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CHAPTER 4

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT


Section I. GENERAL

4-1. Purpose

This chapter contains information relative to combat service support in northern combat operations. Procedures for support of task forces in cross-country operations are emphasized.

4-2. Factors Affecting Northern Logistic Operations

Logistic support in northern areas is critically affected by--

a. The long and difficult terrain distances over which support must be rendered.

b. The lack of ground communications systems, even in the approaches to population centers

c. The general lack of civil and industrial facilities that can be adapted for military purposes.

d. Environmental factors, including winter cold, permafrost phenomena, low bearing capacity soils in summer, vegetation cover, and terrain barriers.

4-3. Logistic Mobility

a. Tactical mobility is limited by logistic mobility. Logistic mobility requires rapid, convenient, and economic supply storage and handling methods; responsive resupply systems; effective maintenance and service support systems; and effective ground and air transport, all integrated into competent support organizations.

b. Logistical organizations are limited in mobility and organic transportation, particularly air transport. Dedicated air transport will be essential for the conduct of urgent logistical missions and functions in northern operations. In the absence of air transport organic to the logistical units, the tactical unit (customer) must provide transportation on a case by case basis, which may detract from the tactical unit's mission. Priority air transportation provided by the Air Force may be responsive in terms of days on highest priorities when response in terms of hours is required.

Section II. PLANNING

4-4. General

Success in combat operations in undeveloped northern areas is dependent on adequate support plans. Every command decision must include full consideration to resources and their accessibility.

a. A task force commander is directly responsible for administrative as well as tactical control of certain logistic elements which in conventional situations operate under higher echelon control. The integration of these elements into his force increases command and control requirements. Normally it is desirable for the commander to delegate control of all support operations within the task force to a senior subordinate.

b. A force should not move out in northern operations until adequate support plans have been developed. With realistic support plans, the commander can fight in response to the tactical situation as it may develop. If the support, as planned, breaks down in the course of the operation the tactical operation may not succeed.

c. Development of an adequate support plan requires the commander's close personal attention, as well as the participation of the operations and logistics staffs. In a cross-country movement, the operations officer and the logistics officer must formulate concepts and prepare detailed plans jointly and concurrently. The operations officer must understand and accept the limitations of logistic capabilities.

d. Troops committed to northern operations on short notice will frequently be faced with the problem of familiarizing themselves with special items of equipment. Training in the methods of exploiting such specialized equipment to secure the maximum combat capability from its use is essential.

4-5. Requirements Planning

a. Requirements planning begins with the first stage of operational planning; the lead time required to obtain and issue special equipment establishes a minimum time within which an operation can be mounted. Nonmilitary local supply sources can be exploited, in some easels, to acquire certain specialized items and thereby reduce requirements lead time.

b. Special equipment is required to afford the combat force adquate mobility and environmental protection. General equipment requirements for northern operations are stated in common tables of allowances (CTA). In addition to CTA authorizations, all equipment requirements must be determined for each operation according to the terrain, weather, nature of the operations, and planned duration of the operation. In most northern areas, consideration must be given particularly to requirements for cross-country transport for all elements of the combat force and direct support activities.

c. Equipment requirements vary seasonally. Therefore, requirements planning is a continuing activity for planning staffs. Long advance projection of requirements is necessary to insure ordering and delivery of special equipment, since northern areas are usually poorly served by strategic water transport and large volume deliveries depend upon seasonal shipping.

d. The logistics staff should prepare and keep current a control record of all equipment and support resources under its control and responsive to its requirements. This is particularly necessary when a force is new to northern operations, for, in the absence of such a formal record, important capabilities may be overlooked.

e. Special items of supplies and personal equipment will be limited to those required by the terrain and environmental conditions.

f. A variety of special organizational equipment will be necessary. Certain of these items, depending on the area of operations and weather conditions to be encountered, will be indispensable.

(1) During summer, mosquito netting or screens and aerosol-type insecticides will be necessary to provide mosquito and fly-proof enclosures for sleeping, eating, and administrative duties. Boats, outboard motors, and low ground pressure floatable vehicles for negotiating rivers, lakes, and marsh areas can be utilized to good advantage to provide transportation for personnel and critical supplies.

(2) In the winter season, the extreme cold weather makes it imperative that the organization have on hand a variety of special equipment.

(a) The special equipment required for small unit living during the winter season will depend on the depth and characteristics of the snow, extent of vegetation, and other terrain and climatic conditions. It can be expected that most of the following items will be needed; tents, tent stoves, 200 pound capacity sleds (ahkios), machetes, saws, axes, shovels, repair parts, and bindings.

(b) At company, battalion, and bridge level, there is a need for additional items such as ski-wax, pine tar, or lacquer (for sealing ski running surfaces), pickmattocks, shovels, tent stoves with repair parts, ice augers, iron wire for lashing, nails, insulated food containers, power saws, ice saws, extra skis, ski poles, and climbers, extra gloves and mittens, tent repair kits, casualty evacuation bags, sleeping bags, rope, spare snowshoes, auxiliary cold-starting aids (slave kits), air duct heaters, battery chargers, antifreeze compounds, special cold weather hydraulic fluids, cold weather lubricants, cold weather batteries, cargo sleds, and low ground pressure vehicles. Special equipment required for operations in mountainous areas is described in FM 31-72.

(c) The extra equipment required for heat and shelter including the clothing each man wears, must be kept within limits, but the soldier must never be separated from his existence load. Special means should be provided for transporting the group equipment, to allow each man maximum freedom of action during combat and on the march. This might take the form of tracked cargo carriers or tractors drawing sleds. This transport must operate closely enough to the forward elements to deliver tents, stoves, fuel, and food each night or whenever a long halt is made.

(d) In general, it can be expected that increased stocks of repair parts and cold weather lubricants will be needed for all equipment exposed to extreme cold, with the greatest increase occurring with those parts dependent on lubrication for long life. Extreme cold weather reduces the efficiency of lubricants, puts a heavy drain on batteries, results in many materials becoming brittle, and restricts the amount of maintenance that can be accomplished in the open.

(e) For operations in extreme cold, maintenance and other combat service support activities require heated shelters, and the continued efficiency of all personnel depends on being able to get into a warm shelter frequently. Accordingly, some type of heated shelter must be planned for all echelons. Mobility will be restricted by the necessity of transporting shelters, stoves, and fuel; however, the proper types and amount of such equipment will sufficiently increase the efficiency of the command to justify its transportation.

(f) Maintenance operations during cold weather requires that increased time be allowed for operator and organizational maintenance. Experience indicates that a multiple of five times the normal time is required.

