Military Police Support to Division
|Division MP provide essential support to the forward tactical commander. The MP provide a flexible, mobile, and lethal force ready to be employed in combat or CS operations.|
The division is a large Army organization that trains and fights as a tactical team. Largely self-sustaining, it is capable of independent operations. The division is a unit of maneuver organized with varying numbers and types of combat, CS, and CSS units. Divisions fall mainly into two categories-heavy or light. The first category includes heavy divisions, their variants, and the Division XXI digitized heavy division. The second category includes the light infantry, airborne, and air-assault divisions. Each division can conduct operations over a wide range of environments. The success of Army operations depends on the success of its divisions.
7-1. In corps operations, divisions are normally comprised of three maneuver brigades, each with up to nine maneuver battalions, artillery battalions, aviation battalions, and supporting CS and CSS units. Divisions perform a wide range of tactical missions and are self-sustaining for limited periods of time. The corps augments divisions as the mission requires. All divisions must be able to deploy and conduct offensive, defensive, stability, and support operations. Airborne and air-assault divisions must be able to conduct forced-entry operations. Divisions may be part of a JTF or serve as the ARFOR headquarters.
7-2. MP support to a division is provided by an organic MP company that includes the PM and his staff (assigned to each division) and is augmented by the corps MP brigade. The division MP company provides support in the DRA and in the maneuver brigade rear area. It is fully mobile in order to relocate frequently under short notice. While division MP companies are capable of performing all five MP functions, they must be augmented by corps MP/CID to fully perform all five MP functions throughout the division's battle space. The division PM must receive at least one corps MP company for GS missions in the DRA, one L&O detachment for L&O missions, and one CID detachment for criminal investigations and LOGSEC. In a mature theater (or based on METT-TC), the division PM can expect two corps MP companies. In addition, the division PM may request a corps MP battalion headquarters to provide C2to corps MP units operating in the DRA or to perform missions as a TCF. Because the need for MP support exceeds division organic assets (and many times exceeds augmenting corps MP assets), careful planning of MP employment is essential.
7-3. The organization of the division MP company is set by specific tables of organization and equipment (TOE) and is designed to support a specific type of division. Regardless of the type of division, the assets in a division MP company enable a PM and his supporting staff to supervise the performance of all five MP functions. The PM coordinates the employment of the MP assets in the division's AO through his PM section. The division MP company contains a headquarters, a PM section, a medic section, and three to six platoons.
7-4. The C2of the division MP company extends downward from the tactical commander to the division PM. The division PM is the division commander's special staff officer. Under normal circumstances, he works for the chief of staff. The division PM has OPCON of the division MP company and MP assets that have been provided by the corps. The division PM plans and employs all of the organic, assigned, or attached MP according to METT-TC. He anticipates the support needs of the division commander and plans the employment to meet his needs. After learning the division commander's concept of operations and estimating the situation, the division PM decides which MP functions are critical to accomplish the commander's mission. He then recommends the allocation of resources, tasks his assets, and establishes the priority of support.
7-5. When the division MP company is augmented by corps MP platoons, the platoons are placed under the direction of the division MP company commander, who assigns an AO to each platoon. When corps MP assets augmenting the division make up a company, the company is attached to the division. The company then comes under the OPCON of the PM, who assigns it an AO. The augmenting corps MP company is usually given an AO from the division rear boundary forward. However, this assignment is flexible and based on the division commander's needs as set forth by the division PM. The four platoons of that corps MP company perform all five MP functions in that AO. Additionally, the corps MP brigade (CS) L&O detachment supporting a division is attached to the division and OPCON to the division PM.
7-6. The division MP company commander directs the employment of company assets. Through his company headquarters, he provides administrative, maintenance, and logistical support to the PM section and to the company's platoons that are dispersed throughout the division's AO. These sections are mobile to support the platoons without delay despite the extended distances that may be separating them. The company commander is also mobile. He travels the extended distances from one platoon area to another when checking on the status of his soldiers and resolving the problems affecting mission accomplishment. The division HHC provides mess support. Personnel administration is handled by the company headquarters and the DISCOM. The number and kind of assets in a division MP company and the configuration of its platoons and squads are determined by the type of division to which the company is assigned (see Figure 7-1).
Figure 7-1. Military Police and USACIDC Organizations
7-7. At the direction of the division commander, the division band may be available to perform its secondary mission of supporting MP operations. When the intensity of the conflict prevents the band from performing its musical mission, the division commander may direct it to augment the MP company. The band, normally employed as a unit under the direction of the bandmaster, is under the OPCON of the MP company commander while augmenting the MP. When tasked to augment MP assets, band members may be employed to augment MP security at the division main CP or to augment perimeter security at the division EPW/CI collection point. The band is released to perform its primary mission as soon as the tactical situation permits.
