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APPENDIX C

LASER MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING SYSTEM

The Laser Marksmanship Training System (LMTS) is a commercial, off-the-shelf trainer that is in limited use throughtout the force due to the nonavailability of the EST 2000.

C-1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

The LMTS supports training with a soldier's own weapon without the use of live ammunition. Major components include a battery-powered laser transmitter mounted to a mandrel inserted in the rifle barrel or affixed to the front sight with a mounting bracket, and a variety of laser-sensitive targets. The exercise is performed in the same manner as live fire, except the "ammunition" is a laser beam. The target senses shot locations, which are shown on a laptop screen. Unit commanders should expect, and require, the following:

  • A training process that focuses on the four fundamentals of marksmanship (steady position, sight alignment and picture, breath control, and trigger squeeze).
  • Opportunity for experienced marksmen to "test out" and serve as peer trainers or return to other duties.
  • Real-time feedback.
  • All-season training.
  • Soldiers trained on their assigned weapon throughout the process.

a.   Background. The LMTS has been purchased by Active Components with their own funds. The Reserve Components have acquired LMTS as a result of supplemental Congressional funding.

b.   Authorization for Use. The LMTS is authorized for use by any unit that wants a low-cost training device to supplement marksmanship training. However, the Infantry School's requirement for a marksmanship device is the EST 2000. With full fielding of the EST 2000, the LMTS becomes a redundant training simulator.

c.   Funding. The LMTS is not an Army-funded simulator as is the EST 2000, nor is it covered under the Army's centralized logistics support system. Units that have purchased the LMTS will sustain their logistical supportability from their own operating funds.

C-2. EQUIPMENT

Software enhancements continue to optimize the training process and minimize computer requirements by enabling an instructor to control up to ten targets with only one computer. This feature reduces overall system costs and provides maximum throughput with a minimum number of instructors. Minimum LMTS systems consist of a basic laser transmitter with a rod to fit the weapon and a laser target. Systems can be expanded to include a variety of components. (Paragraph C-8 provides a complete component list.)

C-3. MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING

Using LMTS technology, units can consistently reduce the rate of first time marksmanship failures and increase the confidence of new soldiers in their ability to fire their basic weapon. For initial skill development (for example, initial entry training) exercises 1 through 4 in paragraph C-6 should be conducted sequentially. After grouping and zeroing standards, the soldier moves to the LMTS alternate course C target where the course of fire replicates the live-fire course (except the "ammunition" is a laser beam). Failure to meet the standards for this course of fire identifies the soldier as a candidate for remedial training.

C-4. REMEDIAL TRAINING

Failure to achieve the standards set forth in this manual identifies the soldier as a candidate for remedial training. Using the LMTS technology, trainers can quickly identify and correct problems, significantly raising qualification rates after subsequent attempts at qualification. After remedial training, the soldier moves to the LMTS alternate course C target where the course of fire replicates the live-fire course (except the "ammunition" is a laser beam).

C-5. SUSTAINMENT TRAINING

The training model in the exercises (paragraph C-6) provides commanders and unit trainers with a sustainment training system that can be employed throughout the year, ideally as integrated concurrent training that causes the least disruption to other planned training. Soldiers would be administered a skill test at a regular frequency (current training guidance recommends quarterly). The results of this test would allow commanders to focus training efforts on those soldiers least able to demonstrate the minimum skills required. For quarterly sustainment training, soldiers should first be pretested to determine the extent of training required. The pretest should begin with the grouping exercise (from exercise 3) followed by the electronic alternate course C or mini-RETS (exercise 4). Soldiers not able to meet pretest standards are given refresher training in the four fundamentals of rifle marksmanship, followed by completion of exercises 1 through 4 in paragraph C-6.

