The intended outcome of all hand grenade training programs is to train soldiers proficient in using hand grenades for any tactical situation. The training program should incorporate safe handling and throwing practices, which reduce injuries in peacetime as well as in combat. Initially, training programs require extensive direct supervision, but the amount of supervision required decreases as the soldiers' proficiency increases.
The hand grenade training program progresses using the crawl-walk-run methodology. The program progresses from fundamental to advanced training, culminating with the integration of hand grenades into situational and field training exercises. Once soldiers reach a high-proficiency level, a sustainment program is implemented to maintain this level. The following progressive training outline is for use or modification:
- Instruction on safety inspection and maintenance of hand grenades.
- Instruction on visual identification of hand grenades.
- Instruction on capabilities of hand grenades.
- Technical instruction on grenade function.
- Instruction and practical exercises on fundamentals of gripping procedures, throwing techniques, and throwing positions.
- Practical exercises emphasizing distance and accuracy using targets of different types at various ranges.
- Advanced training courses that incorporate buddy teams, movement techniques, weapon integration, and multiple target engagements at various ranges.
4-2. TRAINING COURSES
The training courses listed in this chapter, except for the standard Army hand grenade qualification course, are offered as models to assist units in meeting their training objectives. These courses can be modified to support the unit METL, the terrain, and the commander's intent. Minimum course standards for basic training units have training stations that include the following:
a. Distance and Accuracy. The distance and accuracy course is designed to develop the soldier's proficiency in gripping and throwing hand grenades. When conducting the training, provide soldiers with a course orientation, explanation, and demonstration, including clarification of the tasks, conditions, and standards for the course and followed by a demonstration that meets the stated standards. To develop good safety habits, supervisors and instructors must ensure the soldiers use proper throwing techniques. During the initial practical exercise, soldiers are allowed to observe the strike of the grenade so they can gain an appreciation for the weight of the grenade and the amount of force required to throw it accurately. After initial training, however, soldiers should follow the proper procedures for seeking cover after throwing a grenade. The following is a generic task with conditions and standards to assist units.
TASK: Engage a variety of targets at varying ranges up to 40 meters.
CONDITIONS: Given 12 practice grenades, individual equipment, and a four-station course with a variety of targets at distances of 20, 30, and 40 meters.
STANDARDS: The soldier must successfully engage targets at each station with two out of three grenades. The soldier must throw from the alternate prone, prone to kneeling, and prone to standing positions. A target is successfully engaged when the grenade detonates within 5 meters of the target.
(1) Recommend a four-station course layout (Figure 4-1). The four stations may be combined if the terrain does not allow four stations.
Figure 4-1. Distance and accuracy layout.
(2) Targets should include soldiers in the open at 20 meters, a fortified mortar pit at 20 meters, a fighting position at 30 meters, and a trench target at 40 meters.
b. Bunker Complex. The bunker complex (Figure 3-9) exercise is designed to develop the soldier's proficiency on how to properly attack a bunker complex from a covered and concealed location while using the proper movement techniques and the hand grenade cook-off technique. When conducting the training, give soldiers clarification on the task, conditions, and standards, followed by a demonstration and standards for the station. The following is a generic task with conditions and standards to assist units.
TASK: Engage an enemy bunker complex.
CONDITIONS: Given an individual weapon, LCE, cover and concealment, supportive fire, and two M69 practice hand grenades.
STANDARDS: The soldier must successfully engage and disable a bunker. The soldier must approach the bunker from the blind side, properly cook-off the grenade, put the grenade into the porthole of the bunker, roll away from the bunker, and turn 180 degrees to cover the rear exit of the bunker. The grenade must detonate in the bunker.
c. Identification of Basic US Army Hand Grenades. The purpose of this training is to develop the soldier's proficiency in identifying basic hand grenades within the US Army inventory. The soldier should receive instruction on the capabilities and identification features of the M83, M18, M14, ABC-M7A2/A3, and the M67 fragmentation hand grenades. For seasoned soldiers, other hand grenades can be added for test purposes to increase the soldiers' ability to identify other grenades. Basic training recruits must identify five out of five grenades in order to get a GO.
