COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT OPERATIONS
The core of combat service support to the SBCT is the brigade support battalion, which provides direct support to the SBCT. The BSB has an austere force structure with the minimum capabilities necessary to support the SBCT. This CSS support package is strategically mobile and focused only on sustainment necessities and thus does not provide the same level of support as that provided by other support battalions. Initial sustainment relies on a combination of unit basic loads (UBLs), strategic configured loads (SCLs), and the availability of fuel and water in the area of operations. By deploying with CSS packages tailored for a specific operation, the SBCT can sustain itself for up to 72 hours.
With reliance on regionally available commercial support, the BSB provides sustainment to the SBCT during peacetime military engagements, small-scale contingencies, and major theater war. In MTW, the BSB requires significant augmentation from a division, corps, or ARFOR to sustain the SBCT.
The SBCT commander, through his executive officer, S1, S4, and brigade surgeon, makes plans and key decisions concerning CSS. As the senior CSS commander, the BSB commander serves as the primary CSS operator for support to the SBCT. His staff manages most CSS operations through an array of digital information systems. Because of the SBCT's austere CSS system, the BSB support operations section has the capability to integrate CSS activities from outside the SBCT. The rear command post is the focal point of these activities.
In SBCT units, health service support assets are assigned to maneuver units. The infantry battalions and cavalry squadron (RSTA) each have a medical platoon. The field artillery battalion, antitank, and engineer companies each have a medical section. In addition, the BSB provides each infantry battalion, cavalry squadron (RSTA), and field artillery battalion with a combat repair team (CRT) to provide maintenance and repair parts support to all units operating in that battalion's area. The BSB retains control over supply and transportation assets to provide area support for other key logistics functions such as rations; petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL); and munitions. Respective staff sections, such as S1 and the unit ministry team, support other CSS functions (personnel, legal, and religious, for example).
a. Within this support structure, the SBCT must plan, prepare, and execute its CSS plan. Concurrent with the operational planning of the main CP, the rear CP develops the CSS plan during mission analysis and refines it in the war gaming portion of the decision-making process. CSS rehearsals are normally conducted to ensure a smooth, continuous flow of materiel and services.
b. The SBCT's basic CSS responsibilities are to execute CSS with its BSB and medical units, to report and request all other support requirements through the correct ARFOR channels, and to ensure that CSS operations are properly executed when support elements arrive in the SBCT area. The rear CP is normally in charge of these functions, with guidance and oversight provided by the SBCT commander.
The rear CP controls and coordinates CSS for the SBCT. This includes ensuring that supplies and services for sustainment are provided by higher, joint, multinational, host nation, or contract sources. The primary CSS functions required by the SBCT include casualty treatment and evacuation, resupply operations, maintenance activities, and personnel service support. The SBCT S1 and S4 sections collocate with the BSB CP to form the rear CP in the SBCT support area. The following personnel have the primary responsibility for CSS.
a. SBCT Commander. The commander ensures that CSS operations sustain his SBCT's fighting potential. He provides the following guidance for CSS personnel:
- CSS priorities in terms of maintenance, transportation, supply, health service support, field services, explosive ordnance disposal, human resources support, financial management operations, religious support, legal support, and band support.
- Location of CSS assets.
- Medical evacuation treatment and evacuation guidance.
- Controlled supply rates.
- Guidance on construction and provision of facilities and installations.
b. Executive Officer. The XO integrates and synchronizes the SBCT's logistical efforts. During the planning phase, he reviews the tactical plan with the S3 to determine CSS requirements and supervises coordination with the rear CP. The XO also ensures the CSS needs of the SBCT's separate companies are met.
c. BSB Commander. The BSB commander is the senior CSS commander and single logistics operator for the SBCT. He directs all units organic or attached to the battalion in support of the SBCT mission. He also has C2 of all elements in the BSA for security and terrain management and ensures the SBCT commander's CSS guidance is being fulfilled.
d. Adjutant (S1). The SBCT personnel and administration section is responsible for maintaining unit strength and conducting personnel actions. The S1 section processes status and strength reports and personnel awards and orders. It coordinates finance, legal, and postal services for the SBCT. The S1 coordinates the special staff efforts of the chaplain, brigade surgeon, and any attached public affairs personnel. The S1 manages the casualty system. The S1 is also the staff point of contact for activities such as inspector general and morale support issues. During tactical operations, the S1 supports the S4 section in operation of the rear CP.
e. Logistics Officer (S4). The logistics section is responsible for providing logistical planning and support to the SBCT and operates the rear CP. He determines the requirements for maintenance, supply, transportation, and services for the SBCT. The S4 normally positions his assistant at the main CP to assist the S3's synchronization of combat and sustainment operations. The S4 section mans the rear CP in conjunction with elements of the S1 section and BSB staff.
f. Signal Officer (S6). The S6 section is responsible for maintenance management of the C2 INFOSYS network. S6 sections in battalions provide operator maintenance support. The SBCT signal company provides limited DS maintenance support for organic signal equipment within the company. The S6 also coordinates for civilian and contractor support to supplement military personnel.
g. BSB Support Operations Officer. The support operations officer (SPO) is the principal BSB staff officer for coordinating CSS to the SBCT. He provides the technical supervision for the external CSS mission of the support battalion. He is the key interface between the supported units and the support battalion. Support requirements are determined in coordination with the SBCT S1, S4, the surgeon, and the CSS representatives of the supported units. The SPO plans and monitors support operations and makes necessary adjustments to ensure support requirements are met. The SPO requests and coordinates augmentation with the higher echelon when requirements exceed capabilities.
h. Brigade Surgeon. The brigade (SBCT) surgeon, as a special staff officer, is responsible for HSS operations in support of the SBCT. Using his staff, he ensures the timely planning, coordination, integration, rehearsal, and synchronization of HSS assets in support of SBCT operations. The brigade surgeon coordinates with the BSB, the infantry battalions, the cavalry squadron (RSTA), and other staff elements to ensure adequacy of support. The brigade surgeon, as authorized by the commander, is responsible for the technical control of all medical activities in the command. The brigade surgeon keeps the commander informed on the status of HSS for SBCT operations and on the health of the command. He coordinates and synchronizes HSS planning and operations with the BSB SPO medical cell. This HSS cell includes a medical operations officer, a medical plans and operations NCO, and a medical logistics officer (MLO). See FM 4-02.21 for definitive information on duties of the brigade surgeon.
i. Chaplain. Chaplains are assigned to US military units to assist commanders in providing for the right of free exercise of religion to all personnel. The chaplain is a special staff member who serves as a confidential advisor to the commander on the spiritual fitness and ethical and moral health of the command. He is responsible for the professional oversight of the battalion unit ministry teams. Each UMT is composed of a chaplain and one enlisted chaplain's assistant.
The SBCT is designed to deploy rapidly to conduct combat operations worldwide. Once warning or alert notification occurs, predeployment activities accelerate. These activities include training validation, task organization, and equipment maintenance. The SBCT has a full-time mobility warrant officer assigned to the SBCT S4 section. He ensures that the transportation requirements for the SBCT are established prior to any alert or warning order. Each unit in the SBCT should have an appropriate number of personnel trained to perform special deployment duties. These duties include pallet construction teams, unit loading teams, hazardous cargo certifying officials, and air load planners.
To meet the challenge of supporting the operations of warfighters and to meet deployment objectives, the SBCT employs an austere CSS package with minimum capabilities. This CSS force package is streamlined, strategically mobile, and focused on sustainment necessities. This tailoring is achieved by optimizing the use of CSS resources (through CSS situational understanding) and minimizing the operational and CSS footprint in the area of operations. Split-basing (the concept of locating assets in the rear and forward with all but the immediate essentials held in the rear) and modularity (the concept of creating standardized units which may be located rear or forward) provide just-in-time support to the SBCT. Supplies are pushed forward from the rear as needed, whenever and wherever feasible. Also, highly deployable CSS assets are positioned to rapidly enter and depart the area of operations as needed to sustain the force. These concepts are part of CSS reach as discussed below and in FM 4-93.7. The key logistics and HSS provider within the SBCT is the BSB. However, there are other elements in the SBCT that plan and execute CSS operations. This section covers the CSS functions performed by the BSB and those SBCT elements other than the BSB.
The SBCT brigade support battalion is organized to perform distribution-based, centralized CSS functions in accordance with Army XXI CSS concepts. Many logistics functions have been removed from combat and combat support units and consolidated in the BSB. The brigade support battalion (Figure 11-1) consists of the headquarters and three companies: the headquarters and distribution company, the forward maintenance company, and the brigade support medical company. The austere design of the CSS structure is insufficient to sustain both the SBCT in garrison and during extended operations. The BSB has a limited distribution forward capability. It combines situational understanding with efficient delivery systems to form a distribution pipeline, eliminating most stockpiles. Supplies are tailored and packaged for specific supported units based on a specific time and location. Total asset visibility, including in-transit visibility, gives CSS personnel visibility over all assets and infrastructure capacity in the area of operations. The combat service support company is the solution to overcome the shortfalls of the BSB during sustained operations.
Figure 11-1 . Brigade support battalion.