C-6. EXERCISES

The LMTS exercises define procedures for using LMTS equipment to train and sustain basic marksmanship fundamentals. They may be conducted as independent stations or combined on a single station as appropriate for the training scenario. (Check the LMTS operator's manual for specific information about equipment setup and operation.) Trainers should employ LMTS equipment in a manner that accounts for:

  • Space and time available at the training site.
  • Unit size and composition.
  • Remedial training requirements.
  • Equipment availability.

a.   Training in exercises 1 through 3 should be conducted using the soldier's own service rifle in the dry-fire mode. Exercise 4 may be conducted in the dry-fire mode, but the added realism provided by one of the optional sound and recoil replicators should be employed. These options provide nearly 100 percent of the recoil felt with full rifle function. They require the soldier to properly load magazines and enable the trainer to cause the rifle to misfeed or misfire to verify a soldier's ability to perform immediate action procedures to reduce a stoppage.

b.   If the LMTS training immediately precedes a live-fire grouping and zeroing exercise and time permits, trainers may wish to take advantage of the prezeroing capability of the system during exercise 3 by using calibrated or "spun" lasers (see the LMTS operator's manual for a description of the calibration process). Using the calibrated lasers, soldiers make adjustments to their own rifle sights during exercise 3 resulting in a savings of time and ammunition on the grouping and zeroing range. All LMTS-based zeros must be confirmed by live fire. If no live firing is planned, calibrated lasers need not be used and adjustments are made to the laser in exercise 3.


Exercise 1: Reflective Target Exercise.

Action: Demonstrate the four fundamentals of rifle marksmanship while using the LMTS reflective zero target.

Conditions: Given an M16-/M4-series weapon, laser transmitter with mandrel, and reflective target.

Standards: Demonstrate the four fundamentals of marksmanship by:

  • Achieving a good steady position.
  • Applying the proper sight alignment and sight picture.
  • Applying proper breath control.
  • Applying proper trigger squeeze.

Exercise 1 introduces soldiers to the four fundamentals of marksmanship, how to diagnose and correct shooter problems, and reinforces proper application of the fundamentals. This exercise requires a high degree of instructor involvement, but one instructor may effectively train up to 20 lanes. Decreased trainer-shooter ratio will result in decreased efficiency and effectiveness. One trainer per 10 lanes is the optimum ratio. The exercise requires little time to complete, so it is recommended that it be combined with exercise 2 to allow more advanced shooters to progress while problem shooters receive remedial training, which helps retain group integrity. A reflective zero target with MP400 laser/mandrel provides a simple but effective tool for remedial training during live-fire exercises. Problem shooters should be sent to a remedial station for a quick check of the application of the fundamentals and remedial training as needed.

 

Step 1.

The soldier assumes a proper supported position using sandbags. The trainer inserts the MP-400/LTA-556C assembly in the rifle barrel and uses laser windage and elevation adjustments to achieve a bold sight adjustment with laser spot on front sight (Figure C-1). With the laser in the ON position, soldiers should become familiar with both supported and unsupported firing positions.

Figure C-1. Exercise 1.

Figure C-1.  Exercise 1.

 

Step 2.

Under trainer supervision, the soldier establishes a proper sight alignment and sight picture on a reflective zero target set at 10 meters, 15 meters, or 25 meters (use appropriate target with corresponding distance).


NOTE:

With the MP-400 laser turned to ON, the trainer or coach blocks the beam with his finger.


 

Step 3.

When the soldier is confident with the sight alignment and picture, the trainer removes his finger and observes the location of the red laser dot on the target.

 

Step 4.

If the laser dot is in the 4-centimeter circle, proceed to Step 5. If the laser dot is outside the 4-centimeter circle, the trainer instructs the soldier regarding correct aiming techniques to bring the dot inside the circle, and repeats Step 2.


NOTE:

If the trainer is reasonably certain that the laser and sights are aligned, the visible laser dot may be used to help the shooter understand correct sight picture and alignment. The shooter should be instructed to bring the laser dot to the center mass of the target silhouette, then observe the relationship of the front and rear sights to the target.


 

Step 5.

With the MP-400 in constant ON mode, use the red dot trace to confirm steady hold and proper breathing and trigger control.


NOTE:

This trace can also be used to show the effects of improper steady position breath control and trigger control and reinforce proper techniques.


 

Step 6.

Turn the MP-400 to the training (TRN) mode and instruct the soldier to fire six shots into the target center of mass. Observe the laser hits to confirm proper application of the four fundamentals of rifle marksmanship. Failure to achieve this standard provides an early indication of the need for more intense instruction in the fundamentals of marksmanship or remedial training.


