COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT OPERATIONS
The core of combat service support to the SBCT is the brigade support battalion. The BSB provides direct support to the SBCT. The BSB has an austere force structure with the minimum capabilities necessary to support the SBCT. This CSS support package is strategically mobile and focused only on sustainment necessities and thus does not provide the same level of support as that provided by other support battalions. Initial sustainment relies on a combination of unit basic loads, strategic configured loads (SCLs), and the availability of fuel and water in the area of operations. By deploying with CSS packages tailored for a specific operation, the SBCT can sustain itself with external support for up to 72 hours.
The CSS functions within the SBCT are almost entirely consolidated under the command and control of the BSB headquarters. The BSB consists of three companies—the headquarters and distribution company (HDC), the forward maintenance company (FMC), and the brigade support medical company. The BSB commander is the SBCT commander's single logistics operator. His support operations officer (SPO) manages sustainment operations with multiple digital information and automation systems.
Section I. CSS PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
The SBCT battalion commander, thru his executive officer, S1, and S4, makes plans and key decisions concerning CSS. The combat trains command post is the focal point of these activities. Since the SBCT infantry battalion does not have the organic maintenance and support platoons found in other infantry battalions, the battalion S4's planning responsibilities are more complex and require coordination with the SBCT S4 and the BSB SPO. Unit SOPs should address planning, implementation, and responsibilities in detail and should standardize as many routine CSS operations as possible.
11-1. GENERAL GUIDELINES
In SBCT infantry battalions, health service support assets are assigned to the HHC. The BSB provides each SBCT infantry battalion with a combat repair team to provide maintenance and repair parts support to all units operating in the battalion's area. The BSB retains control over supply and transportation assets to provide area support for other key logistics functions such as rations; petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL); and munitions. The respective staff sections support other CSS functions such as personnel, legal, and religious (for example, S1 and unit ministry team).
a. Within this support structure, the SBCT infantry battalion must plan, prepare, and execute its portion of the SBCT CSS plan. Concurrent with other operational planning, the battalion develops its CSS plan during mission analysis and refines it in the war gaming portion of the troop-leading process. CSS rehearsals are normally conducted at both SBCT and battalion levels to ensure a smooth, continuous flow of materiel and services.
b. The battalion's basic CSS responsibilities are to execute health service support with its medical platoon, to report and request all other support requirements through the correct SBCT channels, and to ensure that CSS operations are properly executed when support elements arrive in the battalion area. The CTCP is normally in charge of these functions with guidance and oversight provided by the battalion commander.
11-2. BATTALION RESPONSIBILITIES
The SBCT infantry battalion headquarters is responsible for the coordination and execution of CSS functions within the battalion. This includes conducting effective CSS operations for all units within the battalion's area of responsibility. The primary CSS functions required by the SBCT infantry battalion include casualty treatment and evacuation, resupply operations, maintenance activities, and personnel service support. The following battalion personnel have the primary responsibility for CSS.
a. Commander. The commander ensures that CSS operations sustain his battalion's fighting potential. He integrates CSS activities into the tactical plan and provides guidance to the CSS operators. He tailors his CSS operations to meet the tactical plan.
b. Executive Officer. The XO coordinates and supervises the battalion's logistical effort. During the planning phase, he reviews status reports from the companies, medical platoon, and CRT; reviews the tactical plan with the S3 to determine battalion CSS requirements; and supervises coordination with the SBCT S1, S4, and BSB SPO. The XO also ensures the CSS needs of other units in the battalion's area of responsibility are met.
c. Adjutant. The battalion personnel and administration section is responsible for maintaining unit strength and conducting personnel actions. The S1 ensures assigned personnel transition smoothly into and out of the battalion. He processes status and strength reports, personnel awards and orders, and finance and legal actions. The S1 coordinates the special staff efforts of the chaplain and medical platoon leader and any attached public affairs personnel and supervises the casualty system. The S1 is also the staff point of contact for activities such as inspector general and judge advocate general issues. During tactical operations, the S1 supports the S4 section in operation of the CTCP.
d. Logistics Officer. The battalion logistics section is responsible for providing logistical planning and support to the battalion and operates the battalion's CTCP. The S4 is the battalion's primary logistician. He coordinates the CSS functions of maintenance, supply, transportation, and services for the battalion and units operating in the battalion's area of responsibility. The S4 provides staff supervision of the battalion's direct support combat repair team. The S4 normally positions his assistant at the main CP to assist the S3's synchronization of combat and sustainment operations. The S4 section mans the CTCP in conjunction with elements of the S1 section.
e. Medical Platoon Leader. The medical platoon provides health service support to the battalion. Its personnel provide immediate trauma and combat medical treatment and medical evacuation support to the headquarters and maneuver companies. The medical platoon leader also serves as a special staff member to the battalion commander, ensuring that battalion personnel maintain both physical and mental health. The medical platoon habitually establishes the battalion aid station under the direction of the battalion CTCP. Battalion medics also provide training to combat lifesaver personnel.
f. Chaplain. The unit ministry team is composed of a chaplain and one enlisted chaplain's assistant. The chaplain is also a special staff member who serves as a confidential advisor to the commander on the spiritual fitness and ethical and moral health of the command.
g. HHC Commander. The HHC company headquarters section provides supply and personnel support to the battalion's headquarters. In a tactical environment, the HHC HQ section provides direct interface with the administrative and logistics support elements of the SBCT and BSB in the brigade support area. The HHC commander becomes the battalion commander's representative in the BSA and oversees the company supply sections when they are in the BSA.
11-3. PREDEPLOYMENT ACTIVITIES
The infantry battalion is responsible for predeployment activities that allow the SBCT to deploy within 96 hours. These are essentially constant and ongoing activities performed at home station prior to and after warning or alert notification. Predeployment activities include training validation, deployment planning, task organization, equipment maintenance, and soldier readiness processing (SRP). Transportation requirements for the battalion should be established prior to any alert or warning order. The battalion should have an appropriate number of personnel trained to perform special deployment duties. These duties include pallet construction teams, unit loading teams, hazardous cargo certifying officials, and air load planners.
Section II. TRAINS
The logistical focal points for SBCT infantry battalions are generally described as the "trains." CSS personnel and equipment organic or attached to a force that provides support, such as supply, evacuation, and maintenance services, comprise the unit trains.
11-4. SBCT INFANTRY BATTALION TRAINS
SBCT infantry battalion trains normally consist of two types: combat trains and field trains.
a. Combat Trains. The battalion combat trains normally are positioned close enough to combat elements to be responsive to forward units but beyond the range of enemy direct fires. The SBCT battalion combat trains usually consist of the HHC's medical platoon and the supporting CRT. They are supervised by the combat trains command post. The trains are positioned based upon the factors of METT-TC.
b. Field Trains. The battalion field trains normally are positioned in the BSA. Since it has no supply platoon, the SBCT infantry battalion has no dedicated field trains. The infantry companies normally locate their supply sections with the HHC headquarters section to form the battalion field trains. At times an infantry company may store its sustainment or contingency loads with its company supply section in the BSA. These may include rucksacks, duffel bags of extra clothing and personal items, armored vests, chemical protective overgarments (CPOG), and sleeping bags. The austere structure of the SBCT limits its ability to store and maintain these stocks. The battalion S4 coordinates with company commanders to ensure that these stocks are available. The battalion field trains operate as the primary direct coordination element between the infantry companies and the BSB. The HHC HQ section provides direct interface with the elements of the infantry battalion, BSB, and SBCT rear CP.
