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after action review



alternate course



assistant instructor



advanced infantry marksmanship



Army marksmanship unit



IR aiming light



thermal weapon sight (medium/heavy)





target pointer illuminator/aiming light



night vision sight



night vision goggles



night vision goggles



Army regulation



Army Research Institute



advanced rifle marksmanship



Army Training and Evaluation Program



Army Training Center




basic combat training



backup iron sight



basis of issue



basic rifle marksmanship



basic training




close combat optic






combat support



combat service support




Department of the Army



Directorate of Training



Directorate of Public Safety



direct support







engagement skills trainer




Federal Bureau of Investigation



field fire



field manual



field of view



feet per second



final protective fire



Federal stock number



field training exercise




general support



graphic training aid







heavy thermal weapon sight




image intensifying



in accordance with



Infantry Captain's Career Course






initial entry training



Infantry Officer's Basic Course







known distance



known distance alternate course




load bearing equipment



load carrying equipment



live-fire exercise



low-light level sight system



Laser Marksmanship Training System



letter of instruction



location of misses and hits







major command



Military Arcade Computer System



maintenance assistance and instruction team



mission-essential task list



Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System






mission oriented protective posture



military occupational specialty



miles per hour



multipurpose range complex



modified table of organizational equipment



medium thermal weapon sight



modular weapon system




North Atlantic Treaty Organization



nuclear biological chemical



noncommissioned officer



Noncommissioned Officer Education System



noncommissioned officer in charge



narrow field of view



Army National Guard



night observation device



national stock number



night vision device




officer in charge



opposing forces



one-station unit training




public address



probability of hit



preventive maintenance checks and services



preliminary marksmanship instruction



point of contact



program(s) of instruction



plastic practice ammunition



preliminary rifle instruction




rail adapter system



radiotelephone operator



remote electronic target system



record fire



rimfire adapter






rules of engagement



Reserve Officer's Training Corps



range safety officer




squad automatic weapon



squad designated marksman






subject matter expert



standing operating procedure



acronym for immediate action procedures



short-range combat



short-range marksmanship



special reaction teams



short-range training ammunition



standards in training committee



situational training exercise




Training and Audiovisual Support Center



training circular



training and evaluation outline



training film



technical manual



target pointer illuminator/aiming light



Training and Doctrine Command



training support center



tactics, techniques and procedures



television tape



thermal weapon sight




urban operations



United States



United States Army Infantry School



US Army Marksmanship Unit



United States Army Reserve




wide field of view


Active Army: All Regular Army (RA) forces in the Active Army.

adjusted aiming point: An aiming point that allows for gravity, wind, target movement, zero changes, and MOPP firing.

advanced marksmanship: Normally refers to marksmanship skills taught during ARM.

advanced rifle marksmanship: Normally refers to the formal marksmanship instruction received by infantrymen upon completion of BRM during OSUT.

aiming: A marksmanship fundamental; refers to the precise alignment of the rifle sights with the target.

aiming card: The M15A1 aiming card is a cardboard sleeve with a moveable insert. The rear sight aperture, front sight post, and target are pictured. This training device is used in conjunction with aiming instructions.

aiming point: A place on a target in which the rifle sights are aligned normally the target center of mass.

alibi target: A target or additional target a soldier is allowed to engage during qualification firing when unable to complete a record fire scenario due to circumstances beyond his control; for example, a target mechanism, weapon, or ammunition malfunction.

alternate course: Alternatives to standard qualification courses.

ammunition lot: A quantity of cartridges, each of which is made by one manufacturer under uniform conditions and is expected to work in a uniform manner.

ammunition lot number: Code number that identifies a particular quantity of ammunition from one manufacturer.

aperture: The hole in the rear sight.

armorer: One who services and makes repairs on small arms and performs similar duties to keep small arms ready for use.

Army Training and Evaluation Program: A guide for the training and evaluation of critical unit combat missions - crew/squad through battalion/task force echelon.

