PUBLIC AFFAIRS AREA STUDIES
FORMAT FOR PA AREA STUDIES
Public Affairs area studies provide the PA specialist and the PA planner a starting point to begin their campaign planning process. These studies are produced either to address long-term general background information or to address immediate short-term needs.
A PA study is a document that succinctly describes the most PA-pertinent characteristics of a country, geographical area, or region. It serves as an immediate reference for the planning and conduct of PA operations.
The title page of a Media Environment Study (MES) must show the country, area, group, or other subject of the study. It should also show the classification, the copy number, the date-time group, and command post location. (The originating unit should keep a record of the names, grades, and duty assignments of the authors.)
The executive summary should address the strategic significance of the area under study. (The authors should write the executive summary last, in a clear, brief, accurate, and coherent form.)
NOTE: The commander reading the summary should us its information to decide how to employ Public Affairs in that area.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
History and Ideology
Government and Politics
Foreign Relations and Policy
Society and Culture
Communication Process and Effects
The introduction outlines the study's intent, cites the directive requiring the study, and explains the study's format.
The study's intent is to provide a summary of aspects of subject country significant to GIE. The study should identify psychological vulnerabilities, characteristics, insights, and opportunities that exist in subject country.
It is prepared as a basic source document for further development of estimates, plans, and annexes.
Although this study can help develop contingency plans, it is not tailored to any particular plan. Rather, its neutral data and insights can be used to analyze possible political and military developments in the region.
Insert here a paragraph referencing the authority directing the study and stating the research cutoff date and provisions for updating the study.
Focus the PA study on the GIE aspects of the many topics addressed. Do not view this document as a comprehensive and self-contained area study.
Instead, use it as a complement to such other standard references as the Department of the Army Area Handbook Series. In addition, the PA study should include:
Results from standard open source products.
Tries to be more analytical than descriptive in nature, making it subject to varying individual perspectives.
Works well when PA specialists compare it with studies on other countries in the region or area.
Is not a U.S. foreign policy statement or comprehensive analysis of subject country, except in areas with direct GIE relevance.
Insert here a statement of U.S. policy goals toward the country in question. This information comes from the proper USA Country Plan, Department of State Policy Memorandum, or similar document, in the priority order.
Because certain gaps exist in getting PA study material (classification level, availability of complete and timely information, or time limits on research), listing these gaps here to aid future research and guide PA study users to further inquiries.
Insert here issues or GIE-relevant material (such as an area map) not included, addressed, or completely answered elsewhere.
HISTORY AND IDEOLOGY
In this chapter, review the evolution of the state and its people, focusing on aspects having GIE and Public Affairs significance. Do not detail chronology of the country's development. Keep in mind, however, the country's history has an important relationship to the country's historical perspective, attitudes, and current world position.
Because of its special importance to PA, in this chapter, cover historical issues thoroughly. An historical analysis of current political, economic, and military policies gives PA personnel a solid base for the study.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
In this chapter, summarize the country's political system. Give a description of its political power sources, policy making process, and the political complexities of the government.
When discussing the political system, pay close attention to the role of individuals, special interest groups, and political parties. Include the population's political attitudes, values, and view of the political system. Also discuss the government's function in society.
FOREIGN RELATIONS AND POLICY
In this chapter, summarize the country's foreign relations. Describe its political alignment in world affairs and its relationship with the United States. Describe the foreign policy of the country. Also analyze and interpret why the country acts as it does in international affairs.
SOCIETY AND CULTURE
In this chapter, analyze the subject country's social setting. Provide the PA personnel with the knowledge needed to understand potential audiences.
Cover the country's social organization and cultural and behavioral patterns and characteristics. Place special emphasis on the society's social values and the role of the family.
Address culture, social organization, education, customs, ethnic composition, and the interrelated effects of religion, language, and history.