11-5. SBCT INFANTRY COMPANY TRAINS
Company trains are the focal point for company sustainment operations. They are the most forward CSS elements and provide essential medical treatment and maintenance support. The size and composition of the company trains vary depending upon the tactical situation. Company trains are established to conduct evacuation (of wounded in action, weapons, and equipment) and resupply as required. Company trains are located in a covered and concealed position close enough to the company to provide responsive support but out of enemy direct fire.
11-6. POSITIONING TRAINS
Company trains normally operate one terrain feature to the rear of the company, beyond the range of direct-fire weapons. Battalion combat trains are normally positioned beyond the range of the threat's light indirect-fire weapons, such as mortar systems. The SBCT tries to position the BSA beyond the range of heavy indirect-fire weapons, such as rocket and artillery systems. Combat trains should not be considered a permanent or stationary support area. The trains must be mobile enough to support frequent changes in location, time and terrain permitting, under the following conditions:
- When heavy use or traffic in the area may cause detection.
- When area becomes worn by heavy use (for example, wet and muddy conditions).
- When security is compromised.
11-7. TRAINS SECURITY
Security of CSS elements is critical to the success of the SBCT battalion mission; therefore, trains must develop plans for continuous security operations. The best defense for combat trains is to avoid detection.
a. Select good trains sites that use available cover, concealment, and camouflage.
b. Utilize strict movement and positioning discipline as well as noise and light discipline to prevent detection.
c. Establish a perimeter defense as in an assembly area:
- Establish observation posts and patrols.
- Position weapons (small arms and machine guns) for self-defense.
- Plan mutually supporting positions to dominate likely avenues of approach.
- Prepare a fire plan and make sector sketches.
- Identify sectors of fires.
- Emplace TRPs to control fires and for use of indirect fires.
- Integrate available combat vehicles within the trains into the plan (for example, vehicles awaiting maintenance or personnel) and adjust the plan when vehicles depart.
- Conduct rehearsals.
d. Establish rest plans.
e. Identify an alarm or warning system that allows for rapid execution of the defense plan without further guidance (normally included in an SOP).
f. Designate a reaction force and ensure the force is equipped to perform its mission.
Fast, reliable communications are critical to the CSS effort. Whether as directed by the SBCT headquarters or as needed to support a company mission, the CTCP reports the battalion's status, including combat losses, and sends resupply and support requests forward.
a. Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below. FBCB2 is a network of computers, global positioning equipment, and communication systems that provide on-the-move, real-time command and control information to tactical combat arms, CS, and CSS soldiers and leaders. The system provides preformatted, standardized reports allowing the leaders to rapidly disseminate required reports and FRAGOs. Each vehicle in the battalion has an FBCB2 system that can transmit its logistical and personnel status reports to the chain of command and the battalion S4. FBCB2 is the fastest method of disseminating this information. Leaders should verify receipt of all reports sent via FBCB2 either by follow-up message or via FM voice.
b. FM Voice. FM communication is still a critical mode of passing required reports. However, it may not be the fastest means and may be the least secure means of communications and poses other problems for the battalion's CSS operators. The battalion administrative and logistics (A/L) net is used for most CSS traffic, but infantry companies may not have enough authorized radio systems to monitor it. When this is the case, the CTCP must enter the company net to contact the company. Unit SOPs must specify procedures to be followed in this type of situation to ensure that the CTCP receives all transmissions on a timely basis.
c. Messenger or Wire. As an alternative, units can send CSS reports and requests by messenger or wire. Messengers are slower than radio transmission but more secure. Wire communications are also very secure but are strictly limited in range and coverage and may not be a feasible option in a fast paced operation or non-contiguous environment. For sending lengthy or complex reports and requests, messenger or wire is better than radio transmission.
11-9. COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEMS.
Computers have automated many CSS functions within the SBCT infantry battalion. They enable the CTCP to report near real-time status of the battalion or a single company.
a. Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below. FBCB2 has CSS management programs built into its software capabilities. Preformatted CSS reports from individuals and units automatically update many of the CTCP's recurring CSS rollup reports. Using these automated logistics and personnel reports, the CTCP can obtain near real-time status of individual FBCB2 platforms and unit rollups (Figure 11-1). The task management status feature allows the CTCP to manage CSS requests from the calls for support (CFS), from the users to the logistics task orders (LTO), and from support units (Figures 11-2 and Figure 11-3).
Figure 11-1. Preformatted CSS reports in FBCB2.
Figure 11-2. Logistics call for support in FBCB2.
Figure 11-3. Task management screen in FBCB2.
b. Combat Service Support Control System. CSSCS is a CSS command and control system used primarily by CSS planners at the BSB, SBCT, and higher echelons. CSSCS provides battlefield decision support and information for planning and controlling the logistics support of combat operations. CSSCS provides material and personnel status of units and identifies logistical capability to resupply units for subsequent combat operations. CSSCS receives input and provides visibility of data from—
- Standard property book system-redesign SPBS-R (property).
- Standard Army maintenance system (SAMS) (maintenance).
- Standard Army retail supply system (SARSS) (supply).
- Transportation coordinator's automated information for movement system (TCAIMS) (transportation),
- Medical communication for combat casualty care (MC4) (medical).
- Standard installation/division personnel system (SIDPERS) (personnel).
CSSCS has the following capabilities:
- Resource status summaries display current logistics information by class of supply, item, or unit as color-coded charts or detailed tabular reports.
- Course of action analysis (as deliberate or "quick" analysis) uses either current or planned task organization based upon approved planning factors.
- Unit task organization tracks task organization to company level and provides a structure for resource tracking.
- Commander's tracked items list (CTIL), a subset of baseline resource items list (BRIL), includes those items of command interest and command controlled items that are tracked by CSSCS.
- Color-coded "gumballs" indicate authorized and or operational status by class of supply and unit.
- Common operational picture with higher quality digital maps.
c. Tactical Personnel System and Standard Installation Division Personnel Information System. The S1 section has the capability to run the tactical personnel system (TPS) and SIDPERS-3 from the CTCP.
d. Maneuver Control System. The S4 section has an MCS to enable the CTCP to fulfill its role as the alternate battalion TOC.