Army Training Center: Conducts OSUT and BRM. Locations are Fort Benning, Ga; Fort Jackson, SC; Fort Knox, Ky.

artificial illumination: Any light from a man-made source.

assault course: An area of ground used for training soldiers in attacking an enemy in close combat.

automatic fire: A firing mode that causes the weapon to continue firing as long as the trigger is held or until all ammunition has been expended.

ball: The projectile; the bullet.

ball ammunition: General-purpose standard service ammunition with a solid core bullet.

ball and dummy: An exercise that substitutes a dummy round for a live round without the firer knowing it. An excellent exercise for identifying and correcting trigger jerks.

ballistics: A science that deals with the motion and flight characteristics of projectiles.

barrel erosion: Wearing away of the surface of the bore due to the combined effects of gas washing, coring, and mechanical abrasion.

basic marksmanship: Fundamental marksmanship skills taught in BRM during IET and OSUT.

basic rifle marksmanship: The formal course of marksmanship instruction received by all soldiers.

battlesight zero: A sight setting that soldiers keep on their weapons. It provides the highest probability of hitting most high-priority combat targets with minimum adjustment to the aiming point, a 250 meter sight setting as on the M16A1 rifle, and a 300 meter sight setting as on the M16A2 rifle.

blank ammunition: A complete cartridge without the bullet used to simulate weapon firing.

blank firing adapter: A device that fits in the muzzle of the rifle; used only with blank ammunition.

brass: An alloy of copper and zinc used to make cartridge cases and bullet jackets. Also, a common name for expended cases.

breath control: The third marksmanship fundamental; refers to the control of breathing to help keep the rifle steady during firing.

bullet: The projectile or ball; the part that goes downrange. It may also be used to refer to the complete cartridge.

bull's-eye target: Any target with a round black circle and scoring rings. Normally used in competitive marksmanship training.

buttplate: Metal or rubber covering of the end of the stock on the rifle.

cadre coach: A trainer with expertise and knowledge exceeding that of the firer.

caliber: Diameter of the bore; for example, the M16-series rifle bore is 5.56mm (.223 inch).

cartridge: A complete round of ammunition.

center of mass: A point that is horizontally (left and right) and vertically (up and down) at the center of the target.

chambering: The step in the cycle of operation that refers too fully seating the round in the chamber of the rifle.

chamber plug: A range safety device that is a small plastic plug designed to fit into the chamber of the M16. A handle extends out the ejection port so safety personnel can see at a glance that the rifle is clear of ammunition.

clock method: Method of calling shots by referring to the figures on an ordinary clock dial assumed to have the target at its center. Also a method of determining the strength and direction of wind.

coach: Any individual who assists firers on the firing line.

coach-and-pupil method: Method of training in which pairs of pupils take turns practicing a procedure explained by the instructor/trainer.

cocking: The step in the cycle of operation that refers to the rearward movement of the bolt riding over the hammer, resetting the weapon for subsequent firing.

collective firing proficiency: Units delivering effective fire in a tactical setting. It requires individual skill plus command and control to engage all targets within an assigned sector.

concurrent training: Training that occurs at the same time that other unit members are using the primary training facilities.

cookoff: A round that fires as a result of a hot chamber without the trigger being pulled. It can occur any time until the weapon is cooled.

crack and thump: A method to determine the general direction and distance to an enemy firer who is shooting at you.

cradle: A vise-like mechanism that holds a weapon in a secure position for test firing.

cross dominance: A soldier with a dominant hand and a dominant eye that are not the same; for example, a right-hander firer with a dominant left eye.

cycle of operation: The eight steps involved in firing a round of ammunition: feeding, chambering, locking, firing, unlocking, extracting, ejecting, and cocking.

cyclic rate of fire: The maximum rate at which a weapon will fire in the automatic mode.

dime-washer exercise: A dry-fire exercise used to practice trigger squeeze.

downrange feedback: Used to describe any training technique that provides precise knowledge of bullet strike (whether hit or miss).

dry fire: A technique used to simulate the firing of a live round with an empty weapon. Any application of the fundamentals of marksmanship without live ammunition may be referred to as dry fire.

dry-fire moving target trainer: A small-motorized scaled target device used to teach the engagement of moving personnel targets.

dummy ammunition: A cartridge without a primer or powder. Primarily used for ball-and-dummy exercises on the live-fire line.