4-6. Mobility Planning

a. For relatively small forces, construction of an MSR is uneconomical and, by tending to tie support elements to a fixed route, increases vulnerability to enemy behind-the-lines activity. Accordingly, where cross-country transport is available in sufficient quantity, the support plan provides for cross-country movement of the entire force, with exploitation of air resupply to augment the ground cross-country line of communication. Wheeled transport represents a valuable and familiar resource with which the average force is reluctant to dispense. However, since employment of wheeled vehicles in a cross-country movement normally requires roadbuilding, the diversion of effort to road building ordinarily offsets the gain from the use of wheeled transport.

b. Cross-country transport vehicles and aircraft are employed to transport supplies and essential maintenance services to give the task force the maximum possible self-sustaining capability in the cross-country operation. Nonessential items are left behind and all elements of the force are stripped of equipment that reduces mobility.

c. Plans provide generally for use of the most efficient and economical support capabilities before premium methods are used.

d. Army aviation is employed to supplement ground transport and is used freely when such use results in net economy in effort. For example, the use of helicopters to deliver daily ration issue to forward rifle companies frequently effects a major saving in effort for the battalion. The use of helicopters to return empty fuel containers for refilling materially reduces turnaround time and increases the availability of the fuel.

e. Natural waterways may be used during summer seasons for logistic movements.

(1) Powered boats with shallow draft are employed for both troop transport and supply movements in upstream areas. Near the mouths of large rivers, conventional ship-to-shore lighterage may be used effectively for support of task forces. Long distance bulk river transportation equipment of conventional commercial design may be employed effectively.

(2) Most northern rivers are not improved. Use of natural waterways for logistic support movements requires relatively extensive effort for the location of channels and installation of navigation aids. Successful stream navigation requires a detailed knowledge of local conditions by the lead pilot.

(3) When a river line of communication is established, cross-country supply handling and ground transport equipment must be provided, to move supplies from the river bank to the supported force. Effective movement control procedures must be established to insure coordination between waterborne and ground transport equipment. To avoid development of position-betraying logistic complexes at riverside, installations are located some distance from the river bank and unloading points for river transport equipment are moved frequently.

f. During the winter, frozen river surfaces are not always dependable routes of movement. Surface ice thickness varies according to local conditions, including river depth and velocity, the existence of hot springs, range and previous duration of low temperatures, and other factors. In addition, ice movement makes the surface extremely rough and broken in many places. With careful reconnaissance, frozen river surfaces may be used for local vehicle movements and for river crossings. However, during the cold season, it is generally preferable to establish ground routes following the most favorable terrain in river valleys.

g. Successful distribution in northern operations depends upon effective and comprehensive coordination of transport means and supply planning. It is essential that logistic and operational planners be informed at all times of the location and load of all supply transport, of supplies available and planned for lift, and of projected operational support needs. The general support activity maintains a central record of all air and ground transport committed between general support supply points and the supported force. Within the task force, all transport, regardless of organizational assignment, is centrally coordinated.

h. Logistical mobility can be improved effectively under special conditions by propositioning supplies by air or inland waterways to be picked up by ground elements arriving overland. Airdrop and air landing techniques can be used as appropriate.

4-7. Rear Area Security Planning (See FM 31-85)

a. The independent task force is responsible for its own rear area. The independent force in cross-country operations does not have a continuous rear zone through which support can move under friendly control and protection. Elements left behind the main body are vulnerable to the guerrilla forces which are characteristic of undeveloped area operations. As the independent force moves, it moves with all associated activities, including the direct support element, keeping the support tail well tucked in at all times. The task force tactical plan provides for all-around protection of the task force perimeter.

b. Specific provisions are made for local defense of each logistic complex, including field trains and the direct support element. All personnel in rear areas are armed and integrated into the local defense plan. Defense plans include provisions for blocking airstrips and other cleared and open areas against helicopter and airborne landings. Support elements not prepared psychologically and by training to defend themselves are highly vulnerable to enemy attack. Support units prepared to defend themselves can withstand helicopter-borne and airborne attack effectively. Air mobile and/or air cavalry units can be used as rear area security reaction forces.

c. Logistical units normally are staffed for operation on a 12-hour day basis with each man being assigned to a logistical mission task as a primary duty. These personnel are capable of fighting as infantry when required. Experience has shown however, that when such units are required to man perimeter defenses on a continual basis during calm periods and/or for extended periods of high intensity harassment productive mission output of the unit is severely reduced or halted. Manpower requirements for defense such as l-man during daylight hours and 3-men at night per perimeter defense position generally exceeds acceptable mission manpower losses. During periods of high intensity conflict involving logistical units, all mission accomplishment is halted. The use of combat troops in perimeter defense may be more economical than utilization of logistical troops. Primary defenses of a logistical area should be manned by combat troops with secondary backup by logistical units.

d. When high intensity conditions are anticipated in a task force rear area, logistical units may become a liability rather than an asset to the separate task force. Under such conditions, logistical functions are better accomplished by direct user resupply from secure rear areas.

4-8. Low Visibility Operations

Logistic forces must be trained to perform mission tasks at night, in fog, snowstorms, and similar conditions.

Section III. ORGANIZATION FOR LOGISTIC SUPPORT

4-9. General

a. Organization.

(1) When major units are employed, the normal logistic support organization is employed. Logistic operations in northern areas differ from temperate zone operations only in the techniques of adaptation to the environment.

(2) When brigade or smaller task forces are employed independently, general support is provided on an area basis and direct support is provided by an independent support battalion or mobile direct support elements tailored to fit the size of the force.

b. Direct Support. For the purposes of northern operations, direct support is that support, over and above organic capabilities of a combat unit, which must be rendered in the immediate vicinity of the unit, to provide extended combat endurance in independent operations.

c. General Support. For the purposes of northern operations, general support includes all support other than direct support.

4-10. The Northern Theater

a. In a northern theater, under combat conditions, the same requirement for force economy that limits combat force strength limits administrative resources. Organic combat service support forces usually are not sufficient to provide conventional support organization. The effort to follow conventional patterns or fixed depot complex and line of communication structures would lead in a small theater, to a serious disproportion between combat and support strengths. A small theater can be described as small in area, units, operations, or a combination of all three. To avoid such disproportion, economy in organization is promoted by functionalization. The most economical and responsive transport means are employed to reduce the requirement for storage at multiple locations. Maintenance is performed in place so far as is practicable and cannibalization and washout procedures are exploited to reduce uneconomical long distance evacuation of equipment for maintenance.

b. The theater is organized with the fewest possible echelons of control. In the simplest configuration, which is typical for a small theater, a distinct communications zone is not organized. The combat service support organization consists of the mobile direct support elements supporting task forces and a general support organization which provides--

(1) Combat service support to task forces and other units located within their areas of responsibility.