Section III. CSS IN THE SBCT
To meet the challenge of supporting the operational of high operations tempo (OPTEMPO) warfighting and time-to-deploy objectives, the SBCT employs an austere CSS package with minimum capabilities. This CSS force package is streamlined, strategically mobile, and focused on sustainment necessities. This tailoring is achieved by optimizing the use of CSS resources (through CSS situational understanding) and minimizing the operational and CSS footprint in the area of operations. Split-basing (the concept of locating assets in the rear and forward with all but the immediate essentials held in the rear) and modularity (the concept of creating standardized units which may be located rear or forward) provide just-in-time tailored support to the SBCT. Supplies are pushed forward from the rear as needed whenever and wherever feasible. Also, highly deployable CSS assets are positioned to rapidly enter and depart the area of operations as needed to sustain the force. These concepts are part of CSS reach as discussed below and in FM 100-10. The key logistics and HSS provider within the SBCT is the BSB; however, there are other elements in the SBCT that plan and execute CSS operations. This section covers the CSS functions performed by the BSB and those SBCT elements other than the BSB.
11-10. BRIGADE SUPPORT BATTALION
The SBCT brigade support battalion is organized to perform distribution-based, centralized CSS functions in accordance with Army Force XXI CSS concepts. Logistics and many medical functions have been removed from combat and combat support units and consolidated in the BSB. The brigade support battalion (Figure 11-4) consists of the headquarters and three companies: the headquarters and distribution company, the forward maintenance company, and the brigade support medical company. The austere design of the CSS structure is insufficient to sustain the SBCT in garrison and during extended operations. The BSB has a limited distribution forward capability. It combines situational understanding with efficient delivery systems to form a distribution pipeline, eliminating most stockpiles. Supplies are tailored and packaged for specific supported units based on a specific time and location. Total asset visibility, including in-transit visibility, gives CSS personnel visibility over all assets and infrastructure capacity in the area of operations. The combat service support company (CSSC) is the minimum solution to overcome the shortfalls of the BSB during sustained operations.
Figure 11-4. Brigade Support Battalion.
11-11. S1 SECTION
Battalion and SBCT personnel sections perform their traditional roles of personnel management, personnel services, and personnel support.
a. Personnel Management. Both SBCT and battalion S1 sections ensure their commander's priorities for manning units are executed.
(1) The battalion S1 focuses on accurate personnel accounting and strength reporting.
(2) The SBCT S1 focuses on replacement management, including the status of casualties in medical treatment facilities (MTF). Individual replacements will arrive at the SBCT with individual weapons and personal equipment (for example, TA-50).
(3) Personal information management, a deliberate system of validating and storing critical information on soldiers and contractors, is supported by the ability to access information at the intermediate staging base or home station.
b. Personnel Services. Generally, home station assets will perform personnel services.
(1) Primarily the SBCT S1 manages casualty operations. Battalion S1s ensure that witness statements and or casualty feeder reports are accurate and complete. The SBCT S1 is responsible for verifying unit submissions of witness statements and or casualty feeder reports against the personnel database and emergency data in the soldier's deployment packet. After verifying information with the appropriate medical treatment facility, the SBCT forwards the casualty information through the Army casualty information processing system.
(2) Battalion S1 sections have limited ability to conduct personnel services (awards, promotions, evaluations, and reassignments) while deployed. S1s will handle pay-input transactions for military pay.
c. Personnel Support. Personnel support is METT-TC dependant and normally requires a mature theater of operations.
(1) Postal operations within the SBCT will be limited to mail and distribution activities. The brigade S1 section will receive pre-sorted letter mail and small packages. Battalion mail clerks within the S1 sections will pick up incoming mail from, and drop off outgoing to, the brigade mail clerk.
(2) Battalions will coordinate with the brigade S1 for provision of morale, welfare, and recreation (MWR) activities and services as the mission permits. The MWR system is a necessary outlet for soldiers to relieve combat stress, which is critical to sustaining the readiness of the force.
11-12. BRIGADE OPERATIONAL LAW TEAM
The brigade operational law team (BOLT) provides legal support in operational law (OPLAW) and either provides or coordinates legal support for the six legal disciplines: military justice, international law, administrative law, civil law (contract law, fiscal law, and environmental law), claims, and legal assistance. (See Chapter 2, FM 4-93.7.)
- The brigade judge advocate and a legal specialist provide OPLAW support from the SBCT main CP in order to support the commander and his fires and effects coordination cell.
- The bulk of the BOLT provides legal support from the SBCT rear CP.
- Battalion legal specialists may be consolidated with the BOLT or provide services from within the battalions. If positioned with the battalions, they are normally under the supervision of the S1 at the CTCP.
11-13. UNIT MINISTRY TEAM
The UMT is composed of a chaplain (MOS 56A) and an enlisted chaplain assistant (MOS 56M). Each UMT develops a religious support plan that details how it can best coordinate and facilitate religious support throughout the AO.
a. Religious support is usually expressed in terms of coverage. Traditionally, coverage deals with the type of support a UMT provides to elements of the unit. Coverage consists of three religious support functions: unit support, area support, and denominational support.
(1) Unit support is provided by the UMT organic to the battalion and to all units attached.
(2) Area support is provided to those who are not a part of the UMT's unit, but who are operating within the same AO without organic or available religious support.
(3) Denominational support may be limited to available assets. UMTs usually provide denominational support on an area basis.
b. Battalion UMTs normally operate from the CTCP or battalion aid station.
(1) When not conducting combat operations, the UMT coordinates with the CTCP to be at the right place at the right time for those who need them the most. Movement with a logistics package to a logistic release point is an excellent way to minister and provide services to a company.
(2) During combat operations, the UMT's priority for religious support is care for the wounded. The team performs "religious triage" in coordination with medical treatment personnel. The UMT moves to positions where the largest numbers of casualties are to be collected, usually at battalion aid stations.
(3) After combat, the UMT ministers to soldiers, paying attention to leaders and those who show signs of battle stress.
c. The SBCT UMT reviews and may adjust battalion religious support plans to ensure that religious coverage is available to all, to include contractors, refugees, displaced persons, detained civilians in the area of operation, and enemy prisoners of war.
d. The BSB UMT usually operates from the BSA and provides support to the FSMC and field trains. The battalion UMT should coordinate for support of unit soldiers in the BSA.
e. Chaplains often serve as the "conscience of the command." They advise the commander on the moral and ethical nature of command policies, programs, and actions and their impact on soldiers. The religious support model in Figure 11-5 depicts the supporting functions and tasks. The UMT is responsible for and supports the free exercise of religion. Chaplains provide support for death notifications, Red Cross notifications by command, and liaison with continental US (CONUS) and host nation clergy.
Figure 11-5. The religious support model.
11-14. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
Financial management support includes: banking and currency support, procurement support, disbursing support, cost-capturing and accounting, non-US pay to include EPW and counterintelligence (CI) and US pay and travel. The SBCT has no organic financial management support assets. Finance units must deploy to provide financial management for SBCTs in the same manner they support the rest of the Army.