Theater support contracting is an acceptable means for the SBCT to acquire locally available logistics support for operational requirements. Contracting may be conducted with foreign governments, commercial entities, or civilian agencies. The commander or his designated representative (the S4, for example) must identify and prioritize the unit's external requirements for the AO. Contracting can:
- Bridge gaps that occur before sufficient organic support is available.
- Reduce dependence on nationally-based logistics system.
- Improve response time and reduce footprint.
- Augment the existing logistics support capability for critical supplies and services.
- Reduce demands for the military resources and improve relationships with the populace.
a. Principal Assistant Responsible for Contracting (PARC). The PARC is the mission commander's senior Army acquisition advisor responsible for planning and managing all Army contracting functions within the theater. All Army contracting authority in a theater flows from the head of contracting activity to the Army's PARC. All Army contracting personnel within the theater, except those assigned to the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the US Army materiel command (USAMC), operate under the procurement authority of the PARC. Within the AO in which the SBCT is operating, the Army PARC or other lead service responsible for theater support contracting support is the only official authorized to issue a warrant delegating contracting authority to contracting officers. The PARC may consolidate control of all contracting officers' representatives (CORs) in theater, at any time, in accordance with the combatant commander's contracting support plan for the AO. The COR represents the contracting officer only to the extent documented in the written appointment. Refer to FM 100-10-2, Contracting Support on the Battlefield, and FM 3-100.21, Contractors on the Battlefield, for more information on COR responsibilities.
b. SBCT Role. Contracting will require supervision by the SBCT staff. Generally, the S4 generates the requirement for a contract, but other staff proponents are responsible for contracting support requirements within their functional areas. For example, the G/S2 may have a requirement for linguists. Funding guidance is required and close coordination with CA, finance and accounting activities, and legal support is essential. Upon mission termination or redeployment, the command must close out all records or files and submit them to the appropriate authorities for disposition. Contractors external to the AO may be used, but the logistics staff must consider such issues as taxes, cross border fees, and landing fees. The command must have a comprehensive contracting support plan to ensure the force uses proper legal methods when getting supplies and services. The plan should meet the following requirements:
- Designate specific personnel to approve purchase requests prior to their submission to the contracting element.
- Designate an official, normally from a supply activity or the unit requiring commercial support, to accept, account for, and distribute locally procured goods and equipment. The requiring activity identifies the receiving official to the contracting officer on the purchase request. The receiving official accepts vendor delivery and then forwards receiving reports to the contracting officer to verify delivery. Contracting officers need valid receiving reports before a vendor may be paid.
- Include procedures and policies for contracting support in the AO, assuring full use of host nation (HN) support and contracting resources.
- Ensure contracting receives consideration during logistic planning and becomes part of the OPORD or OPLAN.
- Develop an area database containing all available information concerning local resources from area studies, foreign service personnel, civilian agencies, and locally developed logistics support data. It should also contain a list of contracting and HN support agreements in the AO. The UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs' relief Internet site (http://www.reliefweb.int/) contains maps and current field reports from civilian agencies and is a source of information on current global complex emergencies.
- Address security performance measures and quality control aspects of contracting to include inspection of goods received to ensure against sabotage, poisoning, or other terrorist-style actions.
c. BSB Role. The BSB is authorized two contingency contracting officers to provide support to the SBCT and AOR PARC. They coordinate contracting requirements for and assist in acquiring local logistics support. The BSB must receive support from linguists and interpreters and coordinate with representatives from other multinational forces. The contracting officers should:
- Provide coordination and cooperation among nations that maintain parallel contractors in the AO to avoid competition for local services and obtain the best prices through consolidated requirements.
- Coordinate with CA, finance and accounting activities, and legal support.
- Avoid complications with respect to employed local laborers and contractors, currency exchange rates, local hire wage scales, and customs regulations.
- Evaluate current HN contracts between the HN and civilian agencies in the AO and evaluate their effectiveness.
- Train CORs.
d. Unit Role. The government-wide commercial purchase card (GCPC) used in CONUS may also be used outside CONUS (OCONUS). Because merchant acceptance of the GCPC varies widely outside the US, contingency planning should determine whether GCPC is useful in specific instances. As a general rule, commanders should anticipate needing both GCPC and contracting officers.
e. Mission Termination or Redeployment Requirements. Upon mission termination or redeployment, the contracting officer or element must close out all records or files and submit them to the appropriate AOR PARC office for disposition. Utilizing theater contracting support is often the preferred method of support, but the COR must consider such issues as taxes, cross border fees, landing fees, and custom requirements before executing contract award. The Army PARC should have a comprehensive contract support plan (CSP) to ensure the force and CORs follow the process, procedures, and priorities established when getting supplies and services in the AO. The plan should include
- Management relationships.
- Location and structure of the contracting elements in the AO, to include a list of units and activities that will be supported by each.
- Types of supplies, services, and construction capabilities commercially available within the mission area.
- A list of special prioritization or control measures that apply for scarce commodities or services.
- Concept of contracting operations which is phased and synchronized with the overall support plan.
- Description and assessment of host nation support (HNS) agreements, customs, laws, culture, language, religion, and business practices which impact on contracting operations.
- Specific statutory and or regulatory constraints or exemptions that apply to the supported operation.
- Procedures for receiving valid unit requirements, funding of those requirements, payment of contractor, and closing out the contract after completion.
- Procedures for appointing, training, and employing field ordering officers (FOOs), CORs, paying agents, and government purchase card (GPC) holders.
SBCT and battalion personnel sections perform their traditional roles of personnel management, personnel services, and personnel support. The four independent companies (antitank, engineer, signal, and military intelligence) of the SBCT are normally assigned to one of the SBCT's subordinate battalions for personnel support.
a. Personnel Management. S1 sections ensure their commander's priorities for manning units are executed.
(1) The battalion S1 focuses on accurate personnel accounting and strength reporting.
(2) The SBCT S1 focuses on replacement management, including the status of casualties in medical treatment facilities (MTFs). Individual replacements will arrive at the SBCT with individual weapons and personal equipment (for example, TA-50).
(3) Personal information management, a deliberate system of validating and storing critical information on soldiers and contractors, is supported by the SBCT S1 with reach to the intermediate staging base or home station.
b. Personnel Services. Generally, home station assets via reach operations will perform personnel services.
(1) Casualty operations management is primarily an SBCT S1 responsibility. Battalion S1s ensure that witness statements and casualty feeder reports are accurate and complete. The SBCT S1 is responsible for verifying unit submissions of witness statement and casualty feeder reports against the personnel database and emergency data in the soldier's deployment packet. After verifying information with the appropriate medical treatment facility, the SBCT forwards the casualty information through the Army casualty information processing system.
(2) SBCT and battalion S1 sections have limited ability to conduct personnel services (awards, promotions, evaluations, and reassignments) while deployed. S1s will handle pay-input transactions for military pay.
c. Personnel Support. Personnel support is METT-TC dependant and will normally require a mature theater of operations.
(1) Postal operations within the SBCT will be limited to mail and distribution activities. The SBCT S1 section will receive pre-sorted letter mail and small packages. Battalion mail clerks will pick up incoming mail from, and drop off outgoing mail to, the SBCT mail clerk.
(2) The SBCT S1 will coordinate with units for provision of morale, welfare, and recreation (MWR) activities and services as the mission permits. The MWR system is a necessary outlet for soldiers to relieve combat stress and is critical to sustaining the readiness of the force. Refer to FM 12-6 for definitive information about MWR functions and responsibilities.
The brigade operational law team provides legal support in operational law (OPLAW) and either provides or coordinates legal support for the six legal disciplines: military justice, international law, administrative law, civil law (contract law, fiscal law, and environmental law), claims, and legal assistance. (See Chapter 2, FM 4-93.7.)
a. The SBCT judge advocate and a legal specialist provide OPLAW support from the SBCT main CP in order to support the commander and his FECC.
b. The bulk of the BOLT provides legal support from the SBCT rear CP.
c. Battalion legal specialists may be consolidated with the BOLT or provide services from within the battalions.
The UMT is composed of a chaplain (56A) and an enlisted chaplain assistant (56M). Each UMT develops a religious support plan that details how it can best coordinate and facilitate religious support throughout its AO. The SBCT UMT reviews and may adjust battalion religious support plans to ensure that religious coverage is available to all. This includes contractors, refugees, displaced persons, detained civilians in the area of operation, and enemy prisoners of war. As casualties increase, the SBCT UMT will also adjust religious coverage.
a. SBCT chaplains have a greater staff role than their battalion counterparts. As staff officers, chaplains can research and interpret cultural and religious factors pertinent to a given operational area. They may work with civil affairs personnel in analyzing local religious organizations, customs and practices, doctrines, symbols, and the significance of shrines and holy places. Chaplains conduct liaison with, and support humanitarian efforts by working with, humanitarian relief agencies, civil affairs, and public affairs where appropriate.
b. The SBCT UMT is responsible for professional training and will identify the training needs of subordinate chaplains, enlisted religious support personnel, and lay readers or lay leaders.
c. Chaplains advise the commander on the moral and ethical nature of command policies, programs, and actions and their impact on soldiers. They often serve as the "conscience of the command." The religious support model in Figure 11-2, depicts the supporting functions and tasks. Chaplains provide support to soldiers for death notifications of family members, Red Cross notifications by command, and liaison with CONUS and host nation clergy.
d. Religious support is usually expressed in terms of coverage. Traditionally, coverage deals with the type of support a UMT provides to elements of the unit. Coverage consists of three religious support functions: unit support, area support, and denominational support.