(2) General transportation services including transportation movements management, and when available, line-haul motor, rail, and inland waterway transport, cross-country bulk carriers, logistic air transport, including Army air transport, mode transfer points, and surface and air terminals.

(3) A combat service support headquarters directly under the theater Army commander.

c. The theater support organization includes functionalized supply, maintenance, and service headquarters:

(1) The theater support headquarters--

(a) Exercises tactical and technical control over assigned and attached combat service and combat units.

(b) Provides the theater Army logistic organization which, in addition to other functions, plans for and participates in joint and combined logistic operations at the joint and combined command levels.

(c) Maintains central theater logistic records by mobile ADPS systems and maintains logistic communications with CONUS or supporting major oversea command by electronic data links.

(d) Performs civil affairs functions within the theater Army area, except those functions performed by tactical unit commanders within their areas of combat operations.

(2) The theater support organization establishes supply handling areas in the vicinity of ports and establishes the minimum necessary number of area general support complexes, each complex consisting of supply storage and issue, maintenance, medical, and other essential services. Storage is planned so that the loss of any one area to nuclear attack will not result in loss of total stocks of any critical commodity.

(3) Storage and transportation of Class V, except special ammunition, are integrated into the established general supply system. Responsive transport is exploited to assure effective supply support without the conventional echeloned supply system.

(4) The theater support organization establishes and provides general transportation services for movement of supplies and personnel and for medical evacuation.

(5) Since the combat and support forces are widely separated within the theater, the theater Army controls only those areas which are actually occupied by friendly forces. Intervening spaces are uncontrolled and must be regarded as accessible to enemy elements. The combat service support organization is responsible for security of its own elements, including line of communication elements, moving through uncontrolled ground space and in addition may be assigned responsibility for stability operations. To assist combat service support elements in providing local and area security, separate combat or MP battalions may be assigned to the theater support organizations.

(6) Due consideration for protection of logistic elements from enemy air attack must be reflected in air defense planning. Local air defense capabilities are included in handling areas in the vicinity of ports and establishes the organizations.

d. The small northern theater normally involves air and naval elements as well as ground components. The ground force combat service support headquarters participates in joint planning and support of joint operations and usually is responsible for provision of certain common service and cross-service support to the other components.

e. The requirements for performance of the full range of theater combat service support functions and joint staff and support functions with a small staff and limited resources place on the combat service support headquarters unusually severe demands for ingenuity, effectiveness, and economy of effort. Combat service support of the small separate theater is one of the most difficult of Army support problems.

4-11. Direct Support

a. Direct support to the brigade normally is provided by division support command elements in the brigade trains area. These elements are selected supply, medical, and maintenance elements of the division support command charged with providing logistical support to the brigades and to other divisional units. These units are provided for support to each committed brigade and for area support and division units operating in the brigade area.

b. The division support command elements in the brigade trains area normally consists of the following:

(1) A forward support company of the maintenance battalion with teams from the aircraft maintenance company.

(2) A medical company from the division medical battalion. This company normally establishes and operates a clearing station and also provides medical evacuation from the combat battalion aid stations and provides for the medical supply requirements of the brigade.

(3) A forward supply section of the supply and service company. This section operates one distribution point for Class III supplies and one for Class I, II, IV and VII.

c. The division support command elements normally operate under the control of the support command commander. However, when the brigade is organized for independent or semi-independent operations the direct support elements normally are attached to the brigade.

d. For additional information on the organization and operation of the division support command, see FM 54-2.

e. Direct support to separate independent bridges normally is provided by an attached or assigned support battalion. This battalion contains the direct support elements necessary to support the brigade in independent operations, and closely parallels the elements provided by the division support command to divisional brigades.

4-12. General Support

a. General support functions in support of brigade forces are performed by general support units in the Army service area.

b. General support activities in support of cross-country operations are established at points accessible to line haul transportation. Line haul transportation may be provided by rail, highway, inland waterways, airlift, and cross-country trains.

c. General support activities are organized under general support organizations. These organizations include supply, maintenance, and service elements to include medical evacuation and hospitalization capabilities; hold sufficient stockages to support the projected operations, with due consideration to local replenishment cycles, time and distance factors, and seasonal resupply considerations; have the capability to operate lines of communication to direct support elements cross country by land and Army air.

4-13. Selection and Layout of Support Organization Sites

a. The site selected for location of the support organization should be one that facilitates logistical support by road, air, water, and rail, where available. If not available, cross-country means of transportation should be used. The site should also be conveniently near the units which will be supported. Cities and villages in the northern region may be so located or afford such housing facilities as to warrant their selection. Consideration should be given to the use of such existing structures to decrease tonnage and construction time. The following additional factors are considered in the location of a support organization:

(1) Proximity to a stream or lake. Some streams and deep lakes remain open even in extremely low temperatures and, when frozen, their ice yields more water than snow per unit volume. Avoid locating sites on flat ground in the immediate vicinity of northern streams as their courses frequently change and seasonal floods are common.

(2) Proximity to local source of fuel for heating purposes.

(3) Downwind side of hills and part way up the slope. Cold air flows to the bottom of valleys in calm weather. The area selected must be free of danger from avalanches.

(4) Terrain which lends itself to defense.

(5) Good soil conditions (rock, sand, or gravel) to minimize unfavorable effects of permafrost.

(6) Timbered areas. Timber affords concealment and wind break and may be used as a source of fuel, material for construction, and bedding.

(7) Proximity to fixed communications facilities for entrance to long distance communications service.

(8) Area of sufficient size to allow proper dispersion.

(9) Proximity to terrain suitable for establishment of an all season airstrip.

b. The loop system is used for the layout of the site to provide turn arounds and prevent congestion along the MSR. An advance party equipped with a bulldozer is essential to prepare an area for displacement of support elements, especially during the winter months. When preparing the area, consideration should be given to the location of installations. The most active installations should be located near the entrance of the site to reduce the amount of through traffic.

c. All semipermanent installations must have the essentials for survival--sleeping bags, emergency rations, fuel, medical supplies, and communication dispersed in two or more locations so that a single catastrophic fire or explosion will not destroy all available resources.

d. The installation of a headquarters can present more than normal problems. Limited or non-existing roadnets, lack of built up areas, and the extreme difficulty in concealing major installations far removed from civilized areas are major factors. A more detailed reconnaissance is necessary and engineer support is required to enable physical occupation. A good deception plan, well executed, offers a greater measure of security than attempts to completely camouflage a major installation in undeveloped areas. The effects of terrain and limited roadnets, combined with the requirement for passive security measures may dictate a greater dispersal of activities within the installation.