Exercise 2: Interactive Dry Fire.

Action: Demonstrate the integrated act of firing while using the LMTS 130-target system.

Conditions: Given an M16-/M4-series weapon, laser transmitter with mandrel, and TR-700 targets with military masks.

Standards: Achieve 8 hits out of 10 shots two times on an open-face target from the prone unsupported position. Achieve 8 hits out of 10 shots two times on a 300-meter masked target from the supported position.

This exercise provides soldiers an opportunity for practicing the four fundamentals of rifle marksmanship in the integrated act of firing and may easily be conducted concurrently with exercise 1 on the same station. The TR-700 targets may be used both indoors and outdoors in various environments and arrangements to meet training requirement.

 

Step 1.

The soldier assumes a proper firing position (uses sandbags for supported position) (Figure C-2).


NOTE:

Sleeping mats should be used on hard floors.

Figure C-2. Exercise 2.

Figure C-2.  Exercise 2.

 

Step 2.

The soldier applies the four fundamentals of marksmanship to engage a TR-700 target (open face) with 10 shots from the prone unsupported position. The soldier cocks the rifle after each shot; forcing a break and reestablishing a proper stock weld to build muscle memory.


NOTE:

The TR-700 open-face target at 25 meters equals a doublewide E-silhouette target at 300 meters.


 

Step 3.

The trainer inspects the target score for the number of hits. If the number is less than eight, the trainer should perform a visual laser-sight alignment check. If the laser-sight alignment is correct, the trainer reconfirms the soldier's understanding of the four fundamentals of marksmanship and directs the soldier to repeat Step 2. If the number of hits is less than eight after several tries, the soldier reports for remedial training. If the number of hits is eight or more, the soldier repeats Step 2 to confirm and then proceeds to step 4.

 

Step 4.

After the soldier completes step 3, a 300-meter scaled E-silhouette mask is installed over the face of a TR-700 target. The soldier repeats Step 2 from the supported position with the 300-meter mask installed, and repeats Step 4 to confirm.

 

Step 5.

(Optional) As time allows, increase the number of shots to 20 and or install smaller masks for additional skill challenge. Additional firing positions may also be reinforced if needed.


NOTES:

1.   The largest mask presents a 300-meter E-target size scaled for 25 meters.

 

2.   The middle mask presents a 300-meter E-target size scaled for 15 meters or a 450-meter E-target size scaled for 25 meters.

 

3.   The smallest mask presents a 300-meter E-target size scaled for 10 meters, a 450-meter E-target size scaled for 15 meters, or a 600-meter E-target size scaled for 25 meters.


Exercise 3: Grouping and Zeroing.

Action: Group and zero an M16/M4 series weapon using the TR-900 Target System with military mask.

Conditions: Given an M16/M4 series weapon, laser transmitter with mandrel, and TR-900 Target System with military mask.

Standards: From the supported firing position:

  • Grouping. Fire up to 27 shots or less (dry fire) in three-round shot groups and achieve two consecutive shot groups within a 4-centimeter circle (25 meters), 2.4-centimeter circle (15 meters), or 1.6-centimeter circle (10 meters).
  • Battlesight Zero. Adjust the sights so that five out of six rounds in two consecutive shot groups strike within the zeroing circle in the silhouette on the zeroing target.

This exercise evaluates a soldier's ability to apply the four fundamentals of rifle marksmanship in the integrated act of firing through shot grouping. The exercise is conducted in the same manner as live-fire grouping and zeroing exercises and can make those exercises more efficient and effective. All normal range commands should be used to reinforce training in proper range procedures. Up to 10 targets may be grouped together for scoring on one computer. This exercise is most efficient with one trainer to run the control and scoring console plus one trainer for every five lanes. Training distance must correspond to the distance used in exercise 4.

NOTE:

Whenever this exercise is conducted prior to a live-fire exercise, calibrated lasers should be used to support prezeroing. Adjustments to the rear sight of a M16A2 and the front sight of a M16A1 must be made when training at 10 meters or 15 meters to compensate for parallax error. See the LMTS operator's manual for a detailed description of these adjustments.


