Risk is the chance of injury or death for individuals and damage to or loss of vehicles and equipment. Risk, or the potential for risk, is always present in every combat and training situation the platoon faces. Risk management must take place at all levels of the chain of command during each phase of every operation; it is an integral part of all tactical planning. The platoon leader, his NCOs, and all other platoon soldiers must know how to use risk management, coupled with fratricide reduction measures, to ensure that the mission is executed in the safest possible environment within mission constraints.
The primary objective of risk management is to help units protect their combat power through accident prevention, enabling them to win the battle quickly and decisively with minimal losses. This appendix outlines the process leaders use to identify hazards and implement a plan to address each identified hazard. It also includes a detailed discussion of the responsibilities of the platoon's leaders and individual soldiers in implementing a sound risk management program. For additional information on risk management, refer to FM 100-14.
Section I. RISK MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES
This section outlines the five steps of risk management. Leaders of the platoon always must remember that the effectiveness of the process depends on the involvement of the chain of command. They should never approach risk management with "one size fits all" solutions to the hazards the platoon will face. Rather, in performing the steps, they must keep in mind the essential tactical and operational factors that make each situation unique.
C-1. STEP 1, IDENTIFY HAZARDS
A hazard is a source of danger. It is any existing or potential condition that could entail injury, illness, or death of personnel; damage to or loss of equipment and property; or some other sort of mission degradation. Tactical and training operations pose many types of hazards. The platoon leader must identify the hazards associated with all aspects and phases of the platoon's mission, paying particular attention to the factors of METT-TC. Risk management never must be an afterthought; leaders must begin the process during their troop-leading procedures and continue it throughout the operation. Table C-1, lists possible sources of battlefield hazards that the platoon might face during a typical tactical operation. The list is organized according to the factors of METT-TC.
TERRAIN AND WEATHER
TROOPS AND EQUIPMENT
Table C-1. Examples of potential hazards.
C-2. STEP 2, ASSESS HAZARDS TO DETERMINE RISKS
Hazard assessment is the process of determining the direct impact of each hazard on an operation (in the form of hazardous incidents). Use the following steps.
a. Determine hazards that can be eliminated or avoided.
b. Assess each hazard that cannot be eliminated or avoided to determine the probability that the hazard can occur.
c. Assess the severity of hazards that cannot be eliminated or avoided. Severity, defined as the result or outcome of a hazardous incident, is expressed by the degree of injury or illness (including death), loss of or damage to equipment or property, environmental damage, or other mission-impairing factors (such as unfavorable publicity or loss of combat power).
d. Taking into account both the probability and severity of a hazard, determine the associated risk level (extremely high, high, moderate, and low). Table C-2 summarizes the four risk levels.
e. Based on the factors of hazard assessment (probability, severity, and risk level, as well as the operational factors unique to the situation), complete the risk management worksheet. Figure C-1 shows an example of a completed risk management worksheet.
Extremely High (E)
Mission failure if hazardous incidents occur in execution.
Significantly degraded mission capabilities in terms of required mission standards. Not accomplishing all parts of the mission or not completing the mission to standard (if hazards occur during mission).
Expected degraded mission capabilities in terms of required mission standards. Reduced mission capability (if hazards occur during the mission).
Expected losses have little or no impact on mission success.
Table C-2. Risk levels and impact on mission execution.
Figure C-1. Completed risk management worksheet.
C-3. STEP 3, DEVELOP CONTROLS AND MAKE RISK DECISIONS
This step is accomplished in two substeps: develop controls and make risk decisions. These substeps are accomplished during the "make a tentative plan" step of the troop-leading procedures.
a. Develop Controls. After assessing each hazard, develop one or more controls that either will eliminate the hazard or reduce the risk (probability, severity, or both) of potential hazardous incidents. When developing controls, consider the reason for the hazard, not just the hazard by itself.
b. Make Risk Decisions. A key element in the process of making a risk decision is determining whether accepting the risk is justified or, conversely, is unnecessary. The decision-maker (the platoon leader, if applicable) must compare and balance the risk against mission expectations. He alone decides if the controls are sufficient and acceptable and whether to accept the resulting residual risk. If he determines the risk is unnecessary, he directs the development of additional controls or alternative controls; as another option, he can modify, change, or reject the selected COA for the operation.
C-4. STEP 4, IMPLEMENT CONTROLS
Controls are the procedures and considerations the unit uses to eliminate hazards or reduce their risk. Implementing controls is the most important part of the risk management process; this is the chain of command's contribution to the safety of the unit. Implementing controls includes coordination and communication with appropriate superior, adjacent, and subordinate units and with individuals executing the mission. The platoon leader must ensure that specific controls are integrated into operations plans (OPLANs), OPORDs, SOPs, and rehearsals. The critical check for this step is to ensure that controls are converted into clear, simple execution orders understood by all levels. If the leaders have conducted a thoughtful risk assessment, the controls will be easy to implement, enforce, and follow. Examples of risk management controls include the following:
- Thoroughly brief all aspects of the mission, including related hazards and controls.