(1) Area support is provided those who are not a part of the UMT's unit but who are operating within the same AO without organic or available religious support.
(2) Denominational support may be limited to available assets. UMTs usually provide denominational support on an area basis.
e. Battalion UMTs normally operate from their CTCPs or battalion aid stations.
(1) They often move with a logistics package (LOGPAC) to a logistic release point (LRP) to minister and provide services to a company.
(2) During combat operations, the UMT's priority for religious support is care for the wounded. The UMT performs "religious triage" in coordination with medical treatment personnel. The UMT moves to positions where the largest numbers of casualties are to be collected, usually at battalion aid stations.
(3) After combat, the UMT ministers to survivors, paying attention to leaders and those who show signs of battle stress.
- The BSB UMT usually operates from the BSA and provides support to the BSMC and field trains. Battalion UMTs coordinate for support of unit soldiers in the BSA.
Figure 11-2 . The religious support model.
Financial management support includes: banking and currency support, disbursing support, cost-capturing and accounting, and US and non-US pay, including EPW/CI. The SBCT has no organic financial management support assets. Normally finance detachments (FDs) are deployed to provide financial management. One FD will typically support an SBCT. An FD can provide support by deploying finance support teams to supported units' locations. The FD provides pay (US and non-US) support, commercial vendor services support, disbursing/funding support, travel support, and finance data base maintenance for units and personnel in its AO. (See FM 14-100.) The following are typical finance requirements of the SBCT:
a. Temporary Duty Requests (TDY). There are many valid reasons for TDY requests during contingency operations; for example, retrograde of test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment (TMDE), coordination meetings at the intermediate staging base (ISB), and testifying in court proceedings.
b. Purchase Requests and Commitments. Various forms are used by the services for the local purchase of supplies, equipment, and vendor services. In most cases, procurement actions will be processed through the BSB's contracting officers. The contracting officer will ensure the procurement action is authorized under the federal acquisition regulations. The procurement will then be forwarded to the SBCT budget officer for fund certification and recording of the associated commitment of appropriated funds.
c. Tactical Financial Management for Logistics. The SBCT's resource management (RM) personnel (S4 and SPO) can obtain financial management data from the standard Army financial inventory accounting and reporting system (STARFIARS) cost transfer cycle. The accounting section of the supporting finance unit can provide these reports. The reports show the dollar value of supplies ordered by individual unit and supply support activity.
d. Multinational Support. The use of operations and maintenance (O&M) funds is restricted to providing sustainment and training support for US forces. O&M funds are not intended to be used for humanitarian or civic relief projects, support of foreign forces, support to foreign governments, or the United Nations. These issues can be politically sensitive; therefore, the SBCT commander should seek guidance from the appropriate authority.
The SBCT has no organic military police support assets to take control of and evacuate EPWs. Logisticians at battalion and below often have the responsibility to plan for and conduct initial processing of EPWs. See Figure 11-3, for an illustration of EPW handling.
a. Soldiers capturing EPWs and documents report immediately and coordinate a linkup with the first sergeant (1SG) to turn the prisoners and documents over to him. The 1SG, often assisted by his supply section, moves the EPWs to the vicinity of the combat trains or UMCP for processing and subsequent interrogation by SBCT, battalion, or MI company personnel.
b. The combat trains command post (CTCP) plans and coordinates EPW operations, collection points, and evacuation procedures. EPWs are evacuated from the battalion area as rapidly as possible. Prisoners are then moved to the EPW collection point on returning LOGPAC vehicles or by transportation coordinated by the S4. As necessary, the S2 reviews and reports any documents or information of immediate value. The S4 coordinates evacuation of large amounts of enemy equipment.
c. The BSB, in coordination with (ICW) the SBCT rear CP, allocates space in the BSA for the EPW collection point. The SBCT S3 assigns responsibility for EPW processing. Since there is no organic MP support, it is reasonable to assume that an infantry unit could be detailed to operate the EPW collection point until a higher headquarters assumes responsibility for them.
Figure 11-3 . EPW handling.
Recovery operations are conducted to search for, recover, and evacuate human remains for proper disposition. Prior to augmentation from a higher headquarters, the SBCT must plan for and conduct recovery operations. The SBCT has one NCO in the BSB to assist in planning for mortuary affairs (MA).
a. Remains should not be removed from the scene until all the WIA have been removed and the commander grants authorization to do so.
b. The site must be safe for recovery personnel. It is likely that the site will have hazardous conditions if remains are to be recovered.
c. There should be restricted access to the site. Media should not be allowed on the site.
d. The location of all remains should be documented prior to removing remains from the site.
e. Upon approval of the commander, the remains may be removed from the site. Ensure that all identification media is safeguarded. Leave all clothing and personal effects with the remains. The remains should be shrouded from view or placed in remains pouches before transport.
f. It may be necessary to use host nation labor to assist in the recovery. They should be briefed on search techniques, what they are looking for, and what to do when they find remains, personal effects, or ordnance. Close supervision is the key.
g. Procedures must be established for handling deceased local nationals and enemy soldiers.
Fast, reliable communications are critical to the CSS effort. Whether as directed by the ARFOR headquarters or as needed to support a battalion mission, the SBCT rear CP must be able to report instantly the SBCT, battalion, or even a single company's status, including combat losses, and to send resupply and support requests.
a. Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below. FBCB2 is a network of computers, global positioning equipment, and communication systems that provide on-the-move, real-time command and control information to tactical combat arms, CS, and CSS soldiers and leaders. The system provides preformatted, standardized reports allowing the leaders to rapidly disseminate required reports and FRAGOs. Each vehicle in the SBCT has an FBCB2 system that can transmit its logistical and personnel status reports to the chain of command and the rear CP. FBCB2 is the fastest method of disseminating this information. Leaders may verify receipt of all reports sent via FBCB2 either by follow-up message or via voice.
b. Combat Net Radio. Radios (AM/FM) are still the primary means of command and control communications. The SBCT administrative and logistics (A/L) net may be used to provide C2 of CSS missions. Nondigital units that augment the SBCT will likely rely on FM communications for A/L.
c. Messenger or Wire. As an alternative, units can send CSS reports and requests by messenger or wire. Messengers are slower than radio transmission but more secure. Wire communications are also very secure but are strictly limited in range and coverage and may not be a feasible option in a fast paced operation or non-contiguous environment. For sending lengthy or complex reports and requests, messenger or wire is better than radio transmission.
Computers have automated many CSS functions within the SBCT. They enable the SBCT rear CP to obtain near real-time status of any battalion or company.
a. Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below. FBCB2 has CSS management programs built into its software capabilities. Preformatted CSS reports from individuals and units automatically update many of the SBCT's recurring CSS rollup reports. Using these automated logistics and personnel reports, the rear CP can obtain near real-time status of individual FBCB2 platforms and unit rollups (Figure 11-4). The rear CP is responsible for posting FBCB2 rollup reports to CSSCS.
Figure 11-4. Preformatted CSS reports in FBCB2.
(1) FBCB2 is used to report the status of selected equipment and supplies that are designated by the commander. This commander's tracked item list (CTIL) is prepared by the SBCT S3 and is disseminated throughout the organization. The commander's tracked item list is transmitted from the CSSCS to FBCB2 at the SBCT rear CP.
(2) Logistics status reports are divided into two categories. For supplies (Classes I, II, III, IV, V, and VIII), the report shows the amount units have on hand and serviceable. For equipment (Classes VII and IX), the report shows what is on hand and whether mission capable or not.
(3) Personnel status reports are used to report the status of each individual assigned to a FBCB2 platform.
(4) Supply point status reports are used to identify a supply point location, operating times, stocked items, and quantities on hand. Sending this report results in a geo-referenced icon that goes out over the entire tactical Internet.
(5) Medical evacuation requests may be initiated by any platform experiencing an emergency that requires medical evacuation. Initial requests usually go via voice because of the urgency, but follow-up FBCB2 requests allow the status of the MEDEVAC request to be monitored.
(6) Logistics task management is a series of logistics support messages tied together by a task management thread that monitors progress of a logistics task from initiation to completion. It provides information necessary to locate the vehicle needing support, route information, and coordinating information to facilitate the support mission. Using the task management feature, the rear CP can manage logistic calls for support (CFS) (Figure 11-5) and logistics task orders (LTOs) (Figure 11-6.)
Figure 11-5 . Logistics call for support.
Figure 11-6 . Logistics task orders (task management screen in FBCB2.
b. Combat Service Support Control System. CSSCS is a command and control tool for tactical commanders and staffs in CSS units and in combat and combat support units. It provides a snapshot of the current CSS status within units and supply points that the commander considers critical to the accomplishment of the mission. CSSCS provides battlefield decision support for planning and controlling the logistics support of combat operations. CSSCS provides material and personnel status of units and identifies logistics capability to resupply units for subsequent combat operations. CSSCS receives input and provides visibility of data from FBCB2, supply property book system-revised (SPBS-R) (property), standard army maintenance system (SAMS) (maintenance), standard Army retail supply subsystem (SARSS) (supply), transportation coordinator's automated information for movements system (TCAIMS) (transportation), medical communications for combat casualty care (MC4) (medical) and standard installation division personnel system (SIDPERS) (personnel). The following CSSCS capabilities are used by the SBCT rear CP:
- Resource status summaries display current logistics information by class of supply, item, or unit as color-coded charts or detailed tabular reports.