d. Hand Grenade Qualification Course. The purpose of the qualification course is to measure and evaluate the soldier's ability to engage a variety of targets with hand grenades using the proper gripping procedures and throwing techniques. The qualification course allows the soldier to gain confidence in arming and throwing hand grenades. All soldiers must go through mock-bay training before going to live bay. The qualification course should not be attempted until all initial training has been completed. The qualification course allows soldiers to use fuzed practice hand grenades to engage targets in natural terrain under simulated combat conditions. An incentive for a soldier to perform well is the award of a hand grenade qualification bar worn on his marksmanship medal. The hand grenade qualification course is standardized throughout the US Army. The course consists of seven stations with one grader at each station. The course is conducted in two-man teams, but soldiers are evaluated individually. The stations' requirements are as follows:
||Engage a group of F-type silhouette targets in the open from a two-man fighting position. The targets are located 35 meters to the front of the fighting position, simulating enemy movement through and beyond the squad's protective wire.|
||Engage a bunker using available cover and concealment. The bunker can have one or two firing portholes oriented toward the direction of the buddy team's movement and a rear exit.|
||Engage a fortified 82-mm mortar position from 20 meters.|
||Engage a group of enemy targets behind cover at a 20-meter distance.|
||Clear an entry point to a trench line at a 25-meter distance.|
||Engage troops in a halted, open-type wheeled vehicle at a 25-meter distance.|
||Identify hand grenades. Soldiers must be able to identify grenades by shape, color, markings, and capabilities. (For a suggested identification station, refer to Figure 4-2.)|
Figure 4-2. Suggested identification station.
Although no two hand grenade qualification courses are alike, the standards must be consistent. The scorecard at Figures 4-3 (front) and 4-4 (back) establishes the action, condition, standard, and scoring procedure for the qualification course. DA Form 3517-R is located in Appendix G of this manual and can be locally reproduced on 8 1/2- by 11-inch paper. Qualification must be awarded only to those soldiers who meet these standards. The evaluator at each station determines scoring IAW the standard scorecard. (For an example of a physical layout, see Figure 4-5.)
Figure 4-3. Example of a scorecard (front).
Figure 4-4. Example of a scorecard (back).
Figure 4-5. Qualification course layout.
e. Mock-Bay Training. When soldiers practice throwing grenades before going to live bay to throw, it is called mock-bay training. This training introduces the soldier to throwing commands and provides additional throwing practice. Soldiers are oriented to the mock-bay training pit and given an explanation of the commands that are used during actual throwing. Soldiers also practice the actual procedures used during live-bay training. The instructor enforces correct throwing and safety procedures. Improper techniques or bad habits, which a soldier could carry over to live-bay training, cannot be tolerated. The following is a generic task with conditions and standards to assist units:
TASK: Successfully throw practice hand grenades from the mock-bay pit and follow all commands from the instructor or NCOIC.
CONDITIONS: Given individual equipment, to include flak vest, practice hand grenades, a mock-bay pit that replicates a live-bay pit, ear plugs, and an orientation and safety briefing.
STANDARDS: Soldiers must safely carry, arm, and throw two practice hand grenades from the mock-bay pit while following the commands from the instructor or NCOIC. Soldiers must not move from the cover of the pit until the command CLEAR, ALL CLEAR is given.
|NOTE:||Be sure the physical layout of the mock-bay pit replicates the live-bay pit. This technique not only gives the soldier the sensation of throwing a live fragmentation hand grenade, but also instills confidence in his ability to throw the hand grenade and shows him its lethality. The procedures and techniques for conducting live hand grenade range operations depend upon available facilities and their regulations. Each facility has its own safety features and training qualities, so it is difficult to standardize the operating procedures.|
f. Live-Bay Training. The purpose of the live-bay pit is to give soldiers the opportunity to experience throwing a live fragmentation hand grenade. The following guidelines are provided to assist in the conduct of live hand grenade training:
(1) Soldiers must have mock-bay training before throwing live grenades at live bay.