11-15. ENEMY PRISONERS OF WAR
The SBCT has no organic military police support assets to take control and evacuate EPWs. See Figure 11-6 for an illustration of EPW handling.
a. Soldiers capturing documents and EPWs report immediately and coordinate a link up with the 1SG to turn the documents and prisoners over to him. The 1SG, often assisted by his supply section, moves them to the vicinity of the combat trains or UMCP for processing and subsequent interrogation by battalion or MI company personnel. Crews of vehicles undergoing repair or unoccupied mechanics are used as guards.
b. The CTCP plans and coordinates EPW operations, collecting points, and evacuation procedures. EPWs are evacuated from the battalion area as rapidly as possible. Prisoners are then moved to the EPW collecting point in the BSA on returning LOGPAC vehicles or by transportation coordinated by the S4. As necessary, the S2 reviews and reports any documents or information of immediate value. The S4 coordinates evacuation of large amounts of enemy equipment.
c. The SBCT must assign responsibility for EPWs. Since there is no organic MP support, a unit within the SBCT may be detailed to operate an EPW collection point until a higher headquarters (ARFOR) assumes responsibility for them.
Figure 11-6. EPW handling.
Section IV. SUPPLY AND TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS
Each SBCT infantry company deploys with 72 hours of supplies. The SBCT infantry battalion does not have organic supply or transportation assets, so the battalion commander must consider the ability of the BSB to resupply his infantry companies. Resupply operations are generally classified as routine or immediate. Cues and procedures for each method are specified in battalion, BSB, and SBCT SOPs and are rehearsed during field training exercises. The actual method selected for resupply in the field depends on METT-TC factors.
11-16. CLASSES OF SUPPLY
Supplies are divided into ten major categories, which are referred to as classes. There are also a few miscellaneous items that do not fit into any of the other ten supply classes. Figure 11-7 shows the classes of supply.
a. Class I. Class I supplies (meals, ready to eat [MREs]) will be configured into unit configured loads by the BSB based on personnel strength reports. These pallet-sized loads will be delivered with the LOGPACs by the BSB's transportation platoon. No unit in the SBCT has organic food service capabilities. Operational rations (MREs) will be used until military augmentation (BSB combat service support company) or contractor support is identified in theater.
b. Water. The BSB's fuel and water support platoon is capable of limited purification with it's two 600 GPH reverse osmosis purification units (ROWPU), limited storage (12,000 gallons), and limited distribution (9,000 gallons per day) of water. The SBCT is expected to obtain bulk water or commercial bottled water in the theater of operations. Each day the SBCT infantry companies should refill one of their two 400 gallon water trailers. The logistics system may not always be able to meet unit needs, particularly during decentralized operations. In most environments, water is available from natural sources. Soldiers should be trained to find, treat (chemically or using field expedients), and use natural water sources. See FM 21-76 for ways the unit can supply its own water, if necessary.
c. Class II. Limited stocks of Class II items (preventive medicine, field hygiene, weapons cleaning, and special tools) will be available at the BSB. Class II (NBC) will be configured at intermediate staging bases (ISBs) and called forward as needed. Class II administrative supplies will not be stocked at the BSB but may be requested as the theater matures.
d. Class III. The BSB's fuel and water support platoon has the only bulk fuel distribution capability within the SBCT. There are twelve HEMMT fuelers (2,500 gallons each) that support all maneuver units with LOGPAC operations. The battalion S4 will arrange for LOGPACs to deliver fuel based on logistics status reports. The BSB positions twelve PLS trailers (2,500 gallons each) in the BSA for bulk fuel storage. The SBCT is expected to obtain fuel in the theater of operations. The BSB retains limited motor gasoline (MOGAS) capability for unmanned aerial vehicles and other miscellaneous equipment.
e. Class IV. The battalion SOP specifies the combat load of Class IV items for each vehicle. The BSB's supply support platoon stocks a limited amount of barrier material such as concertina wire, sandbags, and pickets. Other Class IV must be configured at ISBs and called forward as needed.
f. Class V. The SBCT infantry battalion deploys with a combat load of personal munitions and a turret load of vehicles munitions. The BSB's ammunition transfer point (ATP) section does not deploy with sustainment stocks. Munitions will be delivered to the BSA as mission configured loads (MCLs) from pre-positioned stocks or CONUS. These SCLs will be delivered on HEMMT-load handling system (LHS) flatracks (without repackaging) to unit LRPs. The flatracks will be left for unit personnel to rearm their equipment. The BSB's HEMMT-LHS vehicles are the only ammunition distribution vehicles within the SBCT.
g. Class VI. The BSB does not stock Class VI supplies. After 30 days in theater, the ration supplement health and comfort pack (HCP) is usually issued with Class I rations.
h. Class VII. Class VII status is reported through command channels, intensively managed, and command controlled. The BSB will receive replacement items as ready-to-fight systems (equipment, fuel, munitions, and crew). Ready-to-fight systems are sent forward with the LOGPAC.
i. Class VIII. Medical supplies, such as first aid dressings, refills for first aid kits, water purification tablets, and foot powder, are supplied by the BSB's brigade support medical company to the battalion medical platoon via LOGPAC or MEV. Initially, sustainment supplies will be pushed to the BSB based on casualty estimates.
j. Class IX. The SBCT infantry company stocks limited Class IX to perform organizational maintenance on small arms and communications equipment. The battalion's supporting CRT has limited stocks of line replacement units (LRUs) and consumable parts for repairs. The CRT relies on daily delivery of repair parts from its parent forward maintenance company to conduct maintenance. Rechargeable batteries for night vision devices and man-portable radios may require one-for-one exchange. In combat situations, exchange and controlled substitution are the normal means of obtaining Class IX items.
Figure 11-7. Classes of supply.
11-17. ROUTINE RESUPPLY
Routine resupply operations cover items in Classes I, III, V, and IX, as well as mail and any other items requested by the company. Whenever possible, routine resupply should be conducted daily, ideally during periods of limited visibility.
a. Resupply Requirements. The FBCB2 system has automated the logistics status reporting and supply requisitioning process for the SBCT infantry battalion.
- Each company (1SG or XO) compiles company status and requirements using FBCB2's logistics situation report (LOGSITREP) function. These LOGSITREPs are forwarded to the CTCP using FBCB2.
- The CTCP reviews the reports and forwards individual company reports to the SBCT rear CP, where they are consolidated using CSSCS. The CSSCS in the CTCP is not used for data entry but to view information input; it is managed by the SBCT rear CP.
- The BSB prepares supplies and delivers them based on SBCT OPORDs and SOPs. Delivery may be to a company LRP, battalion LRP, or an area-based LRP. The SBCT rear CP advises the CTCP of the exact quantities of supplies, LRP locations, and timing for LOGPACs (Figure 11-8).
b. Logistics Package Operations. The LOGPAC technique is a simple, efficient way to accomplish routine resupply operations. SBCT infantry battalion and BSB SOPs specify the exact composition and execution order of the LOGPAC.
(1) Preparation. The BSB SPO coordinates preparation of the LOGPAC:
- The BSB fuel and water platoon prepares HEMMT tankers and HEMMT-LHS vehicles with fuel and water.
- The BSB supply support platoon configures flatracks of supplies, repair parts, and munitions.
- The BSB forward maintenance company prepares equipment returning to the battalion from maintenance. Vehicles returning from maintenance will require drivers from the battalion.
- The BSB transportation platoon is responsible for delivering supplies to the units throughout the SBCT. The platoon leader, or his NCOs, leads the LOGPAC convoys to the LRPs, where they are released to battalion control.