- Course of action analysis, as deliberate or "quick" analysis, uses either current or planned task organization based upon approved planning factors.
- Unit task organization tracks task organization to company level and provides a structure for resource tracking.
- CTIL is a subset of baseline resource items list (BRIL) that includes those items of command interest and command controlled items that are tracked by CSSCS.
- Color-coded 'gumballs' indicate authorized and operational status by class of supply and unit.
- Common operational picture with higher quality digital maps than those on FBCB2.
c. Tactical Personnel System and Standard Installation Division Personnel Information System. The S1 section runs tactical personnel system (TPS) and SIDPERS-3.
d. Medical Communication for Combat Casualty Care. Currently there is not a medical STAMIS at division and below with the exception of the one Theater Army Medical Management Information System (TAMMIS) located in the division medical supply office. However, with the fielding of the new medical STAMIS (MC4), all division medical units/elements will have an automated enabler. Medical communications for combat casualty care is the Army's hardware infrastructure that will integrate the joint theater medical information program (TMIP) linking the warfighters and CSS to force health protection (FHP)/HSS throughout all levels of care. It is the new STAMIS objective system integrating joint TMIP software products with Army (service) MC4 hardware infrastructure. It also provides an automation of near real-time medical information to support C2, situational understanding, and medical commodity management.
e. Maneuver Control System. The S4 section has an MCS that enables the SBCT rear CP to fulfill its role as an alternate SBCT CP.
f. Unit Level Logistics System-S4. Unit level logistics system-S4 (ULLS-S4) is located at SBCT and battalion level S4 staff sections. ULLS-S4 automates the supply property requisitioning and document register process, hand and subhand receipts, component, budget, and logistical planning activities.
g. Global Combat Support System-Army. Global combat support system-Army (GCCS-A) is the new automated system that will replace most existing logistics-related automated systems. GCSS-A will be a software package that will leverage best commercial practice technologies and link all logistics functions into one relational database creating a seamless logistical system providing near-real time logistics information that the tactical commander can use to build and sustain combat power. GCSS-A will be made up of a series of functional modules such as supply, property, maintenance, and management. The first module fielded will replace SPBS-R and ULLS-S4.
Section III. SUPPLY AND TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS
Each SBCT company deploys with 72 hours of supplies. Battalions do not have organic supply or transportation assets, so the BSB must resupply maneuver companies. The SBCT S4, ICW battalion S4s and the BSB, must coordinate these resupply actions. Resupply operations are generally classified as routine or immediate. Cues and procedures for each method are specified in battalion, BSB, and SBCT SOPs and are rehearsed during field training exercises. The actual method selected for resupply in the field depends on METT-TC factors.
Supplies are divided into ten major categories, which are referred to as classes. There are also a few miscellaneous items that do not fit into any of the other ten supply classes. Figure 11-7, shows the classes of supply.
a. Class I. Units will deploy with three days of supply (DOS). Class I supplies (meals, ready-to-eat [MREs]) will be configured into unit configured loads by the BSB based on personnel strength reports. These pallet-sized loads will be delivered with the LOGPACs by the BSB's transportation platoon. No unit in the SBCT has organic food service capabilities. Operational rations (MREs) will be used until military augmentation (BSB combat service support company) or contractor support is identified in theater.
b. Water. Units will deploy with three DOS. Infantry rifle companies have two 400-gallon water trailers; all other companies have one. Water will be resupplied every other day by LOGPACs. The BSB's fuel and water support platoon is capable of limited purification with it's two 600 gallons per hour (GPH) reverse osmosis purification units (ROWPU) and limited storage (12,000 gallons). The SBCT is expected to obtain bulk water or commercial bottled water in the theater of operations. The SBCT rear CP must ensure that the BSB is provided an adequate water source. Location of that water source is critical to sustainment of the SBCT.
c. Class II. Limited stocks of Class II items (preventive medicine, field hygiene, weapons cleaning, and special tools) will be available at the BSB. Class II (NBC) will be configured by echelons above brigade at ISBs and called forward as needed. Class II administrative supplies will not be stocked at the BSB but may be requested as the theater matures.
d. Class III. The fuel in deploying vehicles allows each unit to deploy with two DOS. The BSB's fuel and water support platoon has the only bulk fuel distribution capability within the SBCT. There are fourteen heavy expanded mobility tactical truck (HEMTT) fuelers (2,500 gallons each) that support all maneuver units with LOGPAC operations. The SBCT S4 will arrange for LOGPACs to deliver fuel based on logistics status reports. The BSB positions fourteen palletized load system (PLS) trailers with fuel tank racks (2,500 gallons each) for bulk fuel storage in the BSA. The SBCT is expected to obtain fuel in the theater of operations. The BSB has an additive injector to convert commercial fuel to Army fuel (JP8). The BSB retains limited motor gasoline (MOGAS) capability for unmanned aerial vehicles and other miscellaneous equipment. Limited stocks of Class III (P) items (packaged petroleum products) will be available at the BSB.
e. Class IV. The SBCT will produce local SOP to define combat loads for Class IV. The BSB's supply support platoon stocks a limited amount of barrier material such as concertina wire, sandbags, and pickets. Other Class IV must be configured by echelons above brigade at ISBs and called forward as needed.
f. Class V. SBCT units deploy with a combat load of personal munitions and a turret load of vehicle munitions. The BSB's ammunition transfer point (ATP) section does not deploy with sustainment stocks. Munitions will be delivered to the BSA as mission configured loads (MCLs) from pre-positioned stocks or CONUS. These MCLs will be delivered to unit LRPs on heavy expanded mobility tactical truck-load handling system (HEMTT-LHS) flat racks without repackaging. The flat racks will be left for unit personnel to rearm their equipment. The BSB's HEMTT-LHS vehicles are the primary ammunition distribution vehicles within the SBCT. Use of required supply rates (RSRs) and controlled supply rates (CSRs) is critical to munitions management. Ammunition sustainment will depend on the availability of airlift and weather. Oversight of munitions will be a critical function for the SBCT rear CP.
g. Class VI. The BSB does not stock Class VI supplies. After 30 days in theater, the ration supplement health and comfort pack (HCP) is usually issued with Class I rations.
h. Class VII. Class VII status is reported through command channels, intensively managed, and command controlled. The BSB will receive replacement items as ready-to-fight systems (equipment, fuel, and munitions). Ready-to-fight systems are sent forward with the LOGPAC.
i. Class VIII. Medical units deploy with three DOS. Medical supplies, such as first aid dressings, refills for first aid kits, water purification tablets, and foot powder, are supplied by the BSB's brigade support medical company to the battalion medical platoons via LOGPAC or MEV. Initially, sustainment supplies will be pushed to the BSB every 48 hours based on casualty estimates.
j. Class IX. SBCT units deploy with limited Class IX to perform organizational maintenance on small arms and communications equipment. Each battalion's supporting company repair team has limited stocks of line replaceable units (LRU) and consumable parts for repairs. The company repair team relies on daily delivery of repair parts from its parent forward maintenance company to conduct maintenance. In combat situations, exchange and controlled substitution are the normal means of obtaining Class IX items.
k. Class X. The SBCT is not intended to conduct civil assistance operations and thus the BSB is not prepared to provide material to support civil operations.
Figure 11-7 . Classes of supply.
Routine resupply operations cover items in Classes I, III, V, and IX, as well as mail and any other items requested by the units. The BSB will provide the distribution of supplies to company level. Typically, distribution points are established for a specified period of time and a single point will serve several different units and or serve as a materiel collection point. Generally, routine resupply will be conducted every other day. Class IX is an exception and will be pushed to company repair teams daily.
a. Resupply Requirements. The FBCB2 system has automated the logistics status reporting for SBCT units.
- Each company (1SG or XO) compiles company status and requirements reports using FBCB2. These logistics situation reports (LOGSITREPs) are forwarded to the CTCP using FBCB2.
- The CTCP reviews the reports and forwards individual company reports to the SBCT rear CP where they are consolidated and forwarded to CSSCS.
- The BSB prepares supplies and delivers them based on SBCT OPORDs and SOPs. Delivery may be to a company, battalion, or area-based LRP. The SBCT rear CP advises the CTCP of the exact quantities of supplies, LRP locations, and timing for LOGPACs (Figure 11-8).
b. Logistics Package Operations. The LOGPAC technique is a simple, efficient way to accomplish routine resupply operations. SBCT battalion and BSB SOPs specify the exact composition and execution order of the LOGPAC.
(1) Preparation. The BSB SPO coordinates preparation of the LOGPAC.
- The BSB fuel and water platoon prepares HEMMT tankers and HEMMT-LHS vehicles with fuel and water.
- The BSB supply support platoon configures flatracks of supplies, repair parts, and munitions.
- The BSB forward maintenance company prepares equipment returning to the battalion from maintenance. Vehicles returning from maintenance will require drivers from the battalion.
- The BSB transportation platoon is responsible for delivering supplies throughout the SBCT. The platoon leader or his NCOs lead the LOGPAC convoys to the LRPs where they are released to battalion control.