(2) Soldiers must receive a safety briefing before throwing live grenades.
(3) Throughout hand grenade training, especially at a live-bay pit, instructors must instill confidence in the soldiers, not apprehension. Hand grenades are inherently safe when used properly.
(4) Soldiers throwing live hand grenades must have a target. This makes sense tactically and provides a safer training environment. Consult the local range regulations for any restrictions.
(5) If facilities permit, an observation window allows the soldiers to observe the live-bay throwing procedures before and after throwing the hand grenades. (For a suggested live-bay layout, see Figures 4-6 and 4-7.)
(6) Soldiers must carry the hand grenades to the throwing pits using the proper right or left handgrips.
(7) Soldiers must wear flak vests, Kevlars, ear plugs, and eye armor, if available.
|NOTE:||Instructors check the soldiers using the Live Hand Grenade Range Operations Checklist in Appendix A.|
Figure 4-6. Live-bay throwing pit.
Figure 4-7. Suggested live-bay layout.
The following is a generic task with conditions and standards to assist units.
TASK: Engage targets with live fragmentation grenades.
CONDITIONS: Given individual equipment, to include Kevlar, LCE, flak vest, earplugs, a facility for live hand grenade throwing, and live fragmentation hand grenades.
STANDARDS: The soldier must safely arm and throw two live fragmentation hand grenades. The soldier must carry grenades using the proper right or left handgrips and comply with all throwing commands and instructions from the pit NCO.
g. Hand Grenade Confidence Course. Once the soldier has developed his throwing proficiency and has been introduced to throwing casualty-producing hand grenades, he needs an opportunity to apply his newly acquired proficiency in a simulated tactical situation requiring the use of grenades. The hand grenade confidence course is designed to accomplish this objective (Figure 4-8). The hand grenade confidence course has a practice and live course, each consisting of an assembly area, a final coordination line, an initial holding area, a covering position, a throwing position, and a final holding area. The following guidance is given to initiate the confidence course:
Figure 4-8. Confidence course layout.
(1) Conduct of course.
(a) The course begins with an orientation period covering the characteristics and functioning of practice and fragmentation hand grenades, safety considerations governing the conduct of training, and a discussion and demonstration of the conduct of the course for the entire unit being trained.
(b) Following the initial orientation, each platoon moves to a separate assembly area for the practice course. The OIC of the range presents a tactical situation, and unfuzed practice hand grenades are issued to the platoon for the practice portion of the course. The OIC inspects all personnel before they negotiate the course to make certain that all grenades are properly secured. The OIC determines whether to issue grenades to the soldiers in the holding area or at the throwing bunker, depending upon their experience and proficiency.
(c) The first squad moves in line formation, ALPHA team on the right, from a tree line that represents the final coordination line of the practice course.
(d) Upon arrival at a mound representing the initial holding area, the squad is taken under fire by a machine gun simulator. The squad leader sends two men from the right side of the line to bunker number one near the objective. One man lays down a base-of-fire at target area number three. The safety officer directs the number-one man on the right to move to bunker number two within hand grenade range of the objective. From bunker number two, the soldier continues to fire his weapon until all far targets are suppressed. He then observes target area number one and engages it with a practice hand grenade. When the grenade is thrown, the safety officer commands ALL DOWN. This command pertains to everyone in the training area. At this time, all personnel get behind protective cover. After the grenade functions, the safety officer counts to seven, which indicates the amount of time personnel must remain behind the protective cover. The soldier engages target area number two with a second practice hand grenade. When the grenade is thrown, the safety officer commands ALL DOWN.
(e) The soldier who threw the grenades moves by the most direct route back to the final holding area where the critique NCO critiques him. Covering fire is continued from bunker number one. The squad leader then sends a new man to bunker number one where he provides covering fire as the number-two man moves to bunker number two to throw his grenades. After the second grenade functions, the soldier being critiqued by the critique NCO moves directly to the initial holding area.
(f) The above sequence is repeated until all squad personnel have thrown grenades and provided covering fire. The first soldier to throw grenades provides covering fire for the last man to throw.