The CTCP must coordinate for other activities to accompany the LOGPAC, to include—
- Replacement personnel and soldiers returning from medical treatment.
- Mail and personnel action documents (including awards and finance and legal documents) from the battalion S1 section.
- UMT visits.
When LOGPAC preparations are complete, the CTCP advises the company. Company supply sergeants generally will accompany the BSB's LOGPAC to the LRP.
(2) Actions at the LRP. When the LOGPAC arrives at the LRP, the company supply sergeant quickly assumes control of the company LOGPAC and continues tactical movement to the company resupply point. The LOGPAC will stop at the LRP only when the tactical situation dictates or when ordered by the commander. Security will be maintained at all times.
(3) Resupply Procedures. Companies can use the service station or tailgate resupply method. The time required for resupply is an important planning factor. Resupply must be conducted as quickly and efficiently as possible both to ensure operational effectiveness and to allow the company LOGPAC to return to the LRP on time. Service station resupply of the company normally takes 60 to 90 minutes but may take longer. Tailgate resupply usually requires significantly more time than service station resupply.
(4) Return to the LRP. Once resupply operations are complete, the LOGPAC vehicles are prepared for the return trip. Vehicles requiring evacuation for maintenance are lined up and prepared for towing. Recoverable parts, human remains and their personal effects, and EPWs are backhauled on the LOGPAC vehicles. All supply requests and personnel action documents are consolidated for forwarding to the CTCP where the appropriate staff section processes them for the next LOGPAC. The supply sergeant leads the LOGPAC back to the LRP where he links up with the BSB transportation platoon leader. It is critical that the LOGPAC continue to move through the LRP to avoid interdiction by enemy forces or artillery. The reunited LOGPAC convoy returns to the BSA or may move to another LRP. The BSB transportation platoon leader decides when to return empty vehicles back to the BSA.
Figure 11-8. LOGPAC deliveries.
11-18. IMMEDIATE RESUPPLY
Occasionally (normally during combat operations), an infantry company may have such an urgent need for resupply that it cannot wait for a routine LOGPAC. Immediate (or emergency) resupply may involve Classes III, V, and VIII, as well as NBC equipment and, on rare occasions, Class I. The SBCT will use BSB vehicles and HHC medical assets to conduct emergency resupply. The BSB has a limited capability to prepare sling loads should the SBCT be augmented with air support.
11-19. PRESTOCK OPERATIONS
Prestock resupply, also known as pre-positioning or cache, is most often required in defensive operations. Infantry companies, and sometimes the infantry battalion, plan and execute prestock resupply using company assets. Normally only Class V items are pre-positioned. Class III supplies can be pre-positioned, but this requires company vehicles to refuel before moving into fighting positions during initial occupation of the battle position or to move out of their fighting positions to conduct refueling operations at the rear of the BP. Prestock operations must be carefully planned and executed at every level. All leaders, down to vehicle commanders and squad leaders, must know the exact locations of prestock sites, which they verify during reconnaissance or rehearsals. The SBCT infantry company must take steps to ensure survivability of the prestock supplies. These measures include digging in prestock positions and selecting covered and concealed positions. The company commander must also have a plan to remove or destroy pre-positioned supplies to prevent the enemy from capturing them. (See FM 3-21.11 for additional details on prestock operations.)
11-20. SUPPLY AND TRANSPORTATION CONSIDERATIONS
The techniques described in the preceding paragraphs are the normal methods for resupply. However, a basic understanding of nonstandard techniques and different modes of delivery is also required for the successful execution of the sustainment function.
a. Aerial Resupply. Aerial delivery capability is not resident in the SBCT. Air Force airlift and Army aviation assets may supplement the SBCT's transportation capability. When supply routes become severely disrupted, the use of aerial delivery may be necessary. The infantry battalion must be prepared to receive both air-dropped and sling-loaded supplies. The receiving commander must consider the enemy's ability to locate his unit by observing the aircraft. Unless conducting the resupply in an area under friendly control and away from direct enemy observation (reverse slope of a defensive position with recon well forward), locate the drop zone (DZ)/LZ away from the main unit in an area that can be defended for a short time. The delivered supplies are immediately transported away from the DZ/LZ. Each unit must know how to select pick-up and landing zones and receive aerial resupply. (See FM 90-4.)
b. Cross-Leveling. Cross-leveling is simply a redistribution of supplies throughout the unit. Usually done automatically within companies after every engagement, the battalion may cross-level supplies between companies when resupply cannot be effected. In some instances, supplies may not be evenly redistributed. For example, during stability operations, a company defending a base camp may postpone fuel resupply so that a company conducting an area presence mission is completely supplied.
Section V. MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
The maintenance of weapons and equipment is continuous. Every soldier must know how to maintain his weapon and equipment in accordance with the related technical manual. The commander, XO, and 1SG must understand maintenance for every piece of equipment in the company.
11-21. SBCT MAINTENANCE CONCEPT
The SBCT maintenance concept is based upon the two-level maintenance system and centralized management. The two levels of maintenance are field and sustainment. Field maintenance is the combined organizational and direct support tasks performed by the BSB's combat repair teams to return a piece of equipment to an operational status. Sustainment maintenance occurs at echelons above the SBCT. The BSB's forward maintenance company provides all maintenance support for the SBCT, less medical and the limited automation capability that is integrated into the SBCT's S6 sections and the signal company. The FMC has limited ability to perform automotive, missile, armament, communications, special devices, line replacement unit, and power generation repair. The BSB may augment its capability with contractor maintenance support. Centralized management of all field maintenance by the BSB allows infantry commanders to focus on preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS) to keep their units' weapons systems operational.
11-22. MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
Proper maintenance is the key to keeping vehicles, equipment, and other materials in serviceable condition. It is a continuous process that starts with preventive measures taken by each vehicle crew and continues through repair and recovery efforts by maintenance personnel. It includes the functions of inspecting, testing, servicing, repairing, requisitioning, recovering, and evacuating equipment.
a. The unit SOP should detail when operator maintenance is performed (at least once a day in the field), to what standards, and who inspects it. The squad leader is most often the one who inspects maintenance work, with company leadership conducting spot-checks.
b. Maintenance applies to all equipment. Items such as computers, communications, and other electronic devices are also maintained and inspected. FBCB2 requires periodic removal of unnecessary files. Platform and filter settings need to be checked and adjusted by the chain of command.
c. Inoperative equipment is fixed as far forward as possible. When a piece of equipment is damaged, the crew makes a quick inspection to see if it can be repaired on the spot. Usually the CTCP will dispatch a repair team from the BSB's supporting CRT. If equipment cannot be repaired forward, it is evacuated immediately or returned with a LOGPAC. Even if the item cannot be evacuated at once, the CSS system is alerted to prepare for repair or replacement. If a replacement is available (from an evacuated soldier or inoperative equipment), it is sent forward.
d. Battle damage assessment and repair (BDAR) is rapid damage assessment and repair, bypassing or jury-rigging components, to support a combat mission or enable self-recovery. The purpose of BDAR is to return disabled combat equipment to the tactical commander as quickly as possible. The CTCP implements the commander's guidance on whether or not to use BDAR in lieu of normal maintenance procedures. Such enabling repairs may be temporary or permanent, depending on the repair required. At the completion of immediate combat operations, mechanics will make repairs that will return the equipment to fully mission-capable status. Since it may not be possible to train BDAR techniques in peacetime using actual equipment, the best substitute is to train system-oriented crews and mechanics to understand the principles associated with weapon systems. BDAR actions include:
- Using shortcuts to install or remove parts.