7-8. The employment of division MP companies differs somewhat with the type of division to which they are assigned. In heavy divisions, the division MP companies provide GS to the DRA and DS to the division's maneuver brigades. When the platoon is providing DS to a maneuver brigade, the MP platoon leader coordinates all logistical support with the supported brigade. A platoon's DS relationship is seldom interrupted. However, METT-TC may require weighing MP support to the maneuver brigade tasked as the main effort or employing all platoons in a division MP company to function as a unit (such as during division-size river-crossing operations or deliberate breaching operations). In light divisions, the MP provide only GS to the DRA or during sustainment operations. Support exceptions are addressed under MP support to airborne and air-assault divisions, discussed later in this chapter.
7-9. In the division (where flexible support of an austere force is crucial), the division PM must have a clear understanding of situational awareness. To obtain current information for projecting MP needs in the division area, he must be mobile and be able to conduct split-cell operations. The assets available to the PM include the division MP company and at least one corps MP company. Corps augmentation is required for sustained operations and for special operations such as river crossings, dealing with dislocated civilians, and refugee internment or resettlement. The division PM coordinates with the corps PM and the MP brigade or CID commanders for-
- Evacuating and guarding EPWs/CIs from division to corps.
- Providing law-enforcement assistance to HN forces in the division's AO.
- Providing corps augmentation for the division's AO, convoy security, LOC security, AS, R&S, L&O, and other missions. These other missions may include augmentation for security of the division main CP, ASPs, and other critical facilities.
- Integrating, sharing, and exchanging police intelligence between corps and division MP elements.
- Providing CID support.
7-10. The Army's armored and mechanized infantry divisions (normally referred to as heavy divisions) provide mobile, armor-protected firepower that is normally employed for their mobility, survivability, lethality, and psychological effect (shock) on the enemy. These divisions destroy enemy armored and mechanized forces, and they can seize land areas and secure key terrain. Because of their strategic lift requirements, heavy divisions are slow to deploy from home staging bases into an AO. They have high consumption rates of supplies and have limited use in restrictive terrain. These capabilities and limitations are key factors in planning effective and efficient MP support throughout the division's AO.
7-11. In the heavy divisions, the PM section is organized to support split-cell operations at the main and rear CPs. The PM must be mobile to ensure that he is fully aware of the current status of critical MP operations. Therefore, the deputy PM (DPM) locates in one of the PM cells and-
- Handles the section's routine operations.
- Monitors ongoing division operations and MP support.
- Helps provide long-range planning and interface with the primary division staff.
- Forwards PM taskings to the division MP company commander.
7-12. The DPM and the operations sergeant normally set up operations at the division main CP where they can coordinate requirements with the division staff personnel. The company headquarters is initially located near the division rear CP in the division support area (DSA). Once augmentation arrives from the corps, the headquarters relocates with one of its GS platoons operating behind the brigade rear boundary. However, this location could be changed based on METT-TC, the supported commander's needs, and the company commander's idea of where he can exercise better C2for his unit.
7-13. The Army of Excellence (AOE) heavy division MP company has six platoons. Three platoons provide support to each maneuver brigade and are designated as DS. The other three platoons are designated as GS platoons. One MP platoon provides security for the division main CP; one provides security for the division's EPW central collection point; and one performs other MP operations within the division rear.
7-14. The GS MP platoons' AOs are configured based on METT-TC and the availability of MP augmentation from the corps. The DS MP platoons' AOs coincide with the supported maneuver brigade's boundary. Each platoon headquarters locates within its brigade's support area or any other area where it can best provide and receive support. To accomplish its mission, each DS platoon requires a minimum of two squads, each with three teams. One squad operates the EPW/CI collection point. The other squads perform MMS and AS operations. All MP platoons are capable of performing all five MP functions. However, performance of these functions is prioritized based on METT-TC and the division commander's concept of operations. The division PM, the company commander, and METT-TC dictate how these platoons should be tasked-organized to accomplish the mission.
7-15. The AOE light infantry division (LID) is one of the most rapidly and strategically deployable divisions. It fights as part of a larger force in war or conducts missions as part of a joint force in MOOTW. Its C2structure readily accepts any augmentation forces, permitting task-organizing for any situation. The augmentation required for the division is largely determined by METT-TC. The division's capabilities allow it to exploit the advantages of restricted terrain and limited visibility. It achieves mass through the combined effects of synchronized small-unit operations and fires rather than through the physical concentration of forces on the battlefield. These characteristics are key factors in planning and employing MP assets in support of the LID.
