactical situation. Effective movement control requires access to information systems to determine what to move as well as, when, where, and how. It also provides visibility of what is moving, how it is moving, and how well it is moving.
7-11. Transportation staff planners and movement managers at each echelon perform movement control activities. Movement control is integral to distribution management centers/elements (DMC/Es) at each echelon. They coordinate the efforts of the movement control units and the materiel managers. Movement control personnel coordinate routinely with operations planners and other combat service support (CSS) personnel; movement control is tied directly to maneuver as well as distribution. It also relies on support from military police in their mobility support role. All these staffs work together to plan movements. Otherwise, congestion on LOC and at terminals hinders movements and degrades combat effectiveness. The movement control units implement priorities established by the ASCC/ARFOR commander to support the JFC's concept of the operation. Movement control is the information conduit for the theater on personnel, units, and supplies moving from the strategic sustaining base to the AO.
7-12. In addition to synchronizing movements with other Army elements, movement control personnel coordinate movements with other services and countries when operating as part of a joint or multinational force. The JFC may create a fully integrated joint board or center (such as a joint transportation board [JTB] or a joint movement center [JMC]) to exercise directive authority for movement control. The JTB organizations consist of representatives from the service component movement control activities and the U.S. operations directorate (J3) and logistics directorate (J4). The JMC plans future operations and monitors overall theater transportation performance. It performs the planning tasks by continually monitoring the balance between forecasted requirements and current capabilities of all modes. A service movement control organization may create a JMC. It should act as the movement C2 cell for the deployment process of an operation. The Army theater transportation command provides movement controllers that normally form the nucleus of the JMC. Similarly, a multinational force commander may form a multinational movement control agency. JP 4-01.3 discusses joint movement control.
7-13. At the operational level, the senior movement control organization looks forward to activities within the AO, as well as rearward to the sustaining base. This requires communications that connect both systems and decision-makers at the strategic and operational levels to facilitate reception and onward movement. This information exchange is crucial to the supported commander for operations planning. Movement control personnel coordinate with materiel managers for efficient distribution of materiel. They develop movement plans that take into account all movement requirements, the transportation system capabilities, and the commander's priorities. Movement control elements use these factors when tasking transportation units to meet movement requirements. FM 55-10 has more information on movement control.
7-14. A terminal operation is the staging, loading, discharge, transfer handling, and documentation of cargo and manifesting of personnel among various transport modes. Terminals are key nodes in the distribution system that supports the commander's concept of operation. When linked by modes of transport, they define the transportation structure for the operation. Force projection missions require early identification and establishment of terminals. A well-conceived plan assures that terminals can support the deployment, reception, and onward movement of the force and its sustainment. Crucial to executing the operation is assigning the right personnel, cargo, and materiel-handling equipment at each terminal. ITV of materiel moving through the transportation system also provides the joint force commander with information pertaining to location and final destination of all cargo.
7-15. Ocean-water terminals include major port facilities, unimproved port facilities, and bare-beach facilities. Major port facilities are improved networks of cargo-handling facilities, specifically designed for transferring ocean-going freight, vessel-discharge operations, and port clearance. They normally have roll-on/roll-off service and container-handling capability. Unimproved port facilities are not as fully developed as major ports. They may require support from terminal units and shallow-draft lighterage to discharge vessels. Lack of fixed-terminal facilities at bare-beach locations requires that lighterage deliver cargo across the beach. Ports may be degraded by enemy action such as sinking vessels or damaging cranes or piers. Such activities can quickly turn a major port into the equivalent of an unimproved port.
7-16. MTMC is USTRANSCOM's global single port manager (SPM) for DOD. The SPM integrates the commercial transportation industry, MTMC's commercial business practices, and military force structure. MTMC information systems are linked, through the Worldwide Port System (WPS), to the Global Transportation Network that provides the combatant commanders visibility over ocean cargo. Theater execution of SPM duties in support of a major theater war (MTW) will be the responsibility of a deployed MTMC transportation group. As the theater SPM, a MTMC transportation group is responsible for pre-deployment planning on water terminal issues to include coordinating JLOTS operations, facilitating contingency water terminal expansion and, where available, arranging for contract stevedore and related terminal services. A combination of commercial contract, military units, and/or HNS could perform actual stevedoring operations based on the situation. SPM provides for transitioning terminal units to a commercial contract as early as the situation permits. Accomplishing this (LOGCAP, third country contractor, or host nation) is situation dependent. Normally, during small-scale contingencies, single port manager (SPM) responsibilities remain the same; however, the size of the MTMC SPM team will be METT-TC driven.
7-17. Terminal/cargo transfer operations at APODs and SPODs provide the initial visibility and movement of items as they enter the AO. Critical to reception is executing the port clearance program. This program schedules transportation assets for onward movements based on anticipated arrival dates. The program identifies available port capacities, capabilities, and workloads at various modes and segments of the transportation network.