(a) The rear CP and CTCP must coordinate for other activities to accompany the LOGPAC. These activities include
- Replacement personnel and soldiers returning from medical treatment.
- Mail and personnel action documents (including awards, finance and legal documents) from the battalion S1 section.
- UMT visits.
(b) When LOGPAC preparations are complete, the CTCP advises the company. Generally, company supply sergeants will accompany the BSB's LOGPAC to the LRP.
(2) Actions at the Logistics Release Point. The LRP is a linkup point on the ground where the company LOGPACs, led by the company supply sergeants, are met by an escort from the individual company trains. The escort is someone familiar with the terrain, current tactical situation, and route to the company trains location. The escorts from the companies arrive at the LRP early and take a concealed position near the LRP where they can quickly identify the LOGPAC as it moves toward the LRP. The individual company LOGPACs do not stop but roll through the LRP, picking up the escort and moving toward the individual companies.
(3) Resupply Procedures. Companies can use the service station or tailgate resupply method. It must be conducted as quickly and efficiently as possible, both to ensure operational effectiveness and to allow the company LOGPAC to return to the LRP on time.
(4) Return to the LRP. Once resupply operations are complete, the LOGPAC vehicles are prepared for the return trip. Vehicles requiring evacuation for maintenance are lined up and prepared for towing. Recoverable parts, human remains and their personal effects, and EPWs are backhauled on the LOGPAC vehicles. All supply requests and personnel action documents are consolidated for forwarding to the CTCP where the appropriate staff section processes them for the next LOGPAC. The supply sergeant leads the LOGPAC back to the LRP where he links up with the BSB transportation platoon leader. It is critical that the LOGPAC continue to move through the LRP to avoid interdiction by enemy forces or artillery. The reunited LOGPAC convoy returns to the BSA or may move to another LRP. The BSB transportation platoon leader decides when to return empty vehicles back to the BSA.
Figure 11-8 . LOGPAC deliveries.
Occasionally (normally during combat operations), a unit may have such an urgent need for resupply that it cannot wait for a routine LOGPAC. Immediate (or emergency) resupply may involve Classes III, V, and VIII, as well as NBC equipment and, on rare occasions, Class I. The SBCT will use BSB vehicles and HHC medical assets to conduct emergency resupply. Immediate resupply requirements not related to combat loss may indicate a breakdown in coordination and collaboration between logistician and customer. The BSB has a limited capability to prepare sling loads should the SBCT be augmented with air support.
CSS planners can work with supported commanders to ensure the required supplies are available when needed, but a transportation system must be available to deliver those supplies. Within the SBCT, this system depends on the trucks of the BSB's transportation platoon. If the BSB cannot deliver supplies, it must coordinate for movement from outside the SBCT.
a. Movement Control. Movement control includes the planning, scheduling, routing, and control of cargo over various supply routes. Vehicles of the SBCT have been equipped with digital tools (FBCB2 and movement tracking system [MTS]) to provide visibility of what is moving, how it is moving, and how well it is moving. In addition to vehicles and C2 systems, the transportation system needs supply routes. The SBCT will routinely operate in a nonlinear environment that will require commanders to designate forces to ensure security of supply routes within their AO. Supply routes are selected by the rear CP in coordination with the SBCT and maneuver battalion S3s.
b. Aerial Resupply. Aerial delivery capability is not resident in the SBCT. Air Force airlift and Army aviation assets may supplement the SBCT's transportation capability. When supply routes become severely disrupted, the use of aerial delivery may be necessary. Units must be prepared to receive both air-dropped and sling-loaded supplies. The receiving commander must consider the enemy's ability to locate his unit by observing the aircraft. Unless conducting the resupply in an area under friendly control and away from direct enemy observation (reverse slope of a defensive position with recon well forward), locate the DZ and LZ away from the main unit in an area that can be defended for a short time. The delivered supplies are immediately transported away from the DZ/LZ. Each unit must know how to select PZs and LZs and receive aerial resupply. (See FM 90-4 and this FM, Appendix F, Aviation Support of Ground Operations.)
Supply and transportation augmentation will come from an echelon above brigade element. The element will be part of a logistics task force (LTF) and will be capable of providing direct support and to push throughput configured loads.
The maintenance of weapons and equipment is continuous. Every soldier must know how to maintain his weapon and equipment in accordance with the related technical manual. Leaders at each level must understand maintenance for every piece of equipment in their unit.
The SBCT maintenance concept is based upon the two level maintenance system and centralized management. The two levels of maintenance are field and sustainment. Field maintenance is the combined organizational and direct support tasks performed by the BSB's CRTs to return a piece of equipment to an operational status. Sustainment maintenance occurs at echelons above the SBCT. The BSB's field maintenance company (FMC) provides all maintenance support for the SBCT, less medical and the limited automation capability which is integrated into the SBCT's S6 sections and the signal company. The FMC has limited ability to perform automotive, missile, armament, communications, special devices, LRU, and power generation repair. The BSB augments its organic capability with Department of Army (DA) civilian and contractor maintenance support. Centralized management of all field maintenance by the BSB allows unit commanders to focus on preventive maintenance, checks, and services (PMCS) to keep their unit's weapons systems operational.
Proper maintenance is the key to keeping vehicles, equipment, and other materials in serviceable condition. It is a continuous process that starts with preventive measures taken by each vehicle crew and continues through repair and recovery efforts by maintenance personnel. It includes the functions of inspecting, testing, servicing, repairing, requisitioning, recovering, and evacuating equipment.
a. The austere maintenance structure of the SBCT relies on the pre-deployment equipment operational readiness (OR) rates being maintained at 90 percent or greater. The organic maintenance personnel are the minimum necessary to sustain readiness; they cannot surge once deployed and require augmentation in order to sustain the SBCT's readiness requirements.
b. The unit SOP should detail when operator maintenance is performed (at least once a day in the field), to what standards, and who inspects it. The squad leader is most often the one who inspects maintenance work, with company leadership conducting spot-checks.
c. Maintenance applies to all equipment. Items such as computers, communications, and other electronic devices are also maintained and inspected. FBCB2 requires periodic removal of unnecessary files. Platform and filter settings need to be checked and adjusted by the chain of command.
d. When a piece of equipment is damaged, the crew makes a quick inspection to see if it can be repaired on the spot. Usually the CTCP will dispatch a repair team from the BSB's supporting CRT. If equipment cannot be repaired forward, it is evacuated immediately or returned with a LOGPAC. Even if the item cannot be evacuated at once, the CSS system is alerted to prepare for repair or replacement. If a replacement is available (from an evacuated soldier or inoperative equipment), it is sent forward.
e. Battle damage assessment and repair (BDAR) is rapid damage assessment and repair. If required, SBCT or contractor personnel are authorized to bypass components to support a combat mission or enable self-recovery. The purpose of BDAR is to return disabled combat equipment as quickly as possible to the tactical commander. The CTCP implements the commander's guidance on whether or not to use BDAR in lieu of normal maintenance procedures. Such enabling repairs may be temporary or permanent, depending on the repair required. At the completion of immediate combat operations, mechanics will make repairs that will return the equipment to fully mission-capable status. Since it may not be possible to train BDAR techniques in peacetime using actual equipment, the best substitute is to train system-oriented crews and mechanics to understand the principles associated with weapon systems. BDAR actions include:
- Using shortcuts to install or remove parts.
- Modifying and installing components designed for other vehicles or equipment.
- Using parts serving a non-critical function on a like vehicle.
- Bypass non-critical components.
- Using substitute fuels, fluids, or other POL.
The company is the echelon at which maintenance must occur. The maintenance crew performs a digital PMCS and passes the requirements electronically to the CRT via FBCB2. The CRT updates the readiness status and orders Class IX in GCSS-A and comes forward to make any repairs required. GCSS-A updates CSSCS, which in turn updates the commanders concerning their readiness. In the absence of the digital capability provided by GCCS-A, the crew will conduct the PMCS and prepare the appropriate equipment inspection and maintenance forms (DA Form 2404 or 5988-E).
a. Companies collect the maintenance forms each day, validate them, and forward them via FBCB2 or hard copy to the CTCP and it's supporting CRT. During the next LOGPAC operation, the completed hard copy forms are returned to the CRT to document acknowledgement of the maintenance or parts required. Repair parts that do not require CRT assistance are packaged in the BSA and delivered during the next LOGPAC.
b. The individual soldier or vehicle crew conducts initial maintenance, repair, and recovery actions on site. Once it is determined that the crew cannot repair or recover the vehicle or equipment, the crew initiates a maintenance CFS using FBCB2. The CFS is sent in accordance with unit SOP to the supporting CRT and CTCP. Once a CFS has been sent, the company can monitor its status through the logistics task management application of FBCB2 (Figure 11-9).
Figure 11-9 . Call-for-support thread.
The battalion supervises the preventive maintenance work of companies, directs the repair work of the CRT, and coordinates for support from the BSB. Technical guidance for the CRT comes from its parent forward maintenance company.
a. Daily maintenance management begins with the arrival of the appropriate equipment inspection and maintenance forms at the CTCP and CRT. FBCB2 is used to monitor operational status, maintenance requests in process, and repair parts flowing from the BSB.
b. The CRT reacts to calls for support IAW CTCP priorities. The CRT generates a logistics task order to advise the support requester (and the CTCP) of the status of his request. The CRT will assess the damaged or broken equipment and make necessary repairs or order the necessary repair parts. (See Figure 11-9 above.) The CRT performs "on system" maintenance; it has no capability to do "off system" maintenance.
c. The CRT requests back-up support or evacuates the vehicle to the BSA. Self- and like-vehicle recovery are the primary methods of recovery from site of breakdown to a maintenance collection point (MCP). This process may require a fully mission-capable platform to evacuate an inoperative vehicle.