 

Step 1.

From the supported firing position (Figure C-3), the soldier fires three-round shot groups at the center of mass of the target overlay, continuing until two consecutive groups fall within a 4-centimeter circle anywhere on the target (maximum 27 shots). Trainers should provide feedback to the soldier between each shot group. If the soldier is unable to achieve the standard within 27 shots, the trainer attempts remedial actions or sends the soldier to the remedial training station.

Figure C-3. Exercise 3.

Figure C-3.  Exercise 3.

 

Step 2.

When the grouping standard is met, the soldier makes appropriate sight changes as instructed by the trainer who begins a new session for the zeroing process. The soldier continues to fire three-round shot groups, adjusting the sights as instructed by the trainer to bring the shot groups (maximum 18 shots) within the zeroing circle on the target silhouette. When a shot group falls within the zeroing circle, the soldier fires an additional shot group for confirmation. Five of six shots must fall within the zeroing circle.


NOTE:

Failure to achieve the standard identifies the soldier as a candidate for remedial training who should not progress to exercise 4 until the standard is met.


Exercise 4: LMTS Prequalification.

Action: Engage 10-, 15-, or 25-meter alternate course C scaled silhouettes with an M16-/M4-series weapon.

Conditions: Given an M16-/M4-series weapon, laser transmitter with mandrel, and electronic alternate C target system with 10 10-meter, 15-meter, or 25-meter scaled silhouettes. Engage each silhouette with two shots from the supported position and two shots from the prone unsupported position.

Standard: Without assistance, the soldier engages 10 target silhouettes using the M16-/M4-series weapon with laser transmitter, and achieves a minimum of 30 hits out of 40 shots.

Exercise 4 is used as a skill test to determine the need for training or the results of training and serves as an accurate predictor of live-fire alternate course C performance. Soldiers failing to meet the standards of this exercise should receive remedial training prior to live-fire qualification. The exercise may be conducted in the dry-fire mode with soldiers recocking the rifle between shots. The dry-fire method should use a magazine with the follower and spring removed. Another option for the dry-fire mode involves removing the charging handle and attaching a piece of cord (looped on both ends with the free end about 3 inches from the end of the stock) to the bolt. The coach can recock the rifle between shots by pulling the cord directly to the rear. The sound and recoil replicator options include the M16A2 Blazer (see paragraph C-7) and the alternate laser-mounting bracket used with a standard BFA. Both options offer added realism by providing full rifle function, sound, and recoil. When using the special safe Blazer blanks, the Blazer option may be employed indoors without hearing protection. Standard M200 blanks may only be used with the BFA outdoors with hearing protection. When available, the LMTS mini-RETS range should be employed for added training realism and to prepare soldiers for firing on pop-up targets.

 

Step 1.

The soldier assumes the proper firing position using sandbags in the supported position (Figure C-4).

Figure C-4. Exercise 4.

Figure C-4.  Exercise 4.

 

Step 2.

The trainer prepares the electronic 25-meter alternate C target and computer control station for the prequalification skill test. The course may be conducted at 25 meters, 15 meters, or 10 meters using the appropriate target overlay.


NOTE:

The trainer should use appropriate range commands and enforce all range safety procedures.


 

Step 3.

The soldier applies the four fundamentals of rifle marksmanship using the service rifle (laser-zeroed) during exercise 3 to fire alternate course C.

 

Step 4.

The computer automatically times the test and can print a score sheet.

C-7. SOUND AND RECOIL REPLICATOR

To add realism to the training, a special upper receiver sound and recoil replicator provides full live-fire functionality (without the projectile). It supplies nearly 100 percent of the recoil with 50 percent of the noise using a specially designed nontoxic theatrical blank.

C-8. LMTS PARTS LIST

Table C-1 shows a complete parts list for the LMTS.

Table C-1. Complete LMTS parts list.

Table C-1. Complete LMTS parts list.

Table C-1. Complete LMTS parts list (continued).

Table C-1. Complete LMTS parts list (continued).



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