effective wind: The average of all the varying winds encountered.

ejection: The step in the cycle of operation that removes the expended cartridge from the weapon out of the ejection port.

elevation adjustment: Rotating the front sight post to cause the bullet to strike higher or lower on the target.

expert: The highest qualification rating.

external ballistics: What happens to the bullet between the time it leaves the rifle and the time it arrives at the target.

extraction: The step in the cycle of operation that pulls the round from the chamber.

eye relief: The distance from the firing eye to the rear sight. Eye relief is a function of stock weld.

feedback: Obtaining knowledge of performance.

feedback target: Targets designed for use at 75, 175, or 300 meters; includes an overprinted grid similar to a zero target.

feeding: The step in the cycle of operation that is the forward movement of the bolt, stripping the top round from the magazine and moving it toward the chamber.

field firing: Training on the standard field firing range with target banks at 75, 175, and 300 meters.

firing: The step in the cycle of operation that refers to pulling the trigger, releasing the hammer to strike the firing pin, which strikes the primer. The primer ignites and, in turn, ignites the powder charge within the cartridge case.

firing hand: The right hand of a right-handed firer. The left hand of a left-handed firer.

firing pin: Plunger in the bolt of a rifle that strikes the primer.

fleeting target: A moving target remains within observing or firing distance for such a short period that it affords little time for deliberate adjustment and fire against it.

functioning: (See cycle of operation.)

fundamentals of rifle marksmanship: The four essential elements needed to hit targets: steady position, aiming, breath control, and trigger squeeze.

gravity: The natural pull of all objects to the center of the earth.

grouping: A live-fire exercise with the objective of shooting tight shoot groups.

gun bore line: A reference line established by the linear extension of the bore axis of a gun.

headspace: The distance between the face of the bolt(fully closed) and the face of a fully chambered cartridge.

hold-off: (See adjusted aiming point.)

horizontal dispersion: The left-to-right displacement of bullets on a target.

immediate action: procedures applied to rapidly reduce any rifle stoppage without determining its cause.

individual firing proficiency: Individual firing skills; for example, an individual's performance on the record fire course.

Infantry Remoted Target System (IRETS): (See RETS.)

infrared aiming light: A unique night sighting system that uses infrared light to assist in the aiming process.

initial entry training: Indicates the first training received by a new soldier, includes the MOS-producing portion of his training such a one-station unit training (OSUT).

initial pressure: The applications of about half of the total trigger pressure it takes to fire a rifle.

instructor-trainer ratio: The number of soldiers for which each instructor/trainer is responsible.

internal ballistics: What happens to the bullet before it leaves the muzzle of the rifle.

known distance: Describes the older range complexes with large target frames behind a large berm and firing lines at 100 yards or 100-meter increments. (See FM 25-7.)

laser: Light amplification by simulated emission of radiation.

lead: Distance ahead of a moving target that a rifle must be aimed to hit the target.

lead rule: Provides the soldier guidance on how to adjust his aiming point to hit moving targets.

line of sight: A line between the rifle and the aiming point, extending from the firing eye through the center of the rear aperture, across the tip of the front sight post, and onto the target.

location of misses and hits : A projectile location system that provides immediate and precise information to the firer concerning bullet strike (hit or miss).

locking: The step in the cycle of operation that is a counterclockwise rotation of the bolt, securing it into the barrel locking lugs.

long-range sight: The aperture marked L on the M16A1 rifle equipped with standard sights; provides for a zero at 375 meters. The M16A1 rifle equipped with LLLSS has an aperture marked L, but it is a regular sight.

Low-Light Level Sight System (LLLSS): A sighting system for low visibility firing that replaces the standard front and rear sights on the M16A1 rifle.

marksman: The designation given to the lowest qualification rating.

maximum effective range: The greatest distance at which a soldier may be expected to deliver a target hit.

maximum effective rate of fire: The highest rates of fire that can be maintained and still achieve target hits.

maximum range: The longest distance a projectile will travel when fired from a weapon held at the optimum angle.

minute of angle: A angle that would cover 1 inch at a distance of 100 yards, 2 inches at 200 yards, and so on. Each click of sight adjustment on the M16A1 rifle with standard sights is equal to one minute of angle.

Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES): A tactile shooting device that uses a low-powered laser to activate detectors placed on people and vehicles.

Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator (MACS): A pert-task weapons trainer that is under development. The system consists of a light pen attached to the weapon, video monitor, and microcomputer.

muzzle velocity: The speed of a projectile as it leaves the muzzle of the weapon.

natural point of aim: The direction of the body/rifle combination is oriented while in a stable, relaxed firing position.

natural respiratory pause: The temporary cessation of breathing between an exhale and inhale.

night firing: Firing performed under all conditions of limited visibility.

nonfiring hand: The opposite of the firing hand.

optical sight: Sight with lenses, prisms, or mirrors used in lieu of iron sights.

Paige sighting device: A device with a small-scaled target that fits into the muzzle of the weapon, allowing the soldier to practice aiming.

pasters: Small white or black gum-backed paper used for covering bullet holes.

peep sight: The rear sight; a sight with a small aperture (hole).

peer coach: A soldier with shooting experience and knowledge equal to that of the firer he is coaching.

pit: The target area behind the large berm of a KD range.

plastic practice ammunition: Ammunition with a plastic projectile, high-muzzle velocity (the light weight causes it to lose velocity rapidly with a maximum range of 250 meters or less) designed for use in close-in training areas; frangible bullet.

point of aim: The exact spot on a target the rifle sights are aligned with.

point of impact: The point that a bullet strikes; usually considered in relation to point of aim.

pop, no kick: A firing condition when the primer ignites and the powder charge does not. This normally results in lodging the bullet inside the barrel.

pop-up target: A silhouette target that is activated remotely so it can suddenly appear and fall when struck by a bullet.

practice record: Firing conducted on a qualification course for practice.

predetermined fire: A technique of aligning the rifle during good visibility so the rifle can be aligned and fired on designated areas when they cannot be seen due to darkness, smoke, or fog.

preparatory marksmanship training: All marksmanship training that takes place before live fire.

primer: A small explosive device in the center base of the cartridge case that is struck by the firing pin to fire the round.

probability of hit: Ranging from 0 to 1.0, it refers to the odds of a given round hitting the target at a given range.

qualification firing: Firing on any authorized course that results in meeting qualification requirements; may also be called record fire. (See record fire.)

quick fire: A technique of fire used to engage surprise targets at close range.

range card: Small chart on which ranges and directions to various targets and other important points in the area under fire are recorded.

rapid semiautomatic fire: A firing procedure that results in an accurate shot being fired every one or two seconds.

receiver: That portion of a firearm that holds the barrel and houses the bolt and firing mechanism.

recoil: The rearward motion or kick of a gun upon firing.

record fire: Any course of fire used to determine if qualification standards are met. The standard record fire course consists of 40 target exposures at ranges between 50 and 300 meters. The standard course requires 23 hits to qualify as marksman, 30 for sharpshooter, and 36 for expert.

reduced range ammunition: Ammunition that is designed to be a ballistic match with service ammunition to an appropriate range for training (may be less than maximum effective range) and a reduced maximum range.

regular rear sight: The M16A1 rifle rear sight that is zeroed for 250 meters (the unmarked aperture on rifles with standard sights and the aperture marked L on rifles equipped with LLLSS).

reinforcement training: Training conducted that is over and above scheduled training.

remedial action: A procedure applied after immediate action has failed to correct a malfunction, which determines the cause of the malfunction.

remedial training: Additional training presented to soldiers who have demonstrated special shooting problems.

Remote Electronic Target System: Range complexes. Some ranges include moving targets.

Reserve Components: Includes Army National Guard and Army Reserve forces.

ricochet fire: Fire in which the projectile glances from a surface after impact.