- Conduct thorough precombat checks (PCCs) and PCIs.
- Allow adequate time for rehearsals at all levels.
- Drink plenty of water, eat well, and get as much sleep as possible (at least 4 hours in any 24-hour period).
- Use buddy teams.
- Enforce speed limits, use of seat belts, and driver safety.
- Establish recognizable visual signals and markers to distinguish maneuvering units.
- Enforce the use of ground guides in assembly areas and on dangerous terrain.
- Establish marked and protected sleeping areas in assembly areas.
- Limit single-vehicle movement.
- Establish SOPs for the integration of new personnel.
C-5. STEP 5, SUPERVISE AND EVALUATE
During mission execution, leaders must ensure that risk management controls are properly understood and executed. Leaders must continuously evaluate the unit's effectiveness in managing risks to gain insight into areas that need improvement.
a. Supervision. Leadership and unit discipline are the keys to ensuring that effective risk management controls are implemented.
(1) All leaders are responsible for supervising mission rehearsals and execution to ensure standards and controls are enforced. In particular, NCOs must enforce established safety policies as well as controls developed for a specific operation or task. Techniques include spot checks, inspections, SITREPs, confirmation briefs, buddy checks, and close supervision.
(2) During mission execution, leaders must continuously monitor risk management controls to determine whether they are effective and to modify them as necessary. Leaders also must anticipate, identify, and assess new hazards. They ensure that imminent danger issues are addressed on the spot and that ongoing planning and execution reflect changes in hazard conditions.
b. Evaluation. Whenever possible, the risk management process also should include an after-action review (AAR) to assess unit performance in identifying risks and preventing hazardous situations. During an AAR, leaders should assess if the implemented controls were effective. Following the AAR, leaders should incorporate lessons learned from the process into unit SOPs and plans for future missions.
Section II. IMPLEMENTATION RESPONSIBILITIES
Leaders and individuals at all levels are responsible and accountable for managing risk. They must ensure that hazards and associated risks are identified and controlled during planning, preparation, and execution of operations. The platoon leader and his senior NCOs must look at both tactical risks and accident risks. The same risk management process is used to manage both types. The platoon leader alone determines how and where he is willing to take tactical risks. The platoon leader manages accident risks with the assistance of his platoon sergeant, NCOs, and individual soldiers.
C-6. BREAKDOWN OF THE RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS
Despite the need to advise higher headquarters of a risk taken or about to be assumed, the risk management process may break down. Such a failure can be the result of several factors; most often, it can be attributed to the following:
- The risk denial syndrome in which leaders do not want to know about the risk.
- A soldier who believes that the risk decision is part of his job and does not want to bother his platoon leader or section leader.
- Outright failure to recognize a hazard or the level of risk involved.
- Overconfidence on the part of an individual or the unit in being able to avoid or recover from a hazardous incident.
- Subordinates who do not fully understand the higher commander's guidance regarding risk decisions.
C-7. RISK MANAGEMENT COMMAND CLIMATE
The platoon leader gives the platoon direction, sets priorities, and establishes the command climate (values, attitudes, and beliefs). Successful preservation of combat power requires him to embed risk management into individual behavior. To fulfill this commitment, the platoon leader must exercise creative leadership, innovative planning, and careful management. Most importantly, he must demonstrate support for the risk management process.
a. The platoon leader and others in the platoon chain of command can establish a command climate favorable to risk management integration by taking the following actions:
- Demonstrate consistent and sustained risk management behavior through leadership by example and emphasis on active participation throughout the risk management process.
- Provide adequate resources for risk management. Every leader is responsible for obtaining the assets necessary to mitigate risk and for providing them to subordinate leaders.
- Understand your own and your soldiers' limitations, as well as your unit's capabilities.
- Allow subordinates to make mistakes and learn from them.
- Prevent a "zero defects" mindset from creeping into the platoon's culture.
- Demonstrate full confidence in subordinates' mastery of their trade and their ability to execute a chosen COA.
- Keep subordinates informed.
- Listen to subordinates.
b. For the platoon leader, his subordinate leaders, and individual soldiers, responsibilities in managing risk include the following:
- Make informed risk decisions. Establish and then clearly communicate risk decision criteria and guidance.
- Establish clear, feasible risk management policies and goals.
- Train the risk management process. Ensure that subordinates understand the who, what, when, where, and why of managing risk and how these factors apply to their situation and assigned responsibilities.
- Accurately evaluate the platoon's effectiveness as well as subordinates' execution of risk controls during the mission.
- Inform higher headquarters when risk levels exceed established limits.
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