APPENDIX A
RECONNAISSANCE OVERLAYS, SYMBOLS, AND FORMULAS
This appendix provides leaders the necessary data to use overlays, symbols, and formulas in their reconnaissance efforts.
A1. SYMBOLS
Figure A1 outlines a variety of symbols that soldiers can use to illustrate reconnaissance data on their overlays. Figure A2, shows an example of how these graphics are used in the overlay. Figure A3, shows symbols for various materials, facilities, equipment, and services. (These graphics are adapted from information provided in FM 5170.)
Figure A1. Reconnaissance overlay symbols.
Figure A1. Reconnaissance overlay symbols (continued).
Figure A1. Reconnaissance overlay symbols (continued).
Figure A1. Reconnaissance overlay symbols (continued).
Figure A1. Reconnaissance overlay symbols (continued).
Figure A2. Example of overlay graphics.
Figure A3. Material, facility, equipment, and service symbols.
A2. FORMULAS
This paragraph covers formulas for the reconnaissance platoon to use in water crossing operations and in determining the slope of a road or other piece of terrain. The information is adapted from FM 534.
a. Formulas for Water Obstacles.
(1) Width. Scouts can measure the width of a river or stream using one of several available methods:
 Stretching a string or measuring tape across the river or stream.
 Using a map scale.
 Using a compass and the basic mathematical computation illustrated in Figure A4.
(2) Velocity. Scouts can measure the velocity of the current of a river or stream using the procedures shown in Figure A5.
b. Slope Computation. To determine the slope of a piece of ground, whether it is an established roadway or a crosscountry route, soldiers use a clinometer. If a clinometer is not available, they use the slope computation formula, which requires using one of the following methods to determine horizontal and vertical distances (Figure A6):
 Compute horizontal and vertical distances based on the map scale and contour differences for the road or terrain.
 Estimate horizontal and vertical distances using pacing and eyesight (hasty method).
Figure A4. Measuring stream width with a compass.
Figure A5. Measuring stream velocity.
Figure A6. Slope computation (road gradient).
A3. CONVERSION TABLES
Soldiers can use the following tables for converting English measurements to their metric equivalents. Table A1 lists conversions for common distance measurements (inches to centimeters; feet to meters; yards to meters; miles to kilometers). Table A2, shows conversions of miles per hour to kilometers per hour. Table A3, refers to fieldexpedient antenna lengths.
Table A1. English to metric distance measurement conversions.
Table A2. Miles per hour to kilometers per hour conversions.
Table A3. Operating frequency and wire element length.
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