Section IV. MATERIEL AND SERVICES

4-14. Levels

a. At general support activities, supporting independent task forces on an area basis, stocks are maintained at levels sufficient to assure continued support in the event of interruption of line haul transportation. Generally 7 to 10 days stocks are maintained at general support organizations. These need not be kept at one place but should be dispersed in consonance with security and projected deployment of supported forces.

b. Direct support element stockage includes from one to two days supply of Class I for the supported force, in addition to the basic load for direct support elements; not less than one day of Class III; and one or more days of Class V for the supported force.

(1) Up to approximately 3 days of supply of selected fast-moving Class II items are held by the direct support element.

(2) Class IX repair parts are held by maintenance elements on the basis of the authorized stockage list (ASL) and the prescribed load list (PLL), with due consideration for the nature of the operations supported, weather conditions, the degree of mobility of supported and supporting elements, and order and shipping time from general support elements. Minimum stocks of major assemblies are held by direct support maintenance elements. To avoid increasing the maintenance unit load so far as to reduce mobility, primary reliance for supply of major assemblies is placed on rapid release and movement of these items from the general support organization.

(3) In general, for communications-electronics materiel, organizational, direct support, and general support levels when operating with or in support of independent task forces in locations remote from line haul must rely on larger stocks of minor components, subassemblies, and maintenance float of smaller end items. The black box exchange approach and replacement by resupply should be used as far as possible in the forward areas. Stocks of repair parts and attempts at detailed repair in forward areas should be minimized. Unserviceable components, subassemblies, and maintenance floats should be exchanged directly at general support in secure rear areas. In most instances all of these transactions must be accomplished by direct air transport from general support to direct support or user. Major items such as surveillance and counter mortar radars and other sophisticated C-E items must be available in rear areas for immediate onsite replacement in the forward area. Due to the urgency of requirements and the sensitivity of C-E items to damage during overland transportation, dedicated helicopter transportation on a full time basis is essential to the logistical organization.

(4) In establishing the Class III day of supply, consideration is given to the greatly increased POL consumption in northern winter operations which results from the requirement for space heating, warmup of equipment, topping-off fuel tanks prior to an operation, and the greater distance traveled by all elements in dispersed operations.

(5) Maintenance float items of major equipment are held at the direct support element.

(6) Class IV construction materials and bridging are held at the direct support element only if there is the prospect of an early requirement. Such materials are brought forward from the general support organization when the need for them is apparent. Care is exercised to avoid bringing up construction materials without firm plans for employment and thereby wasting transport and exposing valuable assets to loss.

4-15. Storage

a. During summer seasons, well-drained ground is selected for storage sites.

b. Winter storage.

(1) All supplies stored in the open should be stacked on pallets or dunnage to prevent freezing to the ground. Stacks should be located to minimize the effects of drifting snow. Supplies stored in open areas which may be subjected to drifting snow must be marked with poles and small flags, since a single storm may bury all visible marks in the snow. Any extensive dumps should be accurately surveyed from nonobliterable landmarks, so that snowplows or blades removing snow do not run over and damage materials buried by the snow. Waste and salvage dumps must likewise be well identified by marking, survey, and recording.

(2) CONEX containers may be used for rations requiring protection from weather but not requiring heated storage.

(3) Nonperishable rations may be stored without heat during the winter but at interseasonable periods may be damaged by repeated freezing and thawing.

(4) Liquids not subject to damage by freezing are packaged in metal containers.

(5) Medical supplies, special fuzes, batteries, and other items subject to damage by freezing are stocked in heated shelter, for this purpose tentage warmed by high BTU blower-type heaters may be employed.

(6) Gasoline and diesel fuel may be stored in flexible containers at low temperatures, although the containers cannot be moved easily and are subject to damage from handling at temperatures below -30oF. At extremely low temperatures flexible containers and hoses become brittle and break easily. If the container or hose breaks allowing spillage on an individual, instant frostbite could result.

c. Mobile direct support stocks, including Class V, are held on mobile storage vehicles. Stocks, including spare parts, may be transported in CONEX containers, which afford good environmental protection. Class I and Class V stocks are utilized on pallets and the mobile direct support element is provided with tough terrain forklifts to facilitate handling of utilized and containerized supplies. Mobile direct support Class III stocks are held in flexible tankage so far as is possible. POL also may be stored and distributed in 600-gallon skid-mounted tanks equipped with powered or hand pumps. Drums are used only when more efficient methods are not available. Resupply movements of heavy tonnage commodities are managed between the general support and direct support activities so as to take maximum advantage of intransit loads for backup stocks instead of tying up transport and supplies in static on-vehicle loads at the direct support element.

4-16. Distribution

a. When the battle area consists of several areas controlled by independent combat elements, operating with little or no mutual support, the zones between these controlled areas are uncontrolled and must be regarded as equally accessible to friendly and enemy elements. Accordingly, the normal echeloning of supply points is infeasible for support of independent task forces in northern operations. Stocks must be held at a general support supply point or in mobile storage by the general support organization.

b. Unit distribution is the preferred method for all deliveries from general support to direct support elements and, so far as is practicable from direct support elements to trains of supported battalions. Air delivery direct from general support organization to using unit, bypassing direct support elements and battalion trains, is often practicable and in such cases is economical of time and effort.

c. The distribution system utilizes all available means of transport for essential movements. Loads are consolidated for forward movement. Loaded vehicles are routed through to the farthest forward breakdown point. As far as impractical, loaded vehicles and containers are exchanged for empties at the point of use and empties are moved to the rear by the earliest available transport. Prompt return of empty containers, with particular emphasis on POL containers, is essential to prevent interruption of the distribution operation; a continuing forward flow of containers, without effective return of empties, will soon exhaust resupply capabilities. When part of the MSR utilizes roads on which wheeled vehicles are employed, rendezvous points are established for transfer of loads from wheeled to tracked transport. To reduce labor at the transfer point and throughout the distribution system, supplies are palletized or containerized and held in unitized packages as far forward as possible. Cross-country materials handling equipment (MHE) capable of handling utilized loads is provided to the task force. Emergency resupply deliveries to the task force and medical evacuation from direct support element clearing stations is accomplished by Army aircraft controlled by the general support organization. All transport capabilities are centrally coordinated within the general support organization and the independent task force.