7-16. The LID MP companies are capable of performing all five MP functions. However, their performance of these functions is prioritized based on METT-TC and the division commander's concept of operations. Contrary to the heavy division MP company, the LID MP companies are much smaller. The constrained size of the LID MP companies makes corps MP augmentation crucial to the sustainment of MP operations. Additionally, the LID MP company is the only MP unit with the capability of antiaircraft support through the use of shoulder-fired air-defense weapons.
7-17. The company has three GS platoons to support the division. No platoons are provided to the maneuver brigade. One platoon is normally located in the vicinity of the division main CP so that its resources can help support CP security. Another platoon locates in the DSA and operates the division EPW/CI collection point. The last platoon has an AO configured according to METT-TC and the commander's priority of MP missions. Each GS MP platoon has a headquarters and three squads, each with two teams. The PM section is located in the vicinity of the division main CP. The exact location is based on the current operational status and on METT-TC.
7-18. The AOE airborne division can rapidly deploy anywhere in the world to seize and secure vital objectives. It conducts parachute assaults to capture initial lodgments, executes large-scale tactical raids, secures intermediate staging bases (ISBs) or forward operating bases (FOBs) for ground and air operations, and rescues US nationals besieged overseas. It can also serve as a strategic or theater reserve as well as a reinforcement for forward-presence forces. The airborne division can assault deep into the enemy's rear area to secure terrain or to interdict enemy supply and withdrawal routes. It can seize and repair airfields to provide a FOB and airheads for follow-on air-landed forces. It is capable of all other missions assigned to LIDs. The airborne division does not have sufficient armored protection to defeat heavier armored formations at close range. Therefore, engagements with enemy armored formations require special considerations. Antitank weapons in the division compensate for, but do not completely offset, this deficit.
7-19. Airborne divisions conduct operations in two phases-assault and defense. The division accomplishes the assault phase in three stages. First, they deploy; second, they establish the airhead; and third, they extend the logistics base and build their force.
7-20. Like other division MP companies, those assigned to the airborne division are employed to support their division commander's concept of operations. The airborne MP company has four platoons, each having three squads with two teams. Normally, the company headquarters and one of the platoon headquarters colocates with the PM section. The division PM's exact location depends on METT-TC. During the assault phase, the airborne division MP company provides DS to the assault brigade. The remaining platoons provide MMS and AS in the vicinity of the division main CP.
7-21. The nature of airborne operations makes the capture of EPWs likely. Therefore, during the first stage of the assault phase, the priority of MP support is given to EPW operations. After assembling the DZ or LZ, the MP collect EPWs captured during the assault. Combat elements are relieved of EPWs as far forward as possible. In airborne operations, EPWs are held for later movement to a central collection point. During the first stage of the assault, the MP perform limited straggler and refugee control and undertake AS operations, when possible.
7-22. MP support is reevaluated after the airhead is established in the second stage of the assault. The PM takes in consideration personnel and equipment flow, roadways, and security requirements to shift MP support priorities. As the entire operation matures, MP support may expand to include all five MP functions.
7-23. The air-assault division executes tactical missions at operational depths to achieve strategic results. It is capable of launching brigade-size air assaults of nearly 4,000 soldiers from either an ISB or a tactical assembly area (TAA). Within 6 hours, this air-assault task force (AATF) can attack an opposing force, occupy and defend key terrain, or establish a FOB (out to 150 kilometers) from which even deeper operations can be executed. Air-assault operations are terrain independent, but they rely on suitable weather and a detailed attrition/assessment of enemy capability-particularly air-defense assets along air corridors and in the objective area. The air assault is preceded by detailed, lethal and nonlethal condition settings, culminating in a comprehensive condition check before execution.
7-24. As the corps AATF unit, the brigade combat team (BCT) task-organizes and habitually trains with both aviation lift and attack (Apache) battalions. An air-assault division MP company has four platoons, each having three squads with two teams. To facilitate operations, air-assault division MP platoons are habitually aligned with each of the three AOE BCTs; however, as with aviation assets, the MP are task-organized to support the main effort's BCT/AATF. When conducting these operations, two MP platoons may be tasked to provide support; one is available to posture and participate in the air assault, and the other conducts AS and MMS operations at the pickup zone (PZ). This second MP platoon may further provide MMS and accompany a ground-assault convoy (GAC) to the objective, or it may remain at the PZ to receive EPWs returning on aircraft from the objective area. The mission of conducting MMS along this vulnerable ground LOC is particularly critical if the AATF objective is a FOB from which further division operations will expand.
