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Military

Chapter 5

Military Police Support to Echelons Above Corps

MP units supporting EAC perform combat, CS, and CSS operations. Like the MP supporting corps and divisions, MP units supporting EAC units perform the five MP functions based on available assets and the supported commander's needs.
USAMPS
MP support to EAC includes support to the ASCC and the TSC. The ASCC is responsible for Army Title 10 requirements in support of a combatant commander. This support includes recruitment, organization, supply, equipment, training, servicing, mobilizing, demobilizing, administration, and maintenance functions.

OVERVIEW

5-1. The ASCC may also be responsible for significant DOD- and combatant-commander-designated Army support to other services. As the senior Army commander in the AOR, the ASCC commander tailors and designates ARFOR to accomplish operational-level tasks while conducting major land operations. The ASCC's operational responsibilities include-

  • Recommending the proper employment of Army-component forces to the joint-force commander or to the subunified commander.
  • Accomplishing operational missions as assigned.
  • Selecting and nominating specific Army units for assignment to subordinate theater forces.
  • Informing the combatant commander of the Army's CSS effects on operational capabilities.
  • Providing data to the supporting operations plans (OPLANs) as requested.
  • Ensuring signal interoperability.

5-2. The ASCC provides administrative and logistics (A/L) services to assigned ARFOR and to those of subordinate JFCs. When appropriate, the ASCC delegates the authority for support tasks to a single subordinate Army headquarters. In major operations, the TSC (along with other EAC support commands) would be the ASCC's lead organization for planning, coordinating, executing, or providing required support functions (see FM 100-10).

5-3. The TSC is the senior Army support organization in a theater. Its commander reports to the ASCC or ARFOR commander. The TSC normally operates at the operational level of CSS with links to the strategic and tactical levels. Unity of command is the critical element that the TSC brings to the fight. The TSC is a multifunctional organization that centralizes the command, control, and supervision of support functions at EAC as directed by the ASCC or ARFOR commander. The TSC's mission is to maximize throughput and follow-on sustainment, including all CSS functions, of ARFOR and other designated supported elements. The TSC is capable of synchronizing logistics and other support operations for the ASCC. It provides area support to EAC units in the COMMZ and sustainment support to tactical forces. This support may include supply, procurement, property disposal, maintenance, transportation, field services, health services, civil-military affairs, MP support, engineer support, religious support, finance support, and personnel and administrative services.

5-4. Units and commands requiring support coordinate with the TSC support-operations staff to secure their initial support, to reestablish support, or to resolve support problems. In a fully developed theater, the TSC coordinates with a corps support command (COSCOM) for support of combat forces, although direct coordination with a division support command (DISCOM) is sometimes necessary. The TSC, augmented by a rear operations center, is also responsible for security operations as directed by the ASCC/ARFOR commander (see FM 63-4).

MILITARY POLICE SUPPORT

5-5. MP support to EAC units is provided through an array of multifunctional MP units. The nature of the operation, METT-TC, and the requirements of the supported commander will determine which type of MP unit is appropriate to augment, assign, attach, or place under OPCON to an EAC unit. The types of MP units that support EAC include CS, I/R, CID, and L&O teams (such as MWD or customs teams).

THE MP BRIGADE (CS)

5-6. The MP brigade (CS) provides MMS and AS to extended LOC within the COMMZ. These supply corridors include ports, inland waterways, railways, pipelines, airfields, MSRs, and MSR critical points. The MP support the users of the COMMZ's LOC by aggressively patrolling the area along the LOC. They play an important role in securing rear areas by performing combat operations against the threat. When properly augmented, the MP brigade headquarters may serve as the TSC's/ASCC's TCF headquarters. The MP provide MMS on the COMMZ MSRs leading into the corps's rear area. The MP implement the plans of HN and US staff elements to control the forward movement of combat resources along the LOC.

5-7. If resources are available, the MP brigade (CS) provides escorts to move US noncombatants (if present) from AA points to theater embarkation terminals. Until the MP brigade (I/R) arrives in theater, the CS MP units also perform EPW, confinement, and other operations normally performed by the MP I/R units.