- Modifying and installing components designed for other vehicles or equipment.
- Using parts serving a noncritical function on a like vehicle.
- Jury-rigging to bypass noncritical components.
- Using substitute fuels, fluids, or other POLs.
11-23. COMPANY ROLE
The infantry company is where maintenance must occur. Maintenance begins with crew PMCS and preparation of the appropriate equipment inspection and maintenance forms (DA Form 2404 or 5988-E). These forms are the primary means through which the company obtains maintenance support or repair parts. Per unit SOP, the company XO or 1SG supervises the "flow" of these critical maintenance documents and parts.
a. Companies collect the maintenance forms each day, validate them, and forward them via FBCB2 or hard copy to the CTCP and it's supporting CRT. During the next LOGPAC operation, the completed hard copy forms are returned to the CRT to document acknowledgement of the maintenance or parts required.
b. The individual soldier or vehicle crew conducts initial maintenance, repair, and recovery actions on site. Once it is determined that the crew cannot repair or recover the vehicle or equipment, the crew initiates a maintenance call for support using FBCB2. The CFS is sent in accordance with unit SOP to the supporting CRT and CTCP. Once a CFS has been sent, the company can monitor status through the logistics task management application of FBCB2 (Figure 11-9).
c. Repair parts that do not require CRT assistance are packaged in the BSA and delivered during the next LOGPAC.
Figure 11-9. Call for support thread.
11-24. BATTALION ROLE
The battalion supervises the preventive maintenance work of companies, directs the repair work of the combat repair team, and coordinates for support from the BSB. Technical guidance for the CRT comes from its parent forward maintenance company.
a. Daily maintenance management begins with the arrival of the appropriate equipment inspection and maintenance forms at the CTCP and CRT. FBCB2 and CSSCS are used to monitor operational status, maintenance requests in process, and repair parts flowing from the BSB.
b. The CRT reacts to calls for support IAW CTCP priorities. The CRT generates a logistics task order to advise the support requester (and the CTCP) the status of his request. The CRT will assess the damaged or broken equipment and make necessary repairs to the equipment or order the necessary repair parts (Figure 11-9).
c. The CRT requests back-up support or evacuates the vehicle to the BSA.
When a vehicle or piece of equipment cannot be recovered or is damaged beyond repair, the company CRT reports the situation to the CTCP. The battalion commander gives permission for destruction of the materiel if that is the only way to prevent enemy capture.
Section VI. HEALTH SERVICE SUPPORT
The medical threat to soldiers comes from both enemy action and environmental situations that could adversely affect their combat effectiveness. Effective, timely medical care is an essential factor in sustaining combat power during continuous operations. The infantry battalion must ensure that its medical platoon and infantry companies coordinate with the brigade support medical company to become an integrated system of medical care.
11-26. PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
For the last forty years, disease and nonbattle injuries have been the major medical threat during military operations. Commanders and unit leaders are responsible for protecting their personnel against injuries that may result from diseases, inclement environments (heat and cold injuries), and accidents.
a. The company commander must emphasize and enforce high standards of health and hygiene at all times to preclude diseases from affecting soldier readiness. Proper use of risk assessment during troop-leading procedures, and subsequent risk management of those risks identified, will help prevent injuries and accidents. (See Appendix E, Risk Management and Fratricide Avoidance.) Unit SOPs must address the following areas of concern:
- Ensure clean drinking water is supplied to and consumed by soldiers.
- Ensure proper control of unit waste—both human waste and trash.
- Prevent weather-related problems. These include cold injuries such as frostbite, trench foot, and immersion foot, and heat injuries like heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Soldiers must understand the effects of conditions such as sunburn and wind-chill.
- Prevent battle fatigue to include strict implementation of the unit sleep plan. (See Appendix L, Continuous Operations.)
b. Though the medical platoon does not have organic preventive medicine assets, the platoon leader can call upon the resources of the BSMC.
(1) The preventive medicine section provides advice and consultation in the areas of disease and non-battle injuries (DNBI), environmental sanitation, epidemiology, entomology, and medical surveillance as well as limited sanitary engineering services and pest management. This section is particularly valuable in the establishment of base camps.
(2) The mental health section provides training and advice in the promotion of positive combat stress behaviors and the early identification, handling, and management of misconduct stress behavior and battle fatigued soldiers. It assists and counsels personnel with personal, behavioral, or psychological problems.
11-27. SOLDIERS WOUNDED IN ACTION
Medical treatment of wounded or injured soldiers during combat operations is a continuous, progressive operation that occurs in a series of separate but interconnecting stages. It involves personnel, equipment, and facilities at virtually every level of the organization. The normal flow of medical treatment for combat casualties is from the injury site to the casualty collection point to the battalion aid station to the brigade support medical company. The following paragraphs discuss responsibilities at each phase of this process.
a. Injury Site. The combat lifesaver (CLS) is almost always the first person on the scene to begin the process of treating wounded and injured personnel. The CLS is a non-medical soldier trained to provide advanced first aid and or lifesaving procedures beyond the level of self-aid or buddy aid. The CLS is not intended to take the place of medical personnel but to slow deterioration of a wounded soldier's condition until medical personnel arrive. The vehicle commander is responsible for ensuring that injured crewmen receive immediate first aid and that the commander is informed of casualties. He coordinates with the 1SG and company senior medic for ground evacuation. The vehicle commander ensures that casualty feeder (DA Form 1156) and witness statement (DA Form 1155) forms are completed and routed to the proper channels. Details on completion of these forms are provided in FM 3-21.11. (The casualty feeder card stays with the wounded soldier; witness statements are given to the 1SG.)
b. Casualty Collection Point. At the CCP, the senior medic conducts triage of all casualties, takes the necessary steps to stabilize their condition, and initiates the process of moving them to the rear for further treatment. He assists the 1SG in arranging evacuation via ground or air ambulance or by non-standard means. The medical platoon habitually positions a medical evacuation vehicle ambulance with each company to provide evacuation and en route care from the soldier's point of injury or the company's CCP to the BAS. In mass casualty situations, non-medical vehicles may be used to assist in casualty evacuation as directed by the company commander.
NOTE: Before casualties are evacuated beyond the CCP, leaders should remove all key operational items and equipment. Protective masks must stay with the individual.
c. Battalion Aid Station. The BAS conducts emergency medical treatment and advanced trauma treatment. Only procedures necessary to preserve life or limb or enable a patient to be moved safely are performed at the BAS. The BAS is normally positioned within 30 minutes' driving time of expected casualties. Patients are evacuated from the BAS by BSMC HMMWV ambulances. The BSMC habitually positions ambulances at an ambulance exchange point collocated with or near the BAS. During entry operations, air ambulances may not be available for the first 96 hours.