(g) After the first group has finished the practice course and critique, the group returns to the assembly area and then moves to the live course area for the final run with fragmentation grenades. After the first group has completed the practice course, the practice and live courses are run concurrently on separate training areas.
|NOTE:||On the practice course, blank rifle ammunition and practice grenades are used. Live ammunition and two live grenades are used in the conduct of the live course. The safety officer must make sure the soldiers remove the blank adapters before issuing ammunition.|
(h) The safety officer on the practice course carefully observes the actions of the soldiers throwing practice grenades. If the safety officer detects any unsafe acts or extreme nervousness on a thrower's part, the thrower is identified to the critique NCO. The critique NCO points out the thrower's mistakes and sends him back through the practice course. In some instances, it may be necessary to place an individual who has extreme difficulty in properly handling grenades under the control of an assistant instructor for detailed instruction. Under no circumstances can a man be allowed to throw live fragmentation grenades until he has clearly demonstrated his ability to throw practice grenades during the practice portion of the course.
(2) Safety personnel. The following safety personnel are required for the hand grenade confidence course:
(a) Officer in charge. The OIC or NCOIC (E7 or above) is responsible for the overall conduct of the training, the bleacher orientation, and the tactical briefing. After the OIC or NCOIC issues the operation order in the assembly area, the safety officer is positioned in the safety bunker where he has the immediate responsibility of supervising hand grenade throwing.
(b) Squad leaders. The squad leaders alternate moving squads to and from the initial holding areas. They are responsible for ensuring that all personnel are behind protective cover in the initial holding area when grenades are being thrown. Squad leaders must check each soldier's grenades before he moves from the initial holding area to bunker number one.
(c) Safety officer. The safety officer is the senior assistant instructor. He must be an E6 or above. Positioned in bunker number one, he controls the movement of all personnel both before and after each grenade is thrown. He also controls the soldier furnishing covering fire.
(d) Critique NCO. The critique NCO is positioned in the final holding area. He critiques each thrower immediately after the soldier arrives from bunker number two. To ensure continuity, the critique NCO observes the same squad during both the practice and live courses. He then returns to the practice course to observe another squad.
(3) Training facility. The training facility for the hand grenade confidence course consists of a practice grenade course for throwing the M69 practice grenades and a live grenade course for throwing fragmentation grenades. These two courses are constructed alike and close together to allow easy movement from one to the other. The hand grenade confidence course should be conducted concurrently with another 2-hour period of instruction in order to reduce terrain and personnel requirements. The breakdown for the conduct of training is as follows:
(a) Initial orientation (20 minutes).
(b) Tactical situation briefing, ammunition issue, and inspection before crossing the final coordination line (10 minutes).
(c) Practice run (35 minutes). Practice and live runs are done concurrently after the first squad completes the practice run.
(4) Ammunition. Each soldier needs 40 rounds of blank 5.56-mm ammunition, 40 rounds of live 5.56-mm ammunition, two M69 fuzed practice grenades, and two M67 fragmentation grenades. For each demonstration, 40 rounds of blank 5.56-mm ammunition and 2 fuzed practice hand grenades are required.
(5) Ranges. The range used for the confidence course consists of two separate areas, each consisting of an assembly area, a final coordination line, an initial holding area, a covering position, a throwing position, a safety officer's observation point, a final holding area, and two target areas.
(a) Assembly area. This area is used as a briefing point and an ammunition issue point. It should be a cleared area large enough to accommodate a 48- to 60-man platoon.
(b) Final coordination line. This line should be a prominent terrain feature, such as a wood line or streambed, located between the assembly area and the objective. Ideally, the area between the final coordination line and the objective should slope uphill. This is the last location outside the surface danger zone where personnel may maneuver freely without the need for cover to protect soldiers from fragmentation danger.
(c) Initial holding area. This area should be located 30 to 50 meters forward of the final coordination line. The area should be a mound or a roadside ditch that is long enough to accommodate nine men and high enough to afford protection for a kneeling man.
(d) Covering position. This position should be a mound or parapet 2 meters high and 8 meters wide across its front side. The position should be 5 meters forward of the right flank of the initial holding area.