Once the five CRTs have been allocated to RSTA, FA, and the infantry battalions, the BSB's FMC has limited resources to supplement any CRT.
a. The FMC retains limited maintenance capability in the BSA with the wheeled vehicle repair platoon. This base maintenance section provides dedicated organizational and DS maintenance on an area basis to SBCT troops. It can perform contact maintenance missions as required, depending on the criticality of the nonmission-capable (NMC) system and METT-TC. However, detailing it to perform contact missions will degrade its ability to support other customers.
b. The FMC's maintenance support platoon also remains in the BSA because of the low-density and limited mobility of certain pieces of test equipment. It's armament, ground support equipment, missile, and electronics sections provide field maintenance to all units of the SBCT. Contact maintenance missions are very dependent on METT-TC.
c. The FMC does not have the capability to sustain the SBCT's readiness requirements without augmentation nor can it perform the scheduled services the SBCT fleet requires.
d. A limited Class IX authorized stockage list (ASL), coupled with the limited maintenance personnel, makes the SBCT heavily dependent on the distribution system to supply repair parts to maintain readiness rates. The SBCT commander sets guidelines for approval authority of controlled exchange and cannibalization.
(1) Controlled exchange is the removal of serviceable parts, components, or assemblies from unserviceable but economically reparable equipment for immediate reuse in restoring another like item of equipment to combat operable or serviceable condition. The unserviceable component must be used to replace the serviceable component or retained with the end item that provided the serviceable component.
(2) Cannibalization is the authorized removal of parts, components, or assemblies from materiel designated for disposal. It supplements and supports the supply system by providing assets not readily available through normal supply channels. During combat, commanders may authorize the cannibalization of disabled equipment only to facilitate repair of other equipment for return to combat. No parts will be cannibalized for stockage. Cannibalization is not authorized during peacetime without approval from the national inventory control point (NICP).
Maintenance augmentation will come from echelons above brigade. Based on contingency, the LTF is prepared to conduct maintenance operations and or support contractors (deployed out of CONUS) as they fix vehicles outside the AO.
Soldiers face medical threats from both enemy action and environmental situations that could adversely affect their combat effectiveness. Effective, timely medical care is an essential factor in sustaining combat power during continuous operations. The SBCT must ensure that medical elements of maneuver units coordinate with the BSMC to become an integrated system of medical care.
History shows that disease and nonbattle injury (DNBI) has caused more battlefield losses than battle injuries. The medical threat of DNBI remains the leading cause of personnel losses during military operations. Commanders are responsible for protecting their personnel against DNBI. In addition, commanders must be aware of occupational and environmental health hazards in operational areas.
a. Commanders must emphasize and enforce high standards of field sanitation and personal hygiene at all times to preclude DNBI from affecting soldier readiness. Proper use of risk assessment and subsequent management of those risks identified will help reduce DNBI losses to the unit. (See Appendix C, Risk Management and Fratricide Avoidance.) Unit SOPs must
- Ensure safe drinking water is supplied to and consumed by soldiers.
- Ensure control of unit waste, both human waste and trash.
- Address prevention of weather-related problems. These include cold injuries such as frostbite, trench foot, and immersion foot and heat injuries like heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Soldiers must understand the effects of conditions such as sunburn and wind-chill.
- Address battle fatigue prevention to include strict implementation of the unit sleep plan.
- Address unit use of chemoprophylaxis, pretreatments, barrier creams, arthropod repellents (insect repellents), and immunizations.
b. Though maneuver units do not have organic preventive medicine assets, unit leaders can call upon the resources of the BSMC. (See FM 4-02.17.) Companies will identify, train, and use field sanitation teams to provide unit level preventive medicine support. (See FM 4-25.12).
(1) The preventive medicine section provides advice and consultation in the areas of DNBI, environmental sanitation, epidemiology, entomology, medical surveillance, occupational and environmental health surveillance, as well as limited sanitary engineering services and pest management. This section is particularly valuable in the establishment of base camps.
c. The prevalence of toxic industrial materials (TIM) on the modern battlefield requires special consideration. Industrial chemicals include chlorine, ammonia, solvents, pesticides, fertilizers, and petrochemicals. Some industrial chemicals are extensively used in plastics manufacturing. Toxic industrial chemicals can be found in almost every town, city, or country in the world, in chemical industries, warehouses, rail yards, or agricultural supply companies. Toxic industrial biologicals are found in many medical facilities, especially in pharmaceutical manufacturing and research laboratories. Toxic industrial radiological material is found in medical research and treatment facilities. Any military mission is virtually assured to encounter industrial materials. Planning for response to release of these materials can enhance the unit's survivability and completion of the unit mission. (See FM 4-02.7 for additional information.)
(1) Military protection and detection and medical countermeasures are not specifically designed for the hazards from industrial chemicals. Chemical officers, health service support, and civil affairs personnel should conduct risk assessment and vulnerability analysis to develop emergency response procedures and local civilian resources that can be used.
(2) The most important action in the case of a massive TIC release is immediate evacuation. Soldiers who see a storage tank explode or catch fire or vapor clouds being released from a known or suspected chemical storage site should immediately mask and evacuate the area as soon as possible. The greatest risk from a large toxic chemical release occurs when personnel are unable to escape the immediate area and are overcome by fumes or blast effects. The best defense against a TIC release is to evacuate the area and the hazard's path. Military respirators and protective clothing can provide limited protection and should only be used to escape the hazard area.
(3) The NBC reconnaissance platoon of the cavalry squadron (RSTA) possesses limited capability to detect accidental or deliberate release of industrial hazards.
The mental health section provides training and advice in the promotion of positive combat operational stress behaviors and the early identification, handling, and management of misconduct stress behavior and battle fatigued (BF) soldiers. It assists and counsels personnel with personal, behavioral, or psychological problems.
Medical treatment of wounded or injured soldiers during combat operations is a continuous, progressive operation that occurs in a series of separate but interconnecting stages. It involves personnel, equipment, and facilities at virtually every level of the organization. The normal flow of medical treatment for combat casualties is from the injury site to the casualty collection point to the battalion aid station to the brigade support medical company. The following paragraphs discuss responsibilities at each phase of this process.
a. Injury Site. The combat lifesaver (CLS) is almost always the first person on the scene to begin the process of providing enhanced first aid to wounded and injured personnel. The CLS is a non-medical soldier trained to provide enhanced first aid and lifesaving procedures beyond the level of self-aid or buddy aid. The CLS is not intended to take the place of medical personnel but to slow deterioration of a wounded soldier's condition until medical personnel arrive. The vehicle commander is responsible for ensuring that injured crewmen receive immediate first aid and that the commander is informed of casualties. He coordinates with the 1SG and company senior medic for ground evacuation.
b. Company Casualty Collection Point. At the company CCP, the senior company medic ( a trauma specialist) conducts triage of all casualties. He takes the necessary steps to stabilize their conditions and initiates the process of evacuating them to the rear for further treatment. He assists the 1SG in arranging medical evacuation via ground or air ambulance or by nonstandard evacuation platforms. The battalion medical platoon habitually positions a Stryker MEV ambulance crew with each company CCP. This crew has an emergency care sergeant (vehicle commander), an emergency care specialist, and a driver. When in DS of the SBCT infantry rifle company, the ambulance crew assists the company medical personnel with treatment and medical evacuations of ill, injured, or wounded company personnel. While in DS of the company, the ambulance crew is directed by the company 1SG and senior company medic. If required, the ambulance crew provides medical evacuation of company personnel from platoon and company CCPs to a supporting treatment team or to the battalion aid station (BAS). In mass casualty situations, nonstandard platforms may be used to assist in casualty evacuation as directed by the unit commander. The time of evacuation from the injury site to the BAS is optimally less than 30 minutes and not greater than two hours. The BAS is normally located one or two terrain features behind the supported unit so as to facilitate timely evacuation of casualties.
c. Battalion Aid Station. The BAS provides emergency medical treatment (EMT) and advanced trauma management (ATM) for the battalion. Only procedures necessary to preserve life or limb or enable a patient to be moved safely are performed at the BAS. Patients are evacuated from the BAS by BSMC HMMWV ambulances. The BSMC positions an ambulance at each BAS. It may use an AXP and or ambulance shuttle system to evacuate patients to the BSMC Level II MTF. (See FM 8-10-6 for definitive information on an AXP or ambulance shuttle system.)