NOTE: Designated medical personnel collect DA Form 1156 at the aid station; it is forwarded through S1 channels for processing by the SBCT S1 in the BSA.
d. Brigade Support Medical Company. The BSMC performs Echelon II health service support. This includes medical evacuation from the BAS to the BSMC, patient holding, combat stress control (CSC) support, Class VIII resupply, preventive medicine support, medical equipment maintenance, x-ray, laboratory, and operational dental care. The BSMC also provides area medical support to BSA elements and back-up support to forward maneuver battalions. After the first 96 hours of brigade operations, the BSMC is normally augmented with a corps-level forward surgical team.
11-28. BATTALION MEDICAL PLATOON
The medical platoon of the infantry battalion is comprised of a headquarters, a combat medic section with 12 combat medics, an evacuation squad with four evacuation teams in MEV ambulances, and a treatment squad with two treatment teams in HMMWV ambulances (with trailers) (Figure 11-10).
Figure 11-10. Battalion medical platoon.
a. Platoon Headquarters. The medical platoon leader is also the battalion surgeon. The platoon headquarters section is comprised of a field medical assistant and the PSG. It is normally collocated with a treatment team or a treatment squad to form the BAS. The field medical assistant, a medical services corps officer, is the operations/readiness officer for the platoon. He is the principal assistant to the platoon leader for operations, administration, and logistics. The field medical assistant coordinates HSS operations with the CTCP and evacuation with the BSMC. The PSG also serves as the evacuation squad SGT.
b. Combat Medic Section. Trauma specialists are allocated to the companies of the infantry battalion on the basis of one trauma specialist per platoon. The platoon trauma specialist normally locates with, or near, the platoon leader or PSG. A health care SGT is allocated on the basis of one per infantry company. The company health care SGT normally collocates with the 1SG. As the tactical situation allows, he will manage the company CCP, provide medical treatment, and prepare patients for MEDEVAC.
c. Evacuation Squad. Evacuation teams in MEV ambulances are pre-positioned forward and evacuate casualties from the point of injury to the treatment teams/BAS. Three evacuation teams are in direct support of each infantry company while the fourth evacuation team provides an area support role.
d. Treatment Squad. The platoon's treatment teams operate with the BAS in either a static or mobile mode, to provide unit level HSS.
(1) The BAS has two treatment teams that can operate for limited times in split-based operations to ensure that soldiers receive treatment within 30 minutes. The teams can also operate in split-based operations when the BAS must move to a new location. One team remains at the current location and continues to treat patients while the other team moves to the new location and establishes patient care capabilities. Once the jump team has established a treatment capability at the new location, the other team evacuates or returns to duty all patients and moves to the new location.
(2) The BAS is under the tactical control of the CTCP. The battalion S4 closely coordinates locations for forward positioning the BAS with the battalion S3. Coordination ensures that CSS elements are not placed in the way of friendly maneuvering forces, in line of fires, or in areas subject to be overrun by rapidly advancing enemy forces.
11-29. MEDICAL COMMUNICATION FOR COMBAT CASUALTY CARE
The medical communication for combat casualty care computer system provides fully integrated medical information and communications to link all echelons of medical care. The medical platoon leader, both battalion treatment squads, and each MEV are equipped with MC4. MC4 uses the theater medical information program (TMIP) software and provides deployable medical forces with automation and advanced communication capabilities to link to medical information systems and databases, administrative procedures, medical diagnostic and monitoring systems, patient treatment systems, and evacuation platforms. The preformatted reports in MC4 provide the input data for the medical module of CSSCS.
11-30. SOLDIERS KILLED IN ACTION
Commanders are responsible to recover and evacuate soldiers killed in action to a collection point. Control of human remains and their personal effects is a systematic process. The following paragraphs discuss responsibilities at each phase of this process.
a. Platoon. During reorganization, the remains of those killed in action are brought to a company collection point. Casualty feeder (DA Form 1156) and witness statement (DA Form 1155) forms are completed. All personal effects remain with the body, but equipment and issue items are turned over to the 1SG.
b. Company. The supply sergeant, in coordination with (ICW) the platoon, inventories the personal effects using the record of personal effects of deceased personnel (DD 1076). (See Figure 11-11.) The company arranges for the remains to be transported to a mortuary affairs collection point in the BSA. As a rule, remains should not be transported on the same vehicle as wounded soldiers.
c. Battalion. The commander sends a letter of condolence to the soldier's next of kin, normally within 48 hours of the death.
d. SBCT. The BSB's mortuary affairs NCO and the SBCT S1 section coordinate to process the human remains and supporting documentation as part of the casualty management program.
Figure 11-11. Record of Personal Effects of Deceased
Personnel (DD 1076).
Section VII. REORGANIZATION AND WEAPONS REPLACEMENT
To maintain effective, consistent combat power, the battalion must have specific plans and procedures that allow each element to quickly integrate replacement personnel and equipment. Unit SOP should define how soldiers and equipment are prepared for combat, including areas such as uploading, load plans, PCIs, and in-briefings.
11-31. REPLACEMENTS AND CROSS-LEVELING OF PERSONNEL
Replacements for wounded, killed, or missing personnel are requested through the SBCT S1. Returning or replacement personnel delivered with the LOGPAC should have already been issued all TA-50 equipment, mission oriented protective posture (MOPP) gear, and other items, including their personal weapons. The battalion S1 cross-levels personnel among companies to implement the commander's guidance.
11-32. PERSONNEL REPLACEMENT PROCEDURES
Integrating replacements into the battalion and company is important. A new arrival on the battlefield may be scared and disoriented as well as unfamiliar with local SOPs and the theater of operations. The following procedures help integrate new arrivals.
a. The SBCT must establish SOPs on the processing of new personnel. Replacements who arrive in the BSA must be fed, billeted, and equipped.
b. The battalion conducts inprocessing using TPS and SIDPERS-3. New soldiers may be given a form letter to send to their next of kin. The letter should tell family members where to mail letters and packages, tell them how to use the Red Cross in emergencies, and introduce them to the chain of command. The medical platoon collects field medical records or digital personal information carriers (PIC). Once assigned to a company, the battalion S1 arranges for transportation with a LOGPAC.
c. The company commander and platoon leadership meet the replacements and welcome them to the unit. This is normally a brief interview. Companies must have an SOP for reception and integration of newly assigned soldiers.
11-33. REPLACEMENT AND SALVAGING OF EQUIPMENT
Lost, damaged, or destroyed equipment is reported and requisitioned through normal supply channels. Class VII replacements can be either components of end items such as radios, night vision devices, or small arms or end items such as ICVs, HMMWVs, or medical tactical vehicles (MTVs). Accountability of end items (Class VII) is done by echelons above the SBCT. Accountability of smaller equipment and components (Class II) is done by supply sergeants using hand receipts.