4-17. General Maintenance

a. Maintenance in northern areas consumes a high proportion of the total attention of any force. Factors tending to increase maintenance requirements include the long distances over which operations are conducted; the heavy strain of cross-country movement on all equipment; the lack of railroads which throws a major part of the line of communication task on vehicular transport; the need for increased quantities and additional types of equipment to provide environmental protection and cross-country mobility; and the general effect of environmental factors in making all activities slower and more difficult.

b. (1) The difficulty in carrying out physical activities in cold weather demands continuing emphasis on the performance of organizational maintenance. Failure to accomplish organizational maintenance throws an additional burden on field maintenance capabilities, which jeopardizes accomplishment of the field maintenance mission and with it the mission of the supported force. It is impossible to provide enough field maintenance support to make up for uncorrected and cumulative deficiencies in the organization maintenance area.

(2) To insure proper performance of organizational maintenance, competent training and constant command supervision are essential. Training literature is adequate but must be used.

(3) Vigorous supervision of organizational maintenance is the most effective means available to the combat commander to insure sustained operational effectiveness of his unit.

(4) The operator is the first line of defense against deteriorating equipment. Operators can assist the maintenance program by detecting and reporting the majority of equipment failures. By utilizing the operators manual and performing the required checks and services, the equipment will be maintained in the best possible condition.

c. Maintenance emphasizes onsite repair by maintenance contact teams. Maintenance contact teams must be equipped with light cross-country vehicles and portable heaters. Controlled cannibalization may be authorized to reduce the number of items evacuated from the task force and to keep the maximum possible number of items operational. Generally it is infeasible to carry much maintenance float equipment at the direct support level, although a small number of communications items may be an exception to the rule. Primary emphasis is placed on keeping authorized equipment operational, and using maintenance float items only in case of complete loss of an operational item.

d. Direct support maintenance relies upon the effective utilization of skilled maintenance personnel and the timely supply of critical repair parts.

e. Aviation maintenance is performed at each echelon. The general support organization provides contact teams for spot repairs in forward areas as necessary.

f. TM 9-207 lists detailed information on lubrication, operation, and maintenance techniques.

g. Adequately heated buildings or shelters must be provided for cold weather maintenance. Proper and satisfactory servicing is difficult unless personnel are working in temperatures that are reasonably comfortable. Maintenance of many components requires careful and precise servicing. The hands of the mechanic cannot be encumbered with bulky gloves when he is working. Unless sufficient heat is provided, maintenance will suffer. Heat is furnished by various means, chiefly the portable duct heaters. Without the use of heaters and external heating equipment, the increase in maintenance man-hours will be from 25 percent to 200 percent above normal requirements.

h. When buildings are not available a large tent is a temporary expedient. Wooden flooring should be laid inside the tents, and, if possible, in all maintenance shelters where men are working. A portable canvas shelter that can be used for a windbreak or protection from snow will facilitate maintenance under adverse conditions. The shelter should be heated by an oil or gasoline stove and illuminated by an extension cord or "trouble-light." Even if the shelter cannot be put over the equipment being worked on, it can provide a warmup place for maintenance personnel. Tarpaulins of various sizes can be utilized as a windbreak. Tarpaulins can be supported on a framework of poles erected around a vehicle and used as a backup for heat provided by a space heater.

4-18. Vehicle Operation and Maintenance

a. General. The use, maintenance, and repair of equipment in winter operations in the north establish the need for skill and forceful leadership. The commander who can maintain mobility in extremely low temperatures will often have a decisive advantage. Part of this mobility is gained by the use of low ground pressure vehicles for the movement of combat troops and accompanying supplies. This will generate a requirement for sufficient logistical backup to support operations over a dispersed area.

b. Vehicle Operations.

(1) In extremely low temperatures, vehicles must be operated periodically to prevent cold soaking of engines and power trains. This requirement makes surprise and concealment extremely difficult.

(2) In offensive operations, direct support units will be located in rear areas and will be engaged primarily in rehabilitation of damaged equipment. Normally, recovery and on site repair by forward contact teams will be exploited to the maximum extent. Recovery capability of direct support units must be increased due to the effects of heavy snow, extensive muskeg areas, unpredictable weather, and a limited road net.

(3) In defensive operations, ordnance support is forward with supported units on maintenance assistance and resupply missions.

(4) Technical intelligence of enemy ordnance takes on added importance in northern winter operations for comparing movement capability of opposing forces.

c. Vehicle Maintenance.

(1) The installation, maintenance, and repair of engine preheater and personnel heaters installed on vehicles for cold weather operations, as well as the changeover to arctic lubricants, requires many man-hours. Low temperatures, with resulting lowering of the lubricants, efficiency and increased brittleness of some materials, add greatly to repair requirements throughout the winter.

(2) Every element of equipment used in northern winter operations is affected by the cold and must be maintained in the best possible mechanical condition. All equipment must be completely winterized in accordance with the equipment lubrication order (LO) and TM 9-207. Adequate maintenance shelters are necessary and a larger number of experienced maintenance personnel must be available than are normally provided by staffing guide. Efficiency of the individual and equipment varies directly with the temperature. It may become extremely difficult, due to lack of facilities, for units to perform organizational maintenance when egaged in combat operations. Under these conditions, the maintenance officer must recommend to the commander ways and means of solving the preventive maintenance problems.

(3) Some of the maintenance problems can be solved by--

(a) Advising using units on the use of proper lubricants for each piece of equipment. It is important to instruct units to lubricate vehicles immediately after operations. At that time, working parts are warm and maximum penetration of lubricants will result.

(b) So far as is possible, keeping optical instruments from sudden and extreme changes in temperatures.

(c) Keeping chains, shovels, and saws with all vehicles.

(d) Keeping batteries warm and fully charged.

(e) Adding ½-pint of denatured alcohol to each 10-gallons off fuel at time of filling.

(f) Keeping stored lubricants warm.

(g) Machine surfaces corrode rapidly in cold weather, therefore they must be kept clean at all times.

(h) Keeping condensation down. Fuel tanks, fuel lines, crankcases, and even engines are subject to icing up.

(i) Training personnel to recognize the differences between temperate and cold weather operation. Operators should learn that:

1. Linkages are stiff and should not be forced.

2. Windshields crack easily when subjected to sudden blasts of warm air or water.

3. Vital spots or portions of equipment affected by cold should be kept undercover.

4. Operators should be completely familiar with the cold weather portion of their operators technical manual.

5. Lubrication should be applied according to the temperature range of the equipment lubrication order.

(4) Using units must perform required maintenance if the capability of supporting ordnance is not to be exceeded. In extreme cold, the consideration of performing on site field maintenance on disabled equipment is balanced against available shelter or the possibility of erecting shelter at the site.

(5) Condensation of moisture inside of fuel tanks can be minimized by refilling fuel tanks immediately after stopping for the night.

(6) To prevent brakes from freezing, the wheels should be chocked instead of setting the hand brake.

