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Information age developments coupled with a revolution in military technology have profoundly influenced the depth, breadth, and height of the battlespace. In today's operational environment, capabilities of friendly and enemy forces to acquire and dominate each other by fires and maneuver are maximized by effectively using the electromagnetic spectrum. Exponential improvements of targeting capabilities occur almost daily in our technological age. Although extending the battlespace has evolved throughout the history of warfare, space and airborne platforms have improved the commander's capabilities to visualize the battlespace, target the enemy, and process and distribute information beyond any twentieth century expectations. Twenty-first century technologies have placed increasing demands on using airspace. Airspace has become a crucial resource that the combat commander must manage efficiently with increasing numbers and types of airspace users.

Army airspace command and control (A2C2) is the Army's application of airspace control to coordinate airspace users for concurrent employment in the accomplishment of assigned missions. It provides the necessary command and control structure for the effective use of airspace. This field manual describes the doctrinal principles and fundamentals for organizing, planning, and using airspace. Beginning with the fundamentals of airspace management at the joint level and working through A2C2 management at each echelon of command, this manual is both a primer for airspace users and a primary reference for A2C2 staff planners. This manual provides the guidance to integrate, coordinate, synchronize, and regulate the Army's use of airspace. It focuses on how the Army uses airspace in planning and executing the commander's intent.

Coordinating and integrating the use of the airspace is a force multiplier; it ensures that all battlefield operating systems are available to positively impact the course of the battle. Additionally, effective airspace management and control enhances force protection measures, minimizes the risk of fratricide to airspace users and ground combat units, and increases overall force effectiveness.

The proponent for this publication is Headquarters, US Army Training and Doctrine Command (HQ, TRADOC). Submit changes for improvements on DA Form 2028 directly to the Commander, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center (CAC), ATTN: ATZL-SWW, Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-6900.

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.

Cross-references use the new field manual numbering system. The bibliography lists field manuals by new number followed by old number.

All references to the joint air operations center (JAOC) apply to the integrated combined air operations center or the combined air operations center.

Specific terms apply to A2C2. This publication uses the joint defintion of battlespace. Common tactical picture (CTP) is a term used by material developers. CTP as used in this publication refers to the common operational picture. Combat zone as used in this publication applies to the broadest interpretation of areas where combat forces are required to conduct operations, including military operations other than war. The Army Battle Command System (ABCS) software packages are evolving. The capabilities described in this manual may not reflect actual capabilities available on the user's system.

The glossary lists most terms used in FM 3-52 that have joint or Army definitions. Terms for which FM 3-52 will become the proponent manual (the authority) when it is published are indicated with an asterisk. Definitions for which FM 3-52 will be the proponent manual are printed in boldface in the text. Other definitions are not printed in boldface. See JP 1-02 for complete joint definitions and FM 1-02 for complete Army definitions.

The glossary contains definitions for acronyms and terms not defined in JP 1-02 or FM 1-02. It does not list acronyms and abbreviations that are included only for clarity or appear only in a figure and are listed in the legend for that figure. Some common abbreviations and acronyms are not spelled out; refer to the glossary.

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