In this chapter, present a brief description of the characteristics, structure, and dynamics of the national economy. Cover the subject country's economic strengths and weaknesses, current economic and labor problems, and economic potential
Describe the country's economic base and the importance of agriculture, industry, and trade. This information helps determine if the present economic structure meets the people's needs.
These economic considerations explain many of the sociological conditions that impact public opinion. Address society's perceptions of the wisdom of government economic policies.
Also describe individual or group perceptions of how members of society stand to gain or lose from those policies.
In most countries, the military establishment involves itself in internal politics as well as external defense. Even when the military establishment does not directly compete for political power, its actions influence social and political development. Analyze the following topic areas:
Emergency of the modern military establishment.
Military roles in the political, economic, and social spheres, and the effects of those rules.
Issues creating cohesion or conflict within the armed forces.
Conflicts within the military establishment.
Extent, quality, and influence of foreign military aid.
COMMUNICATION PROCESS AND EFFECTS
List essential information about communication patterns for the implementation of a PA program. Include the following information:
Manner and social means of communication (not technical data on communications facilities).
Languages and language groups, nonverbal communication, and nonverbal symbols specific to the country's culture or cultures.
Distinctive styles in rhetoric or visual arts, including dramatic, poetic, and musical forms. All these forms are significant to PA.
Data on the society's formal and informal leadership positions where the incumbents are key communicators and opinion leaders.
Analysis of the reading and listening habits of the society.
Analysis of printed formats.
Analysis of media effectiveness. Also address freedom of the press issues, if any.
LIST PUBLICATIONS, DOCUMENTS, AND OTHER SOURCES USED IN PRODUCING THIS BPS. NUMBER TEXT REFERENCES SEQUENTIALLY WITHIN THE STUDY.
Give the reader a brief overview of the subject country, its geography, and its people. These background data and statistics should include the following items:
Country. Identify the country, tell when formed, and show previous control.
Government. State briefly the type of government, method of appointing or electing leaders, and length of terms. List current leader or leaders and political power in country.
Size, location, and geographical subdivision. List the size of the area in square miles or kilometers, and give the general location. Show any geographical subdivision, such as coasts, mountains, and flatlands.
Population. State the number of people and the area density. Show the heavily populated areas.
Languages and dialects. List the official language, languages spoken by the population, percentage of population speaking each language, and areas of the concentrations.
Labor. Outline the total work force, the area of endeavor, and the percentages.
Religions and sects. List the religions of the area and the percentage of the population that practices each.
Education. List the types of systems and the primary emphasis of each.
Literacy rates. Latest statistics.
Health. List the general conditions of the populace. Describe the medical care system.
Justice. Describe the justice and court systems.
Administration. Outline the breakdown of the governmental and judicial districts, counties, or precincts.
Transportation. List the methods of transportation available and include the total capabilities. This information may include the number of airlines, airfields, kilometers and kinds of highways, and kilometers of waterways and depth.
Armed forces. List organization and strengths.
Police. List the types and areas of responsibilities.
List the formal government structure, key positions, and organizations of the country. Outline the chain of government control, including political parties, if applicable. A schematic diagram may be helpful.
Include only branches of government and their key positions, not names.
Give a brief overview of the subject country's media facilities. Include the facilities' locations and levels of technical sophistication. Cover printing, publishing, and the distribution of radio and television receivers, studios, transmitters, and relay facilities. Include news service facilities. Write this appendix as if the U.S. PA units will use this equipment or contract for its services. Since PA personnel may get operating supplies or repair parts from in-country sources, provide the following information:
Name of manufacturer.
Any other technical information on the repair or operation of this equipment.
Prepare a glossary that lists in alphabetical order all acronyms and foreign words used in the study. List also all words and terms that have special meaning and need to be defined.
List the source material used. Include the name of the author, the title of the publication, the publisher, and the date of publication.
Dissemination is accomplished by the originating agency for the recipients within PA. Include in the distribution list the identification of recipient agency (by code), the number of copies furnished, and the office symbol of the recipient.
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