(7) Check daily for water or antifreeze solution in crankcase oil. If fuel or water contamination is found, change the oil; if antifreeze contamination is found, do not operate the vehicle until cause is determined.

(8) Park on timber, brush, or any material that will keep tires off the ice, puddles, or snow, otherwise the tires may freeze to the surface. Always keep tire stems capped.

(9) Never operate equipment in a closed area because of the possibility of carbon monoxide buildup.

4-19. Service

a. Differences in service techniques required by northern latitudes include the following:

(1) Precautions are required to keep snow out of gasoline and fuel oil during decanting and other handling operations.

(2) Recovery of damaged or abandoned items of equipment must be accomplished immediately to prevent covering by snow or becoming inaccessible in muskeg areas after the spring thaw.

b. Materiel handling equipment must be operated with the same cold weather precautions as are other gasoline powered items of equipment. Bath and laundry units should be established immediately adjacent to rivers or lakes to reduce the problem of the water freezing between the source of supply and the water heater and to facilitate disposal of the waste water. Since these facilities are not always within reasonable distances of major units, their equipment authorization should provide them with organic capability for displacement, organization of area, and resupply.

c. Recovery and evacuation of remains must be accomplished expeditiously to prevent them from being lost by snow cover.

4-20. Supply

a. Clothing and Equipment. Requirements exist for many different items of clothing in northern areas. These include waterproof and water-and-wind repellent outer garments, insulated footwear, and hand, body, and headgear designed on the layer principle for protection during extremes in temperatures. CTA 60-915 will serve as a guide in determining the types and amounts of clothing best suited for particular areas and seasons. Five-man and 10-man tents, Yukon stoves, and arctic sleeping bags are provided for use by troops in the field. The stoves are designed to burn petroleum products, wood, or coal. Air duct heaters--250,000 BTU or 400,000 BTU are provided to heat large areas such as maintenance shelters or field hospital facilities. These heaters are either gasoline or electrically operated; both types are standard.

b. Subsistence.

(1) Subfreezing temperatures will involve changes in the amounts, types, storage, preparation, and distribution of foods. Rations must be of a type not susceptible to damage by freezing, or else heated transportation and storage space must be provided.

(2) Given free choice of unlimited amount of foods of all types, the normal individual operating in extreme cold continues to consume proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in approximately the same ratio as in temperate climates. Fats and carbohydrates are quick energy-producing foods. An ounce of beef fat contains more calories than the same weight in sugar, but a greatly increased intake of fat cannot be tolerated by the normal individual unless accompanied by a corresponding increase in lean meat. Operations on a sustained basis in a mountainous terrain will require greater amounts of food due to the increased physical demands being made on the body (AR 40-25).

(3) Outdoor activity in extreme cold results in body dehydration. Abnormal amounts of thirst-provoking foods should be avoided, both for comfort and logistical reasons. Hot drinks serve not only to quench thirst and correct fluid deficiency but also to transfer heat physically to the body.

(4) Individuals should avoid eating frozen food because of the fact that more energy is used up by trying to digest frozen food than heated food.

c. POL Supplies.

(1) The increased amount of cross-country movement and extensive use of tracked vehicles with high fuel consumption characteristics must be considered when planning POL requirements for northern operations (FM 101-10-1). The normal type of military issue gasoline used in the temperate zones is not satisfactory for use in extreme cold. MIL-G-3056 Type II, Combat Gasoline, should be used. Diesel engines should use DF-1 or DF-A of Spec. VVF- 800-A. Alcohol for addition to fuel used in motors is absolutely required. Wherever possible, vehicle fuel tanks should be kept filled to decrease condensation. When gasoline is used for space heating, the requirements will increase as temperatures go down.

(2) The use of standby engine heaters, vehicle cab heaters, and the added percentage of time vehicles are operated in the lower gear ratios when operating cross country in wet ground or deep snow add to the consumption rate of gasoline. Fuel oil used for space heating must be of the lightest grade obtainable (Diesel Fuel, DF-1 or DF-A of Spec. WF-800a) to insure that it remains fluid at temperatures below -40oF.

(3) Special cold weather type oils and greases which remain fluid in extreme cold are required for northern winter operations. These special oils and greases range from extremely light oil for lubrication of instruments to wheel bearing grease. Instructions given in the lubrication order (LO) for each vehicle should be followed. TM 9-207 authorizes and prescribes products for use in wheeled and track-laying vehicles which operate in northern climates where temperatures are anticipated to be consistently below 0oF. Nomenclature and specification number are given for each product. TM 9-207 also prescribes general instructions that apply to the processing of wheeled and track-laying vehicles for northern winter operations.

(4) The necessity for a complete change of all lubricants in vehicles and the changing of lubricants, hydraulic, and recoil fluids in artillery and other equipment at the approach of cold weather will require unusual amounts of this type of supplies. The low viscosity of motor oils used during cold weather results in higher consumption rates because of oil escaping past piston rings and oil seals. Lubrication and oil changes must be made more frequently.

(5) Permanent, Arctic Grade (-90) antifreeze compound will be used as prescribed in TM 9-207.

Section V. MEDICAL SUPPORT

4-21. General

a. The operation of medical field units in northern operations is basically no different than operation in more temperate zones with the following exceptions:

(1) Medical units which are intended to be highly mobile should use the Tent, GP, Small, in preference to the larger and heavier general purpose tents.

(2) A means of providing heat in the tents by a nonexposed flame type heater is necessary in patient areas where oxygen or anesthetics are being administered, i. e., ducted, forced air heaters.

(3) The surgeon cannot depend on using existing school houses, office buildings, and similar structures to house hospitals in northern latitudes. Generally housing is inadequate or nonexistent.

(4) In the forward areas under winter conditions, plans for medical evacuation must provide means for keeping patients warm during the process of evacuation. Special evacuation bags and heating devices or heated tracked vehicles to be used as ambulances area necessity.

(5) Increased numbers of personnel to pull sleds for patient evacuation are required for forward elements when operating in deep snow and extreme cold.

(6) Medical supplies susceptible to damage from freezing must be stored in heated shelter. Under conditions of extreme cold, liquid, whole blood, or blood expanders can be administered only in heated shelters.

b. Medical officers and aidmen with good physical stamina are essential to successful medical operations. Extensive first aid and self aid training for all personnel in combat units is necessary.