7-25. MP participation in the actual air assault competes for heavy lift with FA and air-defense systems, as well as with vital Class V resupply. However, the lethality and versatility of the MP bode well for their employment, and two MP platoons are available to support the brigade air assault as the division's center of gravity.
7-26. When possible, habitually aligned platoons remain with their brigades, and corps assets perform GS missions. However, when no corps assets are available and two division platoons are employed as stated above, the two remaining platoons conduct division EPW collection-point operations and other MP functions based on METT-TC. Normally, the EPW platoon and the MP company headquarters colocate in the DSA. As required (and based on METT-TC), airflow planning includes EPW/CI evacuation from the AATF/FOB collection point back to the DSA. The PM section operates from the division rear CP to facilitate I/R operations and to coordinate MMS and AS with key logistical staff. Due to potentially extreme distances on the air-assault battlefield, the DPM normally locates with the division main CP to serve as a key G3 battle-staff member and to coordinate PIO with the G2.
7-27. Division XXI represents a significant change in the manner in which division operations are conducted. These changes are brought on by information-age capabilities; an increased integration of service components into an effective battle team; more lethal, survivable, and agile systems; and more capable soldiers and leaders. The Division XXI operates in a larger battle space and at a higher tempo than the AOE division. The division is evolutionary in design, but revolutionary in its use of information technology. It improves the Army's deployability while enhancing its ability to dominate in decisive fights. The following are characteristics of the Division XXI operational environment:
- Multidimensional. The division will operate in an extended battle space that goes beyond the traditional physical dimension of width, depth, and height. It includes portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; and it extends beyond the physical boundaries of the division through its communication and digital connectivity to other Army, joint, and coalition elements, even reaching back to CONUS.
- Precise. Precision operations go beyond a precision strike to include every aspect of military operations from deployment through combat and through redeployment or transition to other operations. Precision in decisive operations is enabled by three emerging capabilities. First, digitization provides soldiers and leaders at each echelon the information required for making decisions. Second, a full suite of strategic, operational, and tactical sensors linked to analytical teams fuses combat information into situational awareness across the battle space. Third, simulations enable Army elements to be tailored and operations to be planned, war-gamed, and rehearsed-yielding precision execution.
- Nonlinear. Nonlinear operations do not seek a battle-space grid of close, deep, and rear operations. Instead, the battle space is fluid, changing as METT-TC changes through the duration of mission preparation and execution. Another dimension of this characteristic is the synchronization of near-simultaneous operations to achieve nonlinear effects across the battle space.
- Distributed. Division operations are distributed or executed where and when required to achieve decisive effects concentrated at a decisive point. Dispersion empowers subordinates to operate independently within the commander's intent, leading to synergistic effects that exceed the effects of a centralized headquarters.
- Simultaneous. The concept of decentralization operations that are multidimensional, precise, distributed, and nonlinear yields the capability to conduct simultaneous operations across the battle space. Simultaneous operations seize the initiative and present the enemy leadership with multiple crises and no effective responses. Rather than a single, concentrated attack, the division executes a series of attacks (lethal and nonlethal) as simultaneously as possible.
- Integrated. Division operations are fully integrated with joint, multinational, and nongovernmental partners. Integrated operations enable the Army to leverage the full suite of capabilities that the services bring to the battle space.
7-28. The Division XXI heavy division is one of total integration-not rounding up or down. Reserve-component soldiers assigned to the division are an integral part of the division mission and task accomplishment. The division cannot operate without them. The division is focused on massing effects on the enemy-enabled by a new foundation of information technology and distributed logistics. The division is built around the pattern of "conduct decisive operations," accomplished by either fires or maneuver. The design performs complementary battle-space shaping in concert with the overall corps plan. Its long-range assets are not typically held in reserve nor just employed in the close fight; they are used to best support the corps and division commanders' plans of operations.
7-29. Although the basic structure of the division has not changed-three maneuver brigades, a division artillery, and a DISCOM-the internal structure and operational construction have changed in a near revolutionary way. The C2structure and the basic organizational structure are very similar to the divisions discussed above. However, by integrating the capabilities of digital technology and by using enhanced situational awareness, it is better able to execute combat operations.
7-30. The maneuver brigades have their own scouts-a brigade reconnaissance troop (BRT); therefore, they no longer rely exclusively on the battalion scouts. The maneuver battalions are reduced to three companies with a total number of 45 combat platforms. The division artillery has three Multiple-Launch Rocket System (MLRS) batteries per battalion. The cavalry squadron is under the aviation brigade's C2but retains and performs the division's traditional cavalry mission. Figure 7-2 depicts the organizational structure of Division XXI.
