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Chapter 10

Human Resource Support

Human resource support (HRS) encompasses the following functions: manning the force, personnel support, and personnel services. These activities include personnel accounting, casualty management, essential services, postal operations, and morale, welfare, and recreation. They are provided to service members, their families, DA civilians, and contractors.


Human Resource Support Across the Levels of War
Manning the Force
Personnel Services
Personnel Support




10-1. HRS covers all levels of war. Human resource (HR) considerations for each level or war include the following.



10-2. Strategic HRS involves the national-level capability to plan, resource, manage, and control the HR life cycle functions for the Army. It involves integrating HR functions and activities across the Army staff, among the respective Army components, and among the services. At the strategic level, the DA Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel (Army G1) provides HRS to all active component Army forces. The Army G1 develops Army policy for all systems and functions in HRS, while the assistant Secretary of the Army (Manpower and Reserve Affairs) is responsible for civilian personnel policy and operations. The U.S. Total Army Personnel Command (USTA PERSCOM) applies and implements these policies for military personnel. The assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (ACSIM), the U.S. Army Community and Family Support Center, and the Military Postal Service Agency also provide strategic support to the force for morale, welfare, and recreation services, and postal operations. The Chief, Army Reserve and the Director of the National Guard Bureau provide strategic HRS for the Army Reserves and National Guard elements respectively.



10-3. Policies and procedures translate into action at the operational and tactical levels. Theater PERSCOMs, MACOM DCSPERs, corps and division G1/AGs, and brigade and battalion S1s provide the operational and tactical level HR life cycle support to service members, their families, civilians, and contractors. They are responsible for executing each of the following HR functions. HR providers at all levels are responsible for successfully implementing the human dimension of soldiering.



10-4. Manning the force consists of personnel readiness management, personnel accounting, personnel information management, and replacement operations management. The manning challenge is getting the right soldier to the right place at the right time with the right capabilities. Manning combines anticipation, movement, and skillful positioning of personnel assets. It relies on the secure, robust, and survivable communications and digital information systems of emerging technologies that provide common operational picture, asset visibility, predictive modeling, and exception reporting. This constitutes a significant reduction of forward-deployed personnel assets that manage the deployed forces.



10-5. The purpose of the personnel readiness management system is to distribute soldiers to units based on documented requirements or authorizations to maximize mission preparedness and provide the manpower needed to support full spectrum operations. This process involves analyzing personnel strength data to determine current mission capabilities and project future requirements. It compares an organization personnel strength to its requirements, and results in a personnel readiness assessment and allocation decision. This system depends on personnel asset visibility from the foxhole to strategic national provider level.



10-6. Replacement operations management moves personnel from designated points of origin to ultimate destinations. There are two parts to replacement operations management: replacement management and replacement support. Replacement management relates to accounting and processing while replacement support is the physical reception, support, and delivery of military and civilian personnel. This includes replacements and return-to-duty (RTD) soldiers. The system provides primarily for individual replacements and groupings of individuals up through squad, crew, or team level, as required by operations. Replacement management requires real-time access to information about all replacements, movement status from the point of selection, and personnel readiness management information to determine the final destination of replacements and RTD soldiers.

10-7. While the standard is individual soldiers, the replacement operations management system must be able to provide squads, crews, or teams. It must also coordinate for their transportation to weapon system link-up and training locations.

10-8. Personnel readiness managers coordinate with materiel managers to linkup weapon systems with squads, crew, and teams. Readiness managers also coordinate with the G3/S3 and other staff members for training resources for replacement training. Managers ensure replacements have all necessary qualifications, to include any additional skills identified as critical for positions or particular operations. The replacement unit maintains an element's integrity and accountability until the replacement section in-processes the squad, crew, or team.

10-9. The replacement network serves as the conduit for soldiers and civilians returning to duty from hospitals. Personnel readiness managers also help military police determine the duty status of stragglers and assist in their eventual disposition through legal or replacement channels.

10-10. Replacement management operations are both predictive and responsive, and focus on throughput to the lowest possible level. This reduces the assembling of large pools of replacements within the area of operation (AO).

10-11. Readiness managers direct RTDs to their original units unless the tactical condition clearly dictates otherwise. The decision to begin assigning RTDs to other than their original unit is an operational decision of the commander or operations staff with recommendations from the personnel staff.