4-22. Medical Units

a. Division level health services should be available in the brigade combat trains to provide backup medical support to the aid station. This element must be equipped with appropriate radios in order to communicate with air ambulances. Also, this element should be provided vehicles that have an equivalent mobility to the units supported. The medical element should be provided with an X-ray unit and film processing equipment to eliminate the necessity of evacuating all sprains as possible fractures.

b. The size of the task force and the type of combat operation will influence the bed requirements and the type hospital units best suited to support the force. The hospital should be housed in tents, frame type, sectional unless better housing is available. Tents, GP, Medium, with liner, may be used when necessary. Flooring is considered mandatory. Water trailers should be kept in heated areas or provided with heater units to prevent freezing.

4-23. Evacuation

a. Small units operating as independent task force elements in northern operations should establish a relatively short holding period for patients because the adverse environmental conditions make it exceedingly difficult to provide extensive definitive care over an extended period. The patient holding period at unit level may vary from 1 to 3 days, subject to change by the unit surgeon as the tactical situation dictates. Unit medical support must maintain mobility equal to units being supported.

b. The general nature of the northern area terrain makes surface evacuation of patients difficult in winter and virtually impossible in summer. The lack of adequate roadnets and the military necessity of moving supplies over the same route greatly restrict patient evacuation.

c. The most practical means of patient movement is by helicopter. The task force surgeon normally will be provided with adequate air ambulance support for evacuation within the task force area of operations. Air medical evacuation is the primary means of evacuation outside of the task force area. Aircraft, resupplying the task force can be used to carry patients on the return trip.

d. Evacuation of walking wounded becomes a problem in northern environments where there are no prominent terrain features for personnel to follow to the battalion aid station. Snowstorms, fog, and clouds further hamper the movement of wounded personnel by limiting the visibility to that area within a few feet of the individual. If, however, walking wounded must be evacuated by foot, groups of no less than two individuals should be sent to the battalion aid station.

4-24. Hospitalization

Method of determining bed requirements for the task force is basically as appears in FM 8-55. The dispersion allowance for hospitals operational in northern areas may be greater than for others located in more moderate climates. Several climatic conditions can delay rearward evacuation for extended periods, and thus increase patient holding time in the task force area. Only that definitive medical treatment capable of being performed within the established patient evacuation policy should be rendered. Such treatment normally is limited to that treatment supportive to the immediate emergency and to successful evacuation. The hospital unit should never sacrifice available beds by engaging in a program of definitive care that could as well be done farther to the rear.

Section VI. TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC CONTROL

4-25. General

Transportation units can operate in subzero temperatures in much the same manner as in more temperate zones. However, individuals will require additional training in cold weather operations and in the increased maintenance requirements in northern areas. Provisions should be made for additional troop strength and equipment requirements. When operations are conducted over frozen terrain, vehicles of the track-laying type are the best means for cross-country movement in northern areas. When operations are conducted during summer weather, use of inland waterways are sometimes the best means for cross-country movements.

4-26. Ports

The ability to discharge cargo at northern ports is reduced by the limited facilities that are available. Rail and highway networks tend to limit the amount of cargo handled through any port. Where multiple port facilities are operated, personnel and equipment require augmentation. Environmental conditions limit the number of efficient working hours performed by terminal service personnel.

4-27. Rail

If available, rail transportation gives the capability of moving large tonnages of cargo and large numbers of personnel over long distances. Use of rail transportation in northern regions is greatly hampered by a limited network, heavy snowfall, snow slides, and extreme temperature changes. Additional equipment and operating personnel are required due to the need for separate snow removal crews. Train weights may be limited due to lightweight rail and low capacity trestles and bridges. Maintenance and wear on rail equipment increases, requiring more shop repair personnel. Rail track crews must be supplemented and track-age more frequently inspected since slides, glaciation, roadbed disturbances, and rail deficiencies often render the right-of-way impassable. During periods of heavy snowfalls, rail movement may be augmented by tractor trains or cross-country tracked vehicles.

4-28. Highway

a. The absence of multiple railroads in the northern areas increases the utilization of highway networks and justifies a requirement for more transportation highway units. Consideration must be given to maintenance and recovery points, roadside rest stops, and messing facilities for driver personnel on long haul routes. Drivers should be thoroughly trained in accordance with pertinent TM and FM. Wheeled vehicles are generally restricted to road movement and have little use in cross-country operations. Mandatory characteristics of any vehicle to be used in support of small units and individuals in northern operations during all seasons are mobility over muskeg and tundra and through brush and light timber and the ability to break trail in deep snow.

b. The regulation and control of highway traffic in northern operations necessitates a well formulated and coordinated plan for implementing the maximum use of the highway network. Highway regulation is essential because of the factors of movement of oversized and overweight equipment, convoy clearances, short daylight hours, winding, icy, narrow roadways, longer turnaround times, safety conditions, snowslides, and avalanches.

4-29. Air Transportation

Logistical and tactical transportation support requirements utilizing Air Force and Army air equipment for air-landed or airdrop operations, in northern regions follows the same general procedures as employed elsewhere. These northern areas generally devoid of adequate road and rail networks necessitates increased employment of aircraft for troop movements and logistical support missions. Use of aircraft (rotary and fixed wing) for deployment of troops, resupply, and evacuation during northern operations under both winter and summer conditions provides a flexible mode of transportation. Priorities must be established and prior planning accomplished far in advance of the actual employment of aircraft, due to useful load limitations and meteorological effects on flying.

4-30. General Traffic Control

a. Conditions. Road nets are limited, existing roads frequently provide for only one way traffic, and road conditions are normally hazardous during winter months due to ice and snow cover. Visibility is seriously affected by snowfall, snow drifts, frequent ice fog, and long hours of darkness which extend the operation of vehicles under blackout conditions.

b. Traffic Control Operations.

(1) Extensive use of wheeled vehicles by military police on improvised roads and tracked vehicle trails is impractical. Military police operating in such areas require a tracked vehicle capability. When military police vehicles are operating on improved roads during periods of heavy snowfall, severe drifting or icing, they must be operated in the four-wheel position and be equipped with chains on the rear wheels.

(2) All hazardous road contours, such as curves and road junctions, should be marked with reflectorized delineator stakes positioned along the outside limits of the road shoulders. Delineator stakes are useful for ice bridges and to indicate edges of contour-bound mountainous roads.

(3) Rotary and fixed wing aircraft, if available, will provide essential mobility for control of traffic in expediting movement of units over the limited roads and trails. Rapid reconnaissance over routes in use can be achieved by use of aircraft. The frequency of route reconnaissance depends upon traffic density, weather, and type of vehicles on the road. The requirement for investigative and control personnel at serious accidents, incidents, and other emergencies demand minimum response time. This can be accomplished by rotary wing aircraft.