Riddle sighting device: A small magnetic device with a scaled target that attaches to the front sight assembly, allowing the soldier to practice aiming.

rifle cant: Any leaning of the rifle to the left or right from a vertical position during firing.

rim-fire adapter: The caliber .22-rim fire adapter (M261) consists of a bolt and a magazine insert, which allows standard .22 caliber ammunition to be fired in the M16 rifle.

round: May refer to a complete cartridge or to a bullet.

scaled-silhouette target: Any target that is reduced in size. When it is observed from 25 meters, it looks the same size as though at a greater range.

sector of fire: An area assigned to an individual, weapon, or unit to be covered by fire.

semiautomatic fire: A mode of fire that allows one round to be fired each time the trigger is pulled.

serviceability checks: A technical inspection of the rifle to determine if it is safe to fire and in working condition. (May not ensure accuracy.)

service ammunition: Standard ammunition used by the military. Ammunition designed for combat.

service rifle: The primary rifle of a military force.

service school: Branch schools such as the US Army Infantry School at Fort Benning, Ga. and the Armor School at Fort Knox, Ky.

sharpshooter: The middle rating of qualification.

shot group: A number of shots fired using the same aiming point, which accounts for rifle, ammunition, and firer variability. Three shots are enough, but any number of rounds may be fired in a group.

shot group analysis: A procedure for analyzing the size of shot groups on a target to determine firer error.

sight alignment: Placing the center tip of the front sight post in the exact center of the rear aperture.

sighter rounds: Rounds fired that allow the bullet strike to be observed in relation to the aiming point.

sight picture: Placing correct sight alignment on a selected aiming point on a target.

sight radius: The distance from the front sight post to the rear sight aperture of a rifle.

sighting device (M16): A small metal device with a tinted square of glass that is placed on the carrying handle, allowing a coach to see what the firer sees through the sights.

silhouette target: A target that represents the outline of a man.

spotters: A round cardboard disk placed in bullet holes with a small wooden peg so the bullet strike can be observed from the firing line.

squad automatic weapon: A lightweight, one-man, 5.56mm machine gun.

starlight scope: A weapon scope that amplifies ambient light so targets can be seen and effectively engaged during darkness. The AN/PVS-2 and AN/PVS-4 are used on the M16 rifle.

steady position: The first marksmanship fundamental, which refers to the establishment of a position that allows the weapon to be held still while it is being fired.

stock weld: The contact of the cheek with the stock of the weapon.

supported position: Any position that uses something other than the body to steady the weapon (artificial support).

suppressive fire: Any engagement that does not have a definite or visible target. Firing in the general direction of known or suspected enemy location.

sustained rate of fire: Rate of fire that a weapon can continue to deliver for an indefinite period without overheating.

terminal ballistics: What happens to the bullet when it comes in contact with the target.

tight shot group: A shot group with all bullet holes close together.

tracer ammunition: Ammunition with a substance at the rear of the bullet that ignites soon after firing. It burns brightly so the trajectory of the bullet can be seen.

tracking: Engaging moving targets where the lead is established and maintained; moving with the target as the trigger is squeezed.

train the trainer: Describes any training that is designed to train marksmanship instructors or coaches.

trainfire: A marksmanship program using pop-up targets in a realistic environment.

trajectory: The flight path the bullet takes from the rifle to the target.

trapping: A technique for engaging moving targets. The aiming point is established forward of the target. The rifle is held stationary and fired as the target approaches the aiming point.

trigger squeeze: The fourth fundamental; squeezing the trigger so that the movement of firing is a surprise, the lay of the weapon is not disturbed, and a large target hit can be expected.

unit marksmanship: All marksmanship training that is conducted by units.

unlocking: The step in the cycle of operation that refers to the clockwise rotation of the bolt after firing, freeing the bolt from the barrel locking lugs.

unsupported position: Any position that requires the firer to hold the weapon steady using only his body (bone support).

vertical dispersion: The up-and-down displacement of bullets on a target.

Weaponeer: A training device that simulates the firing of the M16 rifle to provide performance feedback.

windage adjustment: Moving the rear sight aperture to cause the bullet to strike left or right on the target.

wind value: The effect the wind will have on the trajectory of the bullet.

wobble area: The natural movement of the weapon/sight on and around an aiming point when the weapon is being held in a steady position.

zero criterion: The standard or requirement for zeroing; 4cm or smaller group at 25 meters.

zeroing: Adjusting the rifle sights so bullets hit the aiming point at a given range.

zero target: A scaled-silhouette target with a superimposed grid for use at 25 meters.

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