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Appendix D

Database Management

The digitized Army requires current and relevant digital terrain data that will be obtained by various sensors, national resources, intelligence assets, host-nation resources, and reconnaissance forces. National agencies and topographic-engineer units will develop this data into tailored data sets, enabling the user to make strategic or tactical decisions about his battle space.

Digital Terrain Data

D-225. Digital terrain data must be disseminated to all C 2 systems and war-fighting entities as rapidly as possible while maintaining the data's security and ensuring that it is of the highest quality possible. War-fighting entities include dismounted soldiers, armored vehicles, and aviation assets.

D-226. To deliver this information expeditiously to the user, the desired end state must be identified. This includes terrain-data storage, manipulation (the ability to process updates), and multidimensional displays. It is necessary to first conceptualize the data sets being developed by national agencies and how they will be submitted to the users. This concept will address how terrain information and updates to the initially distributed data set are transferred back up the channels to the national agencies. Topographic-engineer units will maintain configuration-management control over the digital terrain data for their designated command.

D-227. All users of digital terrain data will adhere to the established CTOE requirements for using the data in C 2 and topographic-engineer systems. All C 2 and topographic-engineer system users will use a mapping tool kit. Based on the digital terrain data, mapping-tool-kit operators can evaluate the AO, develop a limited set of TDAs, and provide an accurate digital display of the digital terrain data.

D-228. The digital terrain data's framework will be implemented in stages varying in resolution and area coverage. The framework consists of three stages, including—

  • Foundation data.
  • MSDS (data generation).
  • Enriched data (in-theater updates and data feeds to the maneuver battalion and below).


D-229. Foundation data is the digital terrain data set initially provided to all Army units for their C 2 systems before deployment. Foundation data is based on pre-existing data prepared by national resources for dissemination to all military users. NIMA is the primary developer of foundation data, which consists of elevation, feature, and imagery data.

D-230. NIMA's Army warehouse is the primary storage facility for Army foundation data sets. This data is available based on the unit's mission and authorization criteria. All topographic-engineer units and major commands will establish accounts to receive or retrieve periodic updates to the foundation data set (see Figure D-1). The topographic-engineer unit will manage the terrain-data file being used by the command. This will eliminate the need for all BOSs to establish accounts with NIMA. Major Army Command (MACOM) commanders may change this control based on the C 2 systems' capabilities to process and store large quantities of digital terrain data. The TI or the public internet will be considered for transferring unclassified foundation data sets from NIMA's Army warehouse to the topographic-engineer units and MACOMs.


    Figure D-49. Foundation Data


D-231. NIMA and topographic-engineer units will provide MSDS (near-real-time data updates to the foundation data set) to C 2 systems and subordinate topographic-engineer units (see Figure D-2). The MSDS will be disseminated via established WAN systems or removable media. This MSDS will consist of all available higher-resolution elevation data, feature-data updates, and changes affecting the terrain within the AO. This will include data acquired by national resources and sensors, host-nation assets, and in-theater real-time assets. The MSDS can be tailored to the mission and the needs of the staff.


    Figure D-50. MSDS

D-232. Each command's terrain-data file server will retain the MSDS for the C 2 systems. Upon receipt or generation of the MSDS, the topographic engineer will establish a command data set to be disseminated to C 2 systems via the established LAN. To command elements that are part of the LAN, designated WAN systems or removable media will be used for disseminating digital terrain data. The TI or the public internet will be considered for transferring unclassified foundation data sets from the topographic-engineer-managed terrain-data file server to C 2 systems.


D-233. Continuing in-theater updates and data feeds to the maneuver battalion and below is the most complicated portion of disseminating digital terrain data. This process involves moving data from higher commands to subordinate units and from forward-deployed and possibly engaged forces to the nearest topographic-engineer unit (which may or may not have a terrain-data file server). This process is considered to begin at the maneuver brigade echelon and continues down to the war-fighting level (see Figure D-3).


    Figure D-51. Enrichment Data

D-234. At the maneuver brigade, the designated topographic-engineer element establishes and manages the foundation data set and the MSDS. Using the established tactical communications channels and removable media, the initial data is disseminated to C 2 systems and war-fighting entities. This initial data is similar to the foundation data set but is tailored for use by the war-fighting entities.

D-235. The MSDS will not be as memory intensive as the foundation data set. It is understood that these lower-echelon C 2 systems and war-fighting entities will have been provided with a tailored foundation data set by the supporting topographic engineer unit before deployment. The processing capability of C 2 systems and war-fighting entities must be robust enough to update stored data sets automatically to establish a current data set.

D-236. Tactical updates and feedback from war-fighting entities to topographic-engineer units (and eventually to NIMA's Army warehouse) are critical for providing accurate terrain products to all users. This feedback will be transferred by reversing the dissemination concept described below.

D-237. The procedure for developing and disseminating tailored data sets for the war-fighting entities crosses the boundaries of topographic-engineer support for configuration control to logistical replication support. Based on the OPLAN, the topographic-engineer unit will develop tailored terrain data sets for war-fighting entities. The data set will be on a removable media or will be transferred via tactical communications means. It will be provided to the unit's logistics supervisor (or automation supervisor) for replication and dissemination. Based on the OPLAN, dissemination will be accomplished via the WAN or by developing removable media for the war-fighting entities.

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