(e) Throwing position. This position should be a mound or a parapet 1.5 meters high and 2 meters wide. The position should be located about 15 meters to the left front of the covering position.
(f) Observation point. This is the safety officer's observation point. It should be a pit affording the minimum frontal protection. The position is located 10 meters to the rear of the throwing position.
(g) Final holding area. This area should have characteristics similar to the initial holding area. The position must accommodate at least two kneeling men. It is located 5 meters to the left of the safety officer's observation point.
(h) Targets. There are three separate target areas in each course, practice and live. The target areas on the practice confidence course should be clearly marked practice targets.
- Target area 1 is the impact area for the first hand grenade. The target should be a cluster of half-inch steel E-type silhouette targets located at ranges varying from 25 to 40 meters.
- Target area 2 is the impact area for the second grenade. The target consists of a cluster of ten half-inch steel E-type silhouettes. This target should be unmarked and located at ranges varying from 25 to 40 meters and 50 meters to the left of target area one.
- Target area 3 is the target area for M16 fire. The target consists of a cluster of 15 to 20 pop-up E-type silhouettes located 50 to 100 meters from bunkers one and two.
(6) Training area (general). The training area should be located on slightly sloping terrain. As much natural vegetation as possible should be left on the site.
4-3. COLLECTIVE TRAINING
Two aspects of preparing for combat are training and rehearsal. When training collective tasks or rehearsing a certain combat mission, noncommissioned officers analyze the collective tasks that are to be trained and select the individual tasks that support the collective tasks. They must then integrate the individual tasks into training and rehearsals. Applicable guidelines for planning collective tasks are as follows:
a. Training managers decide which collective tasks they must practice by analyzing the operation outlines contained in the appropriate mission training plan. The operation outlines detail the collective tasks required to execute a critical wartime mission. Noncommissioned officers find the individual tasks that support the collective tasks by referring to the mission task matrix in the appropriate platoon mission training plan. They find the correct training standards in the appropriate soldier's manual task. They use the squad and platoon MTP (ARTEP 7-8-MTP) and FM 7-8 to see how to use the individual tasks to do their collective tasks.
b. As an example, the team leader learns that his platoon is going to practice for an attack training mission. He analyzes the mission outline for attack and determines which collective tasks his squad may have to do as part of this mission. Several of these tasks require soldiers to engage in close combat.
c. Soldiers can use hand grenades anytime they engage the enemy in close combat. Collective tasks that require close combat are Conduct Fire and Movement, Disengage, Knock Out Bunker, Clear a Trench, Conduct a Near Ambush, Defend, and Clear a Building. Drills that require close combat are React to Contact, Break Contact, and React to Ambush. When units train or rehearse these tasks, they should also train and evaluate the use of hand grenades. Once soldiers can safely arm and throw live fragmentation hand grenades, units should integrate the use of grenades into collective tasks rather than training it as a separate event. Use simulation or live hand grenades, as appropriate, against realistic targets while practicing the collective tasks. Noncommissioned officers tell soldiers when and how to use the grenades, evaluate their use, correct mistakes, and retrain soldiers as necessary.
4-4. SAMPLE SQUAD SITUATIONAL TRAINING EXERCISE
Present soldiers with tactical situations in an STX requiring hand grenade use in conjunction with other fire team or squad weapons that force soldiers to make sound tactical decisions on hand grenade employment.
a. The STX should be a realistic training event that improves the soldier's hand grenade throwing skills, the use of his individual weapon, and the collective skills of his fire team and squad.
b. There are no firm guidelines for an STX (Figure 4-9). Consider hand grenade tasks in the tactical scenario that are best suited to the unit's METL. The close combat tasks listed in paragraph 4-3c should also be offered in a unit's STX training program. Soldiers should carry practice hand grenades whenever they carry their individual weapons. They should be required to use both to increase their individual abilities. The use of opposing forces enhances training realism. Opposing force objectives for specific actions can be found in ARTEP 7-8-MTP.
Figure 4-9. Example squad STX with hand grenades.
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