(4) Traffic control posts and check points requiring continuous operation in winter months will require the doubling of personnel. A "buddy" system must be established and shelter provided for traffic control personnel. These personnel should be equipped with reflectorized vests or jackets, or as a minimum, a reflectorized crossbelt and cufflets.

c. Enroute Survival Shelters. Main land routes and regularly traveled air routes should have survival shelters located at intervals which provide emergency sources of food, heat, and shelter from storms. Vehicle operators and pilots must also carry the essentials for survival in their vehicles and aircraft in case of mechanical breakdown away from shelter. Traffic control personnel must insure that improperly equipped vehicles do not depart base areas.

Section VII. PERSONNEL

4-31. General

Personnel functions and procedures are basically no different in northern operations.

4-32. Selection of Personnel

a. Physical and mental prerequisites are prime factors in selecting the individual for field operations.

b. In addition to the basic physical and mental prerequisites for the combat soldier, individuals should be free from the following physical defects or limitations:

(1) Circulatory diseases affecting the extremities.

(2) Skin grafts on the face.

(3) Inner ear difficulties.

(4) Previous history of severe cold injury.

Medical records should be screened and personnel affected by any of the above conditions should be rejected for assignment to northern latitudes. Individuals trained for, and to be assigned to, specific duties not involving frequent or prolonged exposure to the elements may be treated as exceptions to the above.

c. Personnel who have displayed a degree of mental instability or lack of adaptability which is insufficient to be considered as special cases elsewhere, frequently create much greater problems in northern areas. While limitations in this area are most difficult to delineate, the factors exist and cause sufficient problems to warrant consideration and possible rejection.

d. Personnel efficiency is greatly reduced by extreme cold. Protective clothing that must be worn further reduces their efficiency. It is impossible to handle extremely cold metal with bare hands. Gloves or mittens must be worn at all times, causing the loss of sense of touch and adding to the length of time to perform simple tasks. Thin nylon gloves to be worn underneath conventional gloves will enable maintenance personnel to have some sense of feel and should be made available thorugh normal supply channels. Personnel also have to be rotated frequently to avoid over-exposure to the cold.

4-33. Replacements

During winter months, environmental conditions demand that replacements be properly equipped and receive cold weather indoctrination upon arrival in an area of northern operations and prior to joining units in the field. It is highly desirable that specialized training of replacements be conducted in an area that closely parallels northern conditions. Replacements should be given a period in which to become acclimatized prior to utilization under combat conditions.

4-34. Morale

a. Extremes in temperature, light, darkness, and long periods of isolation are factors which have a marked effect on morale in northern operations. Aggressive leadership at all levels is essential to surmount the obstacles which impede the provision of basic necessities required to maintain good morale.

b. The health of each soldier and confidence in his ability to meet the rigors of northern operations is related directly to his physical condition. The effect of physical fitness on morale cannot be overemphasized.

4-35. Discipline

Well-disciplined troops, properly trained, with an understanding of the mission can operate effectively throughout the year. Increased and unceasing supervision of individuals throughout the chain of command is mandatory during the winter months. First indications of malingering must evoke immediate corrective action from commanders or supervisory personnel at all levels. Weather and terrain encountered in northern operations may prevent the personal contact desired by a commander. Subordinate commanders are relied upon and the value of well-disciplined soldiers becomes increasingly significant.

4-36. Prisoners of War

a. During winter months, a major problem in the evacuation of prisoners of war is their protection from extreme cold, particularly those captured without sufficient clothing and equipment for survival. Evacuation plans should be made accordingly.

b. In order to allow for timely interrogation of prisoners of war, there is a necessity for prompt evacuation, to include utilization of aircraft, in order that this source of intelligence information can be fully exploited. If air evacuation is utilized, security of prisoners of war must be extremely strict while in flight.

c. It can be anticipated that relatively large numbers of prisoners will be taken at onetime. In addition, many troops will surrender because of deteriorating morale caused by a combination of factors such as ration shortage, sustained exposure to cold, and other elements.

4-37. Refugees

a. Due to sparse population of most northern areas, it can be anticipated that relatively small numbers of refugees will be congregated in one given area. Operations around built-up areas, railheads, major road junctions, and certain coastal areas will result in larger numbers of refugees.

b. When large numbers of civilians are moving about within an area of tactical importance, they must be regulated and controlled to preclude their interfering with the conduct of military operations. To prevent this interference, plans must be made for prompt evacuation to include utilization of aircraft. During winter months, a major problem in the evacuation of refugees is their protection from the cold, particularly those refugees without sufficient clothing and equipment for survival. Plans should be made accordingly.

Section VIII. CHAPLAIN

4-38. General

a. The chaplain in northern operations can perform his duties in subzero temperatures in much the same manner as he can in any other climate; however, these duties will be affected by the extremes of the environment.

b. The wheeled vehicle normally assigned to the chaplain lacks the necessary cross-country mobility, therefore he must be provided alternate means of transportation, i.e., a tracked vehicle, helicopter, etc. The chaplain must further make every effort to keep the command informed of his movements. He must insure that travel routes times of departure, points of destination, and estimated times of arrival are filed. If possible, the chaplain should move from place to place in company with ether elements of the command. This policy precludes isolation and potential cold weather injury or tactical disaster in the event of vehicular failure or enemy ambush. Thus, close coordination with the organizational primary staff elements insures maximum effective use of organizational transportation resources.

c. Because of the possibility of frostbite, caution must be exercised when conducting services in the open during periods of extreme cold. Unprotected flesh should not be exposed for even a few minutes. Services should be scheduled, whenever possible, for small groups in heated shelters.

d. The chaplain will sometimes lack adequate space for counseling and may find communication difficult with other elements when supported units are operating during adverse weather and at extreme distances. Normally it is possible for the chaplain to relocated near the unit medical facility. In this way, he is readily available when needed for medical contingencies and for counseling sessions. Frequently, the two functions are mutually supporting.

4-39. Religious Services

a. During periods of extreme cold and because of the lack of heated shelter, chaplains may not be able to conduct certain types of services.

b. High winds and cold may eliminate the possibility of setting up an altar with ecclesiastical appointments thereby making it necessary to streamline the worship service wherever possible.

c. Chaplains whose congregations are under obligation to attend religious services on the Sabbath or Sunday may find it necessary to utilize privileges excusing troops from mandatory attendance.

d. It may be necessary for the chaplain to adjust vestments to be worn over his field uniform and the troops permitted to continue to wear headgear and other protective clothing throughout the service.

e. Care must be taken in handling metal objects used in the worship service. Chalices and cups may freeze to the mouth or hands. Water and sacramental wine may freeze in these objects if they are not already frozen before pouring. If it is an integral part of the service, it will be necessary to take proper action to keep wine warm enough to be poured.



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