Figure 7-2. Division XXI Structure
7-31. The division's CSS is centralized. Instead of each unit having its own organic CSS personnel, they are now centralized in CSS units. The CSS assets are reorganized and reassigned to the DISCOM. Forward-support companies (FSCs) are habitually associated with each maneuver battalion and forward-support battalions (FSBs) will support each maneuver brigade. This operational structure enables distribution-based rather than supply-based logistics concepts to support the division. The overall logistics footprint for the division is now reduced and the division has organic self-sufficiency to operate unsupported for up to 30 hours.
7-32. A major difference between the AOE fix-forward doctrine and the Division XXI maintenance support is the change in the actual repair site. Division XXI maintenance units directly supporting a given customer will diagnose faults and will replace components forward in the battlefield and will repair rearward. Units will be manned with maintenance personnel capable of performing DS and limited GS maintenance.
7-33. The division operates in a battle space two and a half times larger than an AOE division, and it will usually fight as part of a corps or a JTF. The division conducts offensive, defensive, stability, and support operations in cooperation with other elements of the corps/JTF to gain tactical or operational results significant to the joint-force commander's campaign goals.
7-34. Although the division is a heavy division, MP support is somewhat different from that of an AOE heavy division. The PM (based on METT-TC) establishes operations where MP assets can best be commanded. At the same time, overall MP operations can be synchronized to support operations within the division rear and the division commander's intent can be effectively supported. To this end, the PM conducts split-cell operations within the division main CP. Normally, the PM section is distributed between the security-operations cell (SOC) and the mobility/survivability (M/S) cell. The DPM (who works out of the M/S cell) is also part of the division planning team. He ensures that MP operations are integrated into division plans according to the PM's intent. The DPM attends coordination meetings and assumes coordination responsibility with the rest of the division staff when the PM relocates away from the division main CP.
7-35. The PM, as a staff officer, is involved with every aspect of planning and with the military decision-making process (MDMP). He uses the Force XXI Battle Command-Brigade and Below (FBCB2) C2system to understand the battlefield. He understands the mission and the commander's intent and priorities. The PM has complete situational awareness, establishes an effective staff relationship with the G3, and recommends the best way to employ MP resources.
7-36. The Division XXI heavy division MP company has five platoons. Although tasked-organized based on METT-TC and the commander's needs, three MP platoons provide DS for each maneuver brigade. The DS platoon requires a minimum of three squads (each having three teams) to accomplish the mission. The other MP platoons are normally employed forward in sector, providing AS and force protection for the division main and tactical (TAC) CPs and for other HVAs in the vicinity of the maneuver brigade rear boundary. As with the AOE heavy division, the Division XXI heavy division requires augmentation with at least one corps MP company for CS missions in the DRA and can expect two companies in a mature theater (based on METT-TC) as the main effort. In addition, the division may request an MP battalion headquarters to command and control CS MP operations in the rear or to conduct TCF operations.
7-37. While the division MP company is capable of performing all five MP functions, it must be augmented by the corps MP to fully perform all of these functions throughout a mature division's battle space. The PM prioritizes MP functions (based on the supported commander's needs), conducts a mission analysis, and requests needed corps assets through the division G3. Corps MP companies, L&O detachments, and CID assets are needed for sustainment operations. When corps MP companies and L&O detachments are attached to the division, they are placed under OPCON of the PM. The PM will then assign an AO and missions based on METT-TC.
7-38. The PM supports the division's distribution-based logistics concept by conducting aggressive R&S operations that secure the LOC. Since the main effort is to secure the LOC, traditional MMS missions (such as convoy security and escorts) are performed by exception. Through the allocation of increased MP to conduct LOC R&S operations aggressively, the division is able to detect and destroy threat forces before they interrupt operations in rear-area or sustainment operations.
7-39. Digitization gives the division the situational awareness that allows it to cover much larger distances and to move much faster. The systems that provide this digitization are generally unprotected HVAs on the battlefield, which require aggressive AS and force-protection operations.
7-40. The EPW operations are much more fluid, sometimes requiring the division GS MP to move forward and assume brigade collection points, thus allowing DS platoons to move forward with their brigades. Similarly, corps MP may be required to move forward and assume the division's central collection points as the division's rear boundary is pushed forward to shorten the LOC.
7-41. As with all AOE divisions, until corps L&O and CID detachments augment the division, L&O operations are on an exception basis. The MP collect intelligence during every facet of mission execution. The PM develops police intelligence in the division main CP through coordination with the SOC, the G2, the Assistant Chief of Staff, G5 (Civil Affairs) (G5), and the Assistant Chief of Staff, G6 (Communications) (G6).
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|