5-8. The organization of an MP brigade (CS) supporting EAC includes the following:

  • A brigade headquarters and headquarters company (HHC).
  • Up to six MP battalions (each with up to six companies).
  • Numerous L&O detachments and MWD teams.

5-9. Additionally, the ASCC's PM or commander may attach or direct OPCON of customs teams to the MP brigade (CS). Battalion and company organization in the MP brigade is the same as that in the corps MP brigade; however, METT-TC determines the number of battalions and companies. The MP brigade (CS) has additional MP companies to provide security for EAC-specific units/activities such as-

  • A unified command.
  • An ASCC and TSC headquarters.
  • LOC seaports, airfields, and railways.
  • EAC ammunition storage areas.
  • EAC petroleum terminals and pipelines.

5-10. While the corps MP brigade (CS) MWD teams are employed in a GS role, the MP brigade (CS) MWD teams are employed to augment seaport security and to conduct inspections of postal items to detect explosive materiel and narcotics.

5-11. The C2within the MP brigade (CS) is consistent with that in any Army brigade. The MP brigade commander works directly for the EAC commander, the battalion commander works for the brigade commander, and the company commander works for the battalion commander. However, this usual C2relationship may be altered briefly (based on METT-TC) to enhance the overall EAC combat capability for responding to a Level II threat. For example, MP units operating within an ASG's AO may be under the OPCON of the ASG's rear-area operations center (RAOC), which directly tasks MP units responding to Level II threats. The same is true for placing MP units under the OPCON of the EAC's TCF headquarters for responding to Level III threats. Any conflict in mission priorities is resolved through MP C2channels.

5-12. The MP brigade commander is both the MP brigade commander and the EAC's PM. He employs his assets according to METT-TC and the commander's concept of operations. Factors affecting his employment of MP assets include the-

  • Nature of the operation (joint, combined, or multinational).
  • HN's ability to provide MP-related support (such as port security).
  • Custody and location of EPWs/CIs during internment operations until I/R units arrive in theater.
  • Number of kilometers of the MSR in relationship to movement-control requirements.
  • Number and kinds of critical facilities.
  • Number of HRP requiring close-in security.
  • HN's ability to control the civilian populace, refugees, and dislocated civilians.
  • Supply distribution strategy.
  • Risk acceptance and threat in the AO.
  • Communications requirements (such as using teams as relays).

5-13. Whenever possible, the MP brigade's AO coincides with the territorial responsibility of the supported command. The MP brigade commander assigns the MP battalion's AO by the above factors as well as by METT-TC. For example, the AOR for an MP battalion may be a large population center of larger geographical areas in which CSS complexes and MSRs are located. But as employment factors and the commander's needs change, so will the MP's AOR. The MP brigade commander must move and tailor his forces to meet the current and projected mission requirements. Unlike many other EAC assets, MP units require 100 percent mobility to shift AOs frequently and rapidly. The following vignette depicts the required MP flexibility to support EAC operations:

5-14. Most EAC MP assets are employed along LOC and around areas of high troop concentration. Few EAC MP are dedicated to support fixed commitments (such as ports, air bases, and headquarters [discussed in paragraph 5-8]). When supporting fixed commitments, MP units provide a mobile security screen, and they man static positions when directed or when based on METT-TC. The MP brigade (CS) may have to plan for and actually perform the evacuation and internment of EPWs/CIs and the confinement of US military prisoners until the MP brigade (I/R) arrives.

THE MP BRIGADE (I/R)

5-15. US policy requires that all persons held in Army custody be accorded humane care and treatment from the moment of custody to their final release. The policy applies to detained or interned civilians as well as to EPWs and confined US military personnel. This policy is equally binding on all US troops (see FM 19-40).