10-12. Whenever mission, enemy, troops, terrain and weather, time, civilian considerations (METT-TC) allows the replacement management system includes training individual replacements. Training individual replacements while in the replacement system reduces the unit commander's training requirements for newly assigned soldiers. Training individual replacements begins at continental United States (CONUS) replacement centers (CRCs). CRCs certify soldier readiness for deployment. They also coordinate the equipping, training, and local area transportation of replacement personnel, DA civilians, contract civilians, and personnel from the American Red Cross and other Federal agencies and National organizations. CRCs also receive, out-process, and account for individuals returning from the theater, including noncombatant evacuees.

10-13. The theater replacement directorate (RD), a staff element of the PERSCOM, or the senior personnel element in theater performing the RD mission coordinates, transportation requirements when in-theater air assets must transport replacements from EAC to corps or division release points. Replacement companies under command and control of replacement battalions are at CRC, theater, or corps level. These companies receive, support, and process replacements. They coordinate movement with the appropriate movement control element. The division replacement section coordinates with the G4 and division transportation officer for movement to the brigade support area (BSA). The brigade S1 processes and assigns replacements to battalions. The battalion S1 further assigns replacements to company level.

10-14. The personnel readiness management system depends on accurate and complete information. Therefore, personnel readiness managers must quickly establish a personnel accounting system within a theater of operations.



10-15. Personnel accounting is the system for recording by-name data on soldiers when they arrive in, and depart from, units; when their duty status changes (for example from duty to hospital); and when their grade changes. Strength reporting is a numerical end product of the accounting process. It starts with strength-related transactions submitted at unit level and ends with a database update through all echelons to the total Army personnel database. Standard reports available from the personnel accounting system include the following:

  • Battle roster.
  • Personnel summary.
  • Personnel requirements report.
  • Command and control task force personnel summary.

10-16. Personnel accounting will be accomplished primarily through the application of a corporate database and web enabled processes that facilitate personnel support from home station, thus reducing the personnel footprint on the battlefield.



10-17. Personnel information management encompasses the collecting, processing, storing, displaying, and disseminating of relevant information about soldiers, units, and civilians. Personnel readiness managers, casualty managers, and replacement managers all use a personnel information database when performing their missions. The Defense Integrated Military Human Resource System (DIMHRS) operates as a centralized database of all military personnel. Personnel readiness, casualty, and replacement managers access DIMHRS for the real-time information needed to perform their mission.

10-18. During split-based operations, the personnel information processing activity of the personnel services battalion (PSB) element or military personnel division at the home station provides continued support to deployed forces. The rear personnel information system element performs sustaining base personnel information management. A forward deployed personnel detachment or a forward area support team provides only essential services in contingency operations. The forward element synchronizes databases in the theater, and transmits, updates, and receives them from the rear element.



10-19. Personnel services are integral to unit readiness as well as the human dimension of the force. Personnel services encompass casualty operations management, essential personnel services, and military pay.



10-20. The casualty operations management system includes the recording, reporting, verifying, and processing of information from unit level to Headquarters, Department of the Army. It also involves notifying appropriate individuals and assisting family members. The system involves collecting casualty information from a number of sources, collating it, and analyzing it to determine the appropriate action. Accuracy and timeliness are critical components of casualty management, and depend on satellite communications and reliable access to personnel information.

10-21. Casualties can occur on the first day of an operation. Thus, casualty managers from each echelon of command may need to deploy early. Units report all casualties found to include civilians, contract personnel, and military personnel from other U.S. Army units, other services, and multinational forces. Reports go to the PSB as well as through G1/S1 channels. The future digital information exchange, through the management module of GCSS-A, provides an interface between medical facilities, mortuary affairs collection points, and personnel operators. Casualty liaison teams currently provide an interface between medical facilities, mortuary affairs collection points, and the personnel group.

10-22. Casualty operations require 100 percent personnel accounting reconciliation. The unit verifies casualty information against the database and emergency data in an individual's deployment packet. Initial and updated reports move through channels to the USTAPERSCOM. USTAPERSCOM verifies information in the casualty report against available information systems. It then directs and coordinates notification actions through the appropriate casualty area commander. The casualty area commander (usually a commander of an active duty installation in CONUS) makes the notification to next of kin and provides casualty assistance.