During SBCT entry operations, air ambulances may not be available for the first 96 hours.
d. Brigade Support Medical Company. The BSMC performs HSS and Level-II medical care for the SBCT. The BSMC establishes a medical treatment facility to conduct routine medical treatment and advanced trauma management for wounded and DNBI patients. It also provides medical evacuation from the BAS to the BSMC, patient holding, combat operational stress control (CSC) support, Class VIII resupply, preventive medicine support, medical equipment maintenance, x-ray, laboratory, and operational dental care. The BSMC augments maneuver battalion MTF as necessary and provides area medical support to the SBCT AO. (See FM 4-93.7 and FM 4-02.6 for information on the operations and functions of the BSMC.)
e. Operations and Clinical Capabilities for Health Service Support. Operations and clinical support within the SBCT are based upon several key principles:
- Integrated and task-organized medical support forward to combat and combat support formations (medical platoons, sections, and individual medics).
- Treatment in forward areas, focused on stabilization and sufficient care to permit evacuation provided by trained and credentialed personnel according to the core competencies of their MOS.
- Emphasis on rapid ground medical evacuation during the 96-hour initial entry.
- Centralized management of HSS assets within the SBCT; tailoring and augmentation of forward organic HSS elements as required.
- Reinforcement and or augmentation support that is tailored to meet the needs of HSS elements organic to combat arms elements operating in forward areas.
- High levels of training for self-aid, buddy aid, and combat lifesaver procedures.
- Medical and environmental surveillance to monitor or identify the medical threat and recommend preventive medicine measures to counter identified or potential health threats.
- Soldiers RTD at the lowest possible echelon.
(1) The medical force package is integrated into SBCT OPLANs and tailored as required to meet operational requirements by the SBCT surgeon. Using FBCB2, medical communications for combat casualty care (when fielded), and other digital enablers and communication systems, medical units and elements, including treatment and evacuation platforms, ensure medical situational understanding. This situational understanding enhances HSS during operations by decreasing reaction time. Health service support activities are sustained through responsive health service logistics (HSL) support. Reach operations to the sustaining base can place medical expertise in forward areas, enhancing care for the wounded or injured soldier. They also establish the sustaining base link for continuity of care and support of the HSS footprint within the SBCT AO. This capability maximizes the soldier's potential RTD and also supports the Army's commitment to the safety and survivability of the soldier.
(2) The trauma specialist locates, acquires, and provides emergency medical treatment to battlefield casualties. He receives assistance from the combat lifesaver (who provides advanced first aid) and from soldier self-aid and or buddy aid. The trauma specialist performs emergency treatment under the medical direction of a physician or other credentialed providers. The trauma specialist
- Serves as a clinical technician in inpatient and outpatient areas of MTFs.
- Performs basic force health protection care for individual soldiers and small units.
- Is trained in combat, stability operations, and support operations care; medical care for patients exposed to weapons of mass destruction; deployable medical systems; aircraft and ground evacuation; and casualty triage and processing.
The trauma specialists of a medical company or troop must be trained and or credentialed in several areas of core competencies. (See FM 4-02.6 for definitive information.) The core competencies are examples of specific skills that establish the scope by which patients are stabilized by the trauma specialist and then evacuated by the unit's organic Stryker MEV ambulances. Ambulance teams provide en route care to the Level I treatment team or battalion aid station.
(3) Treatment teams based in HMMWV ambulances are the primary treatment platform throughout the SBCT. The organic treatment capabilities of the combat arms battalion are augmented when required by BSB HSS assets in HMMWV ambulance platforms. Patients are evacuated to the BSMC Level II MTF by the BSMC's pre-positioned HMMWV ambulance-based evacuation teams when they require the clinical capabilities available at the BSMC. The HMMWV ambulance-based physician and physician assistant-led advanced trauma management team mitigates the increased evacuation times caused by the initial lack of organic or DS aeromedical evacuation.
(4) Stryker MEV ambulances are able to move forward protected from some small arms and indirect fire (missiles and or shrapnel) which provide protection for the patient and medical team. Medical evacuation includes en route care enhanced by the trauma specialist and by a protected vehicle environment with adequate lighting and accessible medical equipment. The HMMWV ambulance is the primary evacuation platform for the BSMC's evacuation teams. The use of AXPs and ambulance shuttle systems will be METT-TC dependent and evacuation will be nonlinear based on the soldier-patient's medical needs.
(5) The evacuation missions that are most problematic are those conveying the seriously wounded soldier-patient who cannot tolerate delays. All evacuation assets are integrated parts of the digitized SBCT formation, which helps to reduce the risk of movement along an MSR. However, due to the decentralized and nonlinear nature of SBCT operations, commanders must include provisions for protecting ambulances IAW METT-TC. Certain evacuation missions are routine and can be planned in advance with route clearance and escort. Commanders are responsible for ensuring that treatment teams and patient collection points are positioned to reduce timelines. Expanded care and further evacuation depends upon the enhanced diagnostic, patient holding, and reach capability resident in the BSMC linked to Army, joint, or sustaining base medical support.
(6) The BSMC has limited Class VIII and blood management capability. During deployment, lodgment, and early buildup phases, medical units operate from planned, prescribed loads and from existing prepositioned stocks identified in applicable contingency plans. Initially, Class VIII resupply efforts will be via Class VIII push packages tailored to meet the need of the SBCT. These combat-configured Class VIII push packages are shipped every third day or may be rescheduled based on projected casualty estimates and usage. The contents of the Class VIII push packages may be adjusted based on Class VIII requirements identified by the SBCT surgeon or BSMC commander. The Class VIII push packages delivery will continue until line item requisitioning can be established. All SBCT medical units will deploy with supplies to support a 72-hour self-sustainment mission within the AO. Resupply of the BSMC will be conducted by electronic requisitions sent to the supporting medical logistics activity. This could be either a joint medical logistics activity, an Army, medical logistics management center (MLMC), or a corps medical logistics (MEDLOG) company.
(a) Resupply of the BSMC will be conducted by electronic line item sent to one of the activities identified above or sent back to a CONUS-based medical center. Requisitions are sent either to the MLMC, a forward deployed MEDLOG element of a MEDLOG company, or sent back to a CONUS-based medical center. The supporting MEDLOG activity will send release orders for materiel to the appropriate MEDLOG activity. Class VIII resupply will flow via the battlefield distribution system. It is important to note that, if required, BSMC/BSB medical logistics officer has the authority and capability to order directly from any supporting supply agency located geographically in the operational area. The release orders for materiel will be processed and shipped by the fastest appropriate transportation system to the SBCT. All blood products issued to the BSMC will be in accordance with TM 8-227-12 and will be distributed to the treatment platoon (area support squad medical laboratory element) for storage, managing, monitoring, and further distribution. The treatment platoon is responsible for the preparation of the blood situation report. Blood products for the supporting forward surgical team (FST) will be issued directly to that unit for use, management, and reporting.
(b) The BSMC medical supply element and the BSB MLO (assigned to the HSS cell of the support operations section) will use CSSCS, FBCB2, radios and telephones, FAX, and GCSS-A for requisitioning and monitoring Class VIII requirements for the SBCT. Its supporting medical augmentation elements will be requisitioned using an MC4 notebook computer located in the platoon or section headquarters and defense medical logistics standard support-assemblage management (DMLSS-AM) software, the MC4/TMIP, and will digitize the HSS system when fielded. The MC4/DMLSS-AM will serve as a "reach" HSL capability for the SBCT.
After the first 96 hours of SBCT operations, the BSMC is normally augmented with a corps-level forward surgical team and an FSMT.
a. Forward Surgical Team. The FST is staffed with sufficient medical personnel to service two operating tables. It is organized into four functional areas: triage-trauma management, surgery, recovery, and administrative/operations. The mission of the FST is to provide urgent, initial surgery for otherwise nontransportable patients to enable them to withstand further evacuation. This small, lightweight surgical team is designated to provide surgical augmentation to brigade-level medical companies and cannot stand alone. It also provides postoperative acute nursing care for up to eight patients, simultaneously, prior to further medical evacuation.
b. Forward Support Medical Evacuation Team. The FSMT consists of flight and support personnel to provide UH-60 medical evacuation helicopters. The mission of the FSMT is to provide medical evacuation from forward areas back to the BSA. Because of the expected dispersion of SBCT units, medical evacuation by air ambulance will be the preferred method for evacuating patients. When air ambulances operate in the SBCT AO, they will require A2C2 support from the SBCT.
Commanders are responsible to recover and evacuate soldiers killed in action to a collection point. Control of human remains and their personal effects is a systematic process. The following paragraphs discuss responsibilities at each phase of this process.
a. Platoon. During reorganization, the remains of those killed in action are brought to a company collection point. Casualty feeder (DA Form 1156) and witness statement (DA Form 1155) forms are completed. All personal effects remain with the body, but equipment and issue items are turned over to the 1SG.
b. Company. The supply sergeant, ICW the platoon, inventories the personal effects using the record of personal effects of deceased personnel (DD 1076). The company arranges for the remains to be transported to a mortuary affairs collection point in the BSA. As a rule, remains should not be transported on the same vehicle as wounded soldiers.
c. Battalion The commander sends a letter of condolence to the soldier's next of kin, normally within 48 hours of the death.
d. SBCT. The BSB's mortuary affairs NCO and the SBCT S1 section coordinate to process the human remains and supporting documentation as part of the casualty management program.
Section VI. RECONSTITUTION AND WEAPONS REPLACEMENT
To maintain effective, consistent combat power, the SBCT must have specific plans and procedures that allow each element to quickly integrate replacement personnel and equipment. Unit SOP should define how soldiers and equipment are prepared for combat, including areas such as uploading, load plans, precombat inspections (PCIs), and in-briefings.