11-34. WEAPONS SYSTEM REPLACEMENT OPERATIONS
Weapons system replacement operations (WSRO) are conducted to provide units with fully operational, ready-to-fight (RTF) replacement weapons systems to include both vehicle and crew-served systems. Echelons above the SBCT will provide replacement weapons systems to battalions based on SBCT priorities. Before these weapons systems are sent forward for delivery to the company, the battalion supervises the completion of all necessary pre-combat checks.
Section VIII. CSS FROM OUTSIDE THE SBCT
Logistically, the SBCT relies on division or corps headquarters acting as the ARFOR command for sustainment. This headquarters often contains a tailored slice of a theater support command (TSC). The SBCT must exploit regionally available assets for transport, supply, and services. These assets include joint, multinational, host nation, and contracted support resources. Generally, the SBCT rear CP will coordinate for the use of these assets, but their employment will often occur within the battalion sector and require battalion supervision.
11-35. INTERMEDIATE STAGING BASE
An intermediate staging base is a secure base usually established within the theater of operations near to, but not in, the area of operations. The ISB provides a secure, high throughput facility. Once established there are two basic roles for an ISB: first, in the traditional role as a staging base for deploying units in transit to an AO; and second, as a remote support base.
a. Staging Base. Deploying forces debark from strategic lift, reassemble, and prepare for missions in the AO. For deploying forces transiting through, ISBs allow the supported commanders time to gather additional intelligence on the AO and finalize plans following briefings and rehearsals, and deploying soldiers can recuperate after long trips from their home stations. Support requirements at a staging base depend on the deployment flow, timelines, and the requirements of the transient force population. ISBs may also serve as a secure staging area for redeploying units, non-combatant evacuation operations evacuees, and so on, until strategic lift is made available for deployment or evacuation to final destinations.
b. Support Base. The support role of the ISB may involve two types of support capabilities. First, certain elements engaged in split-based operations may locate in an ISB. (Others stay at home station or CONUS.) Aspects of such functions as distribution and materiel management and some personnel or legal functions may be performed by elements at an ISB. The second part of an ISB involves the deliberate positioning of stocks and units or capabilities dedicated for a specific operation. These are then quickly moved to the AO via intra-theater transportation when additional support is required in the AO. Examples of facilities and capabilities that may be at an ISB include:
- Contracting elements for local supplies or services.
- Command post sites.
- Repair parts.
- Ground maintenance support.
- Aviation intermediate maintenance (AVIM) support.
- Medical facilities and telemedicine.
- Civil affairs and intelligence preparation of key leaders and troops.
- Personnel services and replacement operations.
- Finance support (to include limited currency exchange).
- Mortuary affairs.
- Ammunition supply activities.
- Explosive ordnance disposal support.
- Waste management—gray and black water, solids, medical, and hazardous materials.
11-36. CONTRACTING AND HOST NATION SUPPORT
The SBCT is expected to use contractors, DA civilians, and host nation support in the area of operations.
a. Contracting Support. Though they involve a number of risks, contractors and DA civilians are playing an ever-increasing role in providing combat service support to US forces. The Army may use contractors to bridge gaps between required capabilities and actual force structure available within an AO. Contractors may be employed, subject to METT-TC, throughout the AO and in virtually all conditions. Protecting contractors on the battlefield is the commander's responsibility. When contractors are expected to perform in potentially hostile areas, the supported military forces must assure the protection of their operations and personnel. Commanders must understand that contractors are subject to the same threat as soldiers and must plan accordingly. Contractor personnel cannot be required to perform force protection functions and cannot take an active role in hostilities but retain the inherent right to self-defense. The defense logistics agency will provide bulk fuel, water, and food, either through pre-positioned stocks or host-nation contracts. The logistics civil augmentation program (LOGCAP) is also available to the SBCT when needed.
(1) SBCT Role. The SBCT contracting element will operate as direct support to the SBCT only in the unusual case where there is no Army principal assistant responsible for contracting (PARC) or other lead service theater support contracting cell supporting the SBCT AO. In most situations, the SBCT contingency contracting officers (CCOs) will be consolidated into the PARC contracting office in the AO. Anyone in the SBCT can generate a contracting support requirement for his organization or staff section. In order to execute a contract item, the requester must have a valid requirement and a certified funding document. It is essential that CCOs work with the appropriate finance and accounting activities and legal support in executing their duties.
(2) BSB Role. The BSB is authorized two contingency contracting officers to provide contracting support to the SBCT and AOR PARC. They coordinate and execute acquisition of contracting requirements, typically using local contracts.
(3) Unit Role. The commercial government-wide purchase card (GPC) used in CONUS may also be used outside CONUS (OCONUS). Merchant acceptance of the GPC varies widely outside the US. Contingency planning should determine whether the GPC is useful in specific instances. The source of funding associated with the GPC must be taken into consideration. Commanders may not wish to use their GPC, especially if funding is not available from contingency operational funds. As a general rule, commanders should anticipate the need for contracting.
b. Host Nation Support. Host nation support is provided to Army forces and organizations located in or transiting through host nation territory and includes both civil and military assistance. This support can include assistance in almost every aspect required to sustain military operations within a theater. Planners must consider that host nation support meets local, not necessarily US, standards. Host nation support can be a significant resource provided it is available and that appropriate agreements are in place.
11-37. EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL
Explosive ordnance disposal capabilities are not organic to the SBCT. EOD augmentation will be required from ARFOR to support SBCT operations. Once unexploded ordnance (UXO) is located and reported, the chain of command to the ARFOR EOD cell determines what EOD assets may respond. EOD teams may be called forward from an ISB as required. The EOD asset of any service nearest to theater responds.
11-38. FIELD SERVICES
Field services include laundry and shower support and field feeding. There is no organic field service support in the SBCT. Military augmentation (such as CSSC, corps, or force provider assets) or contractors will provide field services.
a. Laundry and Shower. A quartermaster (QM) field service company can be deployed in support of a brigade-size element. It is designed to provide soldiers one shower per week, at a minimum. Laundry service allows soldiers to meet the Surgeon General's standard of changing clothes at least every seven days and permitting the soldier to turn in up to 15 pounds of dirty laundry per week. The field service company does not provide laundry decontamination support, and showers are not required for troop decontamination of chemical and biological agents. Soldiers may need their clothing to be repaired on the battlefield. This support may be provided by three methods, depending on the extent of the requirement: self-help, direct support through the field service company clothing repair element, and support through host nation support and or contract service.
b. Field Feeding. Food is one of the most important factors affecting a soldier's health, morale, and welfare. The Army field feeding system is based on the requirement to serve three quality meals per day. It stresses the capability to distribute, prepare, and serve a unitized group ration A (UGR-A), a heat-and-serve UGR meal (URG-H&S), and a meal, ready-to-eat individual ration after initial entry into the theater. The SBCT provides no consolidated food preparation for its units. With augmentation of military personnel or contracted support, the SBCT will receive prepared meals based on METT-TC. If available, the food service support teams of the CSSC will serve UGR-A or UGR-H&S meals based on METT-TC.
11-39. GENERAL ENGINEERING SUPPORT
The SBCT organization consciously excludes the construction engineer capability often provided in a division slice. The LOGCAP is the most commonly used means of general engineer support available to the SBCT.
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