10-23. All commanders, soldiers, and deployed civilians must be sensitive to the accuracy and sensitive nature of casualty information. Modern communications have increased the risk that family members will get casualty information from sources outside the official system. To combat this risk, casualty managers must use all available means to get casualty information at the earliest possible moment.



10-24. Essential personnel services include-

  • Awards and decorations.
  • Noncommissioned officer and officer evaluations.
  • Enlisted promotions and reductions.
  • Officer promotions.
  • Enlisted and officer transfers and discharges.
  • Identification documents.
  • Leaves and passes.
  • Line of duty investigations.
  • Officer procurement.
  • Band support.

10-25. There is a possibility that during combat operations, the current S1 structure can provide only critical wartime personnel support and essential personnel services, limiting and delaying other services throughout the operation.



10-26. Military pay input transactions are an integrated and embedded process within the personnel system architecture. They capitalize on information systems and seamless processes to maintain the critical links between personnel actions and activities that impact pay entitlements.



10-27. Personnel support activities encompass the elements of postal operations management; morale, welfare, and recreation; and band operations.



10-28. Efficient postal operations rely on the availability of an accurate database, automated sorting, and automated identification technology (AIT) to provide rapid, responsive mail service to soldiers and commanders. The use of electronic mail, cellular communications, and facsimile transmissions will be developed to provide an automated mail system.

10-29. The postal operations management system provides a network to process mail and provides postal services within a theater of operations. Processing mail involves receiving, separating, sorting, dispatching, and redirecting ordinary and accountable mail, conducting international mail exchange, and handling casualty, contaminated, and enemy prisoner of war mail. Postal services involve selling stamps; cashing and selling money orders; providing registered (including classified up to secret), insured, and certified mail services; and processing postal claims and inquiries.

10-30. Official mail moves through the postal system until it reaches the postal services platoon of the unit addressed. FM 12-6 and AR 25-51 address official mail.

10-31. The Military Postal Service Agency (MPSA) establishes policy and procedures required for properly administering the military postal system. The MPSA acts as the single point of contact with the U.S. Postal System (USPS) and other Government agencies on policy and operational matters. The MPSA activates contingency Army post offices and coordinates initial mail routing schemes with the Joint Military Postal Agency (JMPA). It also coordinates an integrated network of major military mail distribution and transportation facilities in overseas areas. The JMPA is the single point of contact with the USPS at the gateways in CONUS and the theater. It coordinates transportation of mail to and within the theater.

10-32. The USPS sorts to battalion level in CONUS. To support force deployment, the MPSA, in coordination with the USPS and the operational major command, assigns contingency Army post office numbers to contingency forces.

10-33. A postal operations platoon routes the mail to a postal services platoon where the unit separates it. Postal elements coordinate mail transportation requirements with transportation managers at all levels. This applies to both inbound and outbound mail.



10-34. This system enables commanders to provide soldiers and civilians with recreational and fitness activities and goods and services not available through appropriated funds. For contingency operations, the MWR network provides unit recreation and sports programs and rest areas for brigade-size and larger units. MWR personnel provide these services and facilities.

10-35. Community support programs include the American Red Cross (ARC), family support, and the exchange system. During mobilization and deployment, the ARC provides emergency communication and case management services to support the health, welfare, and morale of the armed forces and their families. ARC provides forward-deployed units a direct link to their families during family emergencies. The mission of family support programs is to foster total Army family readiness. Mission accomplishment for forward-deployed units depends on soldiers' confidence that their families are safe and capable of carrying on during their absence. AAFES, through its exchange system, provides basic health, hygiene, and personal care items to soldiers and deployed civilians.

10-36. The MWR system becomes an immediate outlet for soldiers to combat stress, which is critical to sustaining the readiness of the force, as the speed and intensity of operations escalate. The MWR system relies on Force Provider packages, DA civilians, and contract recreation specialists. It capitalizes on using cellular, e-mail, and video-teleconference (VTC) technologies to provide links between soldiers and their families. Soldiers are entertained through the latest in visual and audio entertainment over satellite, worldwide web, and virtual reality technologies.

10-37. The human dimension of the soldier will remain as critical as it is today. The human resource element of sustainment to the fighting force contributes to both National will and the will of the soldier to fight.


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