Reconstitution is a set of actions that a commander plans and implements to restore his unit to a desired level of combat readiness. Although not a CSS function, reconstitution is often CSS intensive, especially regeneration. Reconstitution is a total process. Its major elements are reorganization, assessment, and regeneration. Reconstitution decisions belong to the commander. The commander, with his staff's support, assesses unit effectiveness (see FM 100-9). He does not base his reconstitution decisions solely on facts, figures, and status reports from subordinate units. His assessment relies also, and probably more importantly, on other factors. These include:
- Knowledge of his soldiers
- Condition and effectiveness of subordinate commanders and leaders
- Previous, current, and anticipated situations and missions.
a. Reorganization. Reorganization is an action to shift internal resources within a degraded unit to increase its combat effectiveness. Commanders reorganize before considering regeneration. Reorganization may be immediate or deliberate.
(1) Immediate reorganization is the quick and usually temporary restoring of degraded units to minimum levels of effectiveness. Subordinate units normally conduct immediate reorganization during lulls in the battle to maintain combat effectiveness.
(2) Deliberate reorganization is conducted when more time and resources are available. It usually occurs after actions on the objective, during extended lulls in defensive battles, and during extended pauses between operations. Procedures are similar to those of immediate reorganization. However, some replacement resources may be available. Also, equipment repair is more intensive, and more extensive cross leveling is possible.
b. Assessment. Assessment measures the unit's capability to perform a mission. Subordinate unit commanders assess their units before, during, and after operations. If a commander determines his unit is no longer mission capable even after reorganization, he notifies the SBCT commander. The SBCT commander either changes the mission of the unit to match its degraded capability or removes it from combat.
c. Regeneration. Regeneration involves the rebuilding of a unit through the large-scale replacement of personnel, equipment, and supplies; reestablishment of C2; and mission essential training for the rebuilt unit. Units are generally regenerated from at least two command levels above. The SBCT does not have the capability to conduct regeneration.
The SBCT has no personnel replacement unit to receive and process replacement personnel. Logisticians at the SBCT may have the responsibility to plan for and conduct initial processing of replacements. A new arrival on the battlefield may be scared and disoriented as well as unfamiliar with local SOPs and the theater of operations. Replacements for wounded, killed, or missing personnel are requested through the SBCT S1.
a. The SBCT must establish SOPs on the processing of new personnel. Replacements that arrive in the BSA must be fed, billeted, and equipped. The SBCT S1 processes and assigns replacements to battalions.
b. The battalion S1 further assigns replacements to company level. In-processing is conducted using TPS and SIDPERS-3. New soldiers may be given a form letter to send to their next of kin telling them where to mail letters and packages, how to use the Red Cross in emergencies, and introducing them to the chain of command. Once assigned to a company, the battalion S1 arranges for transportation with a LOGPAC. Returning or replacement personnel delivered with the LOGPAC should have already been issued all TA-50 equipment, MOPP gear, and other items, including their individual weapon.
Lost, damaged, or destroyed equipment is reported and requisitioned through normal supply channels. Class VII replacements can be either components of end items such as radios, night-vision devices, or small arms or end items such as Strykers, HMMWVs, or medium tactical vehicles (MTVs). Accountability of end items (Class VII) is done by echelons above the SBCT. Accountability of smaller equipment and components (Class II) is done by supply sergeants using hand receipts.
Section VII. CSS FROM OUTSIDE THE SBCT
Logistically, the SBCT relies on a division or corps headquarters acting as the ARFOR command for sustainment. This headquarters often contains a tailored slice of a theater support command (TSC). The SBCT must exploit regionally available assets for transport, supply, and services. These assets include joint, multinational, host nation, and contracted support resources. Generally, the SBCT rear CP will coordinate for the use of these assets, but their employment will often occur within battalion AOs and require battalion supervision.
An ISB is a secure base usually established within the theater of operations near to, but not in, the AO. The ARFOR or JTF is responsible for selection and operation of the ISB. The ISB provides a secure, high throughput facility. There are two basic roles for an ISB. First is its traditional role as a staging base for deploying units in transit to an AO; its second role is as a remote support base.
a. Staging Base. Deploying forces debark from strategic lift, reassemble, and prepare for missions in the AO. For deploying forces transiting through, ISBs allow the supported commanders time to gather additional intelligence on the AO and finalize plans following briefings and rehearsals. Deploying soldiers can recuperate after long trips from their home stations. Support requirements at a staging base depend on the deployment flow, timelines, and the requirements of the transient force population. ISBs may also serve as a secure staging area for redeploying units, NEO evacuees, and so on, until strategic lift is made available for deployment and or evacuation to final destinations. Additional details on staging bases can be found in FM 100-17-3, Reception, Staging, Onward, Movement and Integration (RSOI).
b. Remote Support Base. The support role of the ISB may involve two types of support capabilities. First, certain elements engaged in split-based operations may locate in an ISB. (Others stay at home station/CONUS.) Aspects of such functions as distribution and materiel management and some personnel or legal functions may be performed by elements at an ISB. The second part of an ISB involves the deliberate positioning of stocks and units and capabilities dedicated for a specific operation. These are then quickly moved to the AO via intra-theater transportation when additional support is required in the AO. Examples of facilities and capabilities that may be at an ISB include:
- Contracting elements for local supplies or services.
- Command post sites.
- Repair parts.
- Ground maintenance support.
- Aviation intermediate maintenance (AVIM) support.
- Level III medical treatment facilities (hospital).
- Civil affairs and intelligence preparation of key leaders and troops.
- Human resources support (to include personnel support and services).
- Finance support (to include limited currency exchange).
- Mortuary affairs.
- Ammunition supply activities.
- EOD support.
- Waste management: gray and black water, solids, medical, and hazardous materials.
The SBCT is expected to use contractors, DA civilians, and host nation support in the area of operations.
a. Contractor and DA Civilian Support. Though they involve a number of risks, contractors and DA civilians are playing an ever-increasing role in military operations. The Army may use contractors to bridge gaps between required capabilities and actual force structure available within an AO. Contractors may be employed, subject to METT-TC, throughout the AO and in virtually all conditions. The SBCT must plan for the protection and supervision of contractors and DA civilians.
(1) Protecting contractors on the battlefield is the commander's responsibility. When contractors are expected to perform in potentially hostile areas, the supported military forces must assure the protection of their operations and personnel. Provisions of the law of war do not consider contractor personnel and DOD civilians as combatants. Commanders must understand that contractors are subject to the same threat as soldiers and must plan accordingly. Commanders must provide security to contractors that support their operations or eliminate the use of contractor support as an option in areas where security becomes an issue. Contractor personnel cannot be required to perform force protection functions and cannot take an active role in hostilities, but they retain the inherent right to self-defense.
(2) System contractors support deployed forces under pre-arranged contracts to provide specific support to materiel systems throughout their life cycle, during both peacetime and contingency operations. These systems include, but are not limited to, vehicles, weapons systems, aircraft (fixed and rotary wing), command and control infrastructure, and communications equipment. Systems contractors usually work for their own contracting officers, not the BSB contracting officers. The Army Material Command generally administers their systems contractors with a logistics support element (LSE). Systems contractors can provide support in the form of maintenance on military and civilian equipment organic to the unit and systems provided by the contractor.
(3) The logistical civil augmentation program (LOGCAP) is an Army program for preplanned use of a civilian contractor during operations to augment the support capabilities of selected forces. It allows commanders to pre-plan for contracted support and include contingency clauses in existing contracts. The Air Force and Navy have similar programs that may be used to support the SBCT.
b. Host Nation Support. HNS may be provided to Army forces and organizations located in or transiting through host nation territory and includes both civil and military assistance. This support can include assistance in almost every aspect required to sustain military operations within a theater. Planners must consider that HNS meets local, not necessarily US, standards. HNS can be a significant resource provided it is available and appropriate agreements are in place. The Defense Logistics Agency will provide bulk fuel, water, and food, either through pre-positioned stocks or host-nation contracts.
Explosive ordnance disposal capabilities are not organic to the SBCT. EOD augmentation will be required from ARFOR to support SBCT operations. Once UXO is located and reported, the chain of command to the ARFOR EOD cell determines what EOD assets may respond. EOD teams may be called forward from an ISB as required. The EOD asset of any service nearest to theater responds.
Field services include laundry and shower support and field feeding. There is no organic field service support in the SBCT. Military augmentation (such as combat service support company [CSSC], corps, or force provider assets) or contractors will provide field services.
a. Laundry and Shower. Laundry and shower services will not be immediately available in theater. Until the theater is matured to support a quartermaster field service company (FSC), individual uniforms or bulk unit issue can be delivered in a class to the AO. Units will also need to rely on portable individual shower units.
b. Field Feeding. The SBCT is designed to deploy and operate on MRE rations for an extended period of time of up to 45 days. Once the operational situation has become stable, however, the SBCT commander may direct the field feeding teams to incorporate a variety of other options to include unitized group ration A (UGR-A) and UGR heat and serve (UGR-H&S). The SBCT can also receive prepared meals with contracted support. (See FM 10-23.)
The SBCT organization consciously excludes the construction engineer capability often provided in a division slice. The LOGCAP is the most commonly used means of general engineer support available to the SBCT.
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