7-18. Army transportation units establish inland terminals where required, throughout the theater to transship, load, and unload cargo. They operate motor transport terminals and trailer transfer points at both ends, and at intermediate points along line-haul routes. These terminals link local-haul and line-haul service and assist in changing the carrier or transportation mode, when required. Army units and host nation assets also operate terminals at both ends, and at intermediate points along rail lines.
7-19. Forces establish an intermodal terminal early in the AO to provide cargo transfer and mode operations functions. As the scope of the operation enlarges, the commander adds additional sections/companies to meet the demand flow. While the operations may differ slightly, the essential units and command and control structure of the hub remain constant. Cargo transfer operations at the intermodal terminal assist in the throughput of supplies and materiel, configure multiple consignee shipments into single consignee shipments, and process frustrated cargo. In a mature theater, contracted U.S. or host nation civilians may perform intermodal terminal functions.
7-20. In addition to intermodal terminals, Army cargo transfer units perform transfer functions at intermediate transfer points on inland waterway systems. Army cargo transfer units clear Army cargo and personnel from air terminals served by the AMC or from theater airlift aircraft. They may also provide such assistance at forward landing fields that are not regularly scheduled stops for theater airlift aircraft. FM 55-17 has more information on terminal operations.
7-23. Tactical vehicles are the backbone of the support structure. They are mobile, flexible, and reliable. The motor transportation unit and equipment mix for an operation depend on METT-TC. Planning factors include the planned flow of personnel and materiel and the availability and quality of the road networks. Motor transport provides the connecting links between the PODs and the receiving units. The right tactical trucks, in the right place, at the right time are essential to the success of any military operation.
7-24. Each echelon centrally controls common-user motor transport assets to respond to the commander's priorities and weight the CSS effort. At division level, the DISCOM provides motor transport support under control of the movement control officer. At corps and above, motor transport units provide support on an area basis and respond to taskings of the movement control teams in the area. Host nation or multinational force support elements may augment the Army capability.
7-25. Whether at the operational or tactical level, motor transport units provide a general support role within a specified area or along specific routes. Placement should ensure efficient, responsive support, convenient to major customers and distribution operations. Motor transport units can expect to move frequently in response to changes in requirements. FM 55-10 has detailed information on motor transport units and operations.
7-26. Rail is potentially the most efficient method of hauling large tonnages of materiel by ground transportation; the Army normally depends on the host nation to provide this mode of transportation. The Army has limited railway operating, construction, and repair capability. These Army assets augment host nation support or provide those capabilities in theaters where host nation support is not available, or is not capable or reliable. Rail operations are limited to existing rail networks. Information on rail transport units and operations is in FM 55-20.
7-28. Army watercraft is an essential component of theater transportation. They provide efficient transportation to relieve other lines of communication. They may augment capabilities of other modes when integrated with appropriate terminal operations. Army watercraft move materiel and equipment along inland waterways, along theater coastlines, and within water terminals. Their primary role is to support cargo discharge and onward movement from the SPOD to inland terminals or to retrograde from inland terminals. Army watercrafts have a role in joint operations along with Navy and Marine Corps lighterage, or in conjunction with HNS assets.
7-29. Watercraft perform docking and undocking services for oceangoing transport vessels. Terminal commanders may also employ watercraft in utility missions. These may include patrolling, ship-to-shore transport of personnel, harbormaster duties, and command and control functions.
7-30. Watercraft are integral to port-opening capabilities, whether employed at fixed terminals or for bare-beach operations (such as logistics-over-the-shore [LOTS]). They must deploy into the theater before the first ocean transport vessel arrives. The watercraft fleet consists of logistics support vessels (LSVs), medium and heavy landing craft, and a variety of specialized vessels, causeways, barges, and equipment. Army watercraft are assigned to watercraft companies and detachments, which operate in transportation terminal battalions. FM 55-80 has details on Army watercraft units and operations.
7-31. This discussion covers only those transportation systems essential to transportation operations in a theater of operations. Technology allows the transportation system to better manage cargo and transportation assets.
TRANSPORTATION COORDINATORS' AUTOMATED INFORMATION FOR MOVEMENT SYSTEM II
Installation Transportation Office(r)
Unit Movement Officer
7-36. TC-AIMS II provides deployment managers with a system that supports their information needs to successfully deploy a combat-ready force on time.
Motor Transport Operator
7-37. The system supports day-to-day fleet management missions. Integrated with the MTS and AIT equipment, TC-AIMS II effectively manages the tactical-wheeled fleet.
Movement Control Team
7-38. TC-AIMS II, integrated with MTS and AIT equipment, allows MCTs to manage dozens or hundreds of movements each day/shift and meet the customer's transportation needs in a deployed theater.
Movement Control Headquarters
7-39. TC-AIMS II provides the information tool to conduct transportation planning, manage transportation assets, and synchronize transportation operations within the theater.
Cargo Transfer Operator
7-40. The system will be the primary mission support tool when integrated with MTS and AIT equipment. It allows the cargo documentation elements to expedite the transshipment operations for both unit equipment and sustainment cargo within a theater.
GLOBAL TRANSPORTATION NETWORK
MOVEMENT TRACKING SYSTEM
RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION
WORLDWIDE PORT SYSTEM
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