5-16. The ASCC or the TSC supports US laws, regulations, policies, and international agreements by providing personnel, administrative, morale, internment, resettlement, and confinement services for the TO. The TSC's MP brigade (I/R) in the TO provides this support. However, since most I/R units are in the reserve components, the initial I/R operations (as mentioned above) may have to be conducted by the MP brigade (CS). Once the I/R unit arrives in the AO, it is responsible for-

  • Providing firm but humane control of EPWs/CIs and dislocated civilians.
  • Coordinating with HN personnel, military territorial organizations, civilian police authorities, NGOs, private volunteer organizations, and US federal agencies on matters pertaining to I/R operations.
  • Performing C2operations for all I/R units.
  • Controlling, employing, and releasing EPWs/CIs as set forth by the Geneva convention and other international laws and by the UN and other governmental bodies.
  • Handling US military prisoners.

5-17. In a mature theater in which large numbers of EPWs are captured, the EPWs' requirements may exceed the capacity of the MP brigade (I/R). In this instance, an I/R command is established. An MP command (I/R) has two or more MP brigades (I/R) and will normally be assigned to the ASCC. When the MP command (I/R) assumes OPCON of the MP brigades (I/R) from the lower echelon, it assumes that echelon's I/R mission.

5-18. If the US decides to transfer captured EPWs/CIs to the HN or to another nation, the US must ensure that the nation is a party to the Geneva convention and is willing and able to comply with the convention. In this case, the number and type of I/R MP units required for processing and retaining EPWs/CIs before the transfer is based on agreements and on METT-TC. Additionally, the MP brigade (I/R) is assigned I/R teams that are located at the processing and transfer points and at the HN or third-country EPW camps. The MP brigade (I/R) liaison team will supervise these dispersed teams to ensure that the HN or the third country provides adequate care and security of US-captured EPWs/CIs and that accountability is maintained according to the Geneva convention.

5-19. The MP brigade (I/R) HHC is the C2element for the brigade's assets. It consists of the following elements:

  • A brigade command section.
  • A company headquarters.
  • An Adjutant (US Army) (S1).
  • An S2.
  • An S3.
  • A Supply Officer (US Army) (S4).
  • A Civil-Affairs Officer (US Army) (S5).
  • A Communications Officer (US Army) (S6).
  • Finance and accounting.
  • Medical operations.
  • Public affairs.
  • A unit ministry team.
  • An SJA.
  • An inspector-general (IG) section.

5-20. Other brigade assets may include the following:

  • An MP I/R BLD.
  • An I/R information center.
  • An MP escort-guard company.
  • An MP I/R battalion headquarters.
  • MP I/R (EPW/CI) detachments.
  • MP I/R (confinement) detachments.
  • MP guard companies.
  • MWD teams.
  • Processing squads, processing liaison teams, camp liaison teams, and evacuation teams (all as required to support EPW transfer or to conduct an out-of-theater evacuation).

5-21. The MP brigade (I/R) subordinate units are employed most often in the COMMZ near CSS facilities and are placed near sea, air, and rail terminals. They receive, process, and intern EPWs/CIs; confine US military prisoners; or assist in the resettlement of refugees or dislocated civilians.

5-22. The MP brigade (I/R) escort-guard company supports the evacuation of EPWs/CIs from the CZ. The company has a company headquarters and four platoons. The escort-guard company requires sufficient mobility to transport MP personnel to the CZ and to operate mobile teams while escorting the EPWs/CIs. The MP go forward to the corps's holding area to take custody of the EPWs/CIs. They may go forward to division collecting points, if distances and resources permit. Using any means of available transportation, the MP ensure that the EPWs/CIs are quickly evacuated to MP battalions (I/R) in the COMMZ. Close coordination with the EAC and corps movement-control centers and the corps MP brigade is required to ensure that transportation assets returning to the COMMZ are employed to evacuate EPWs/CIs from the corps's holding area. Walking wounded EPWs/CIs are evacuated by the same means as other EPWs/CIs, while litter patients are evacuated through medical channels. Guarding EPWs/CIs while in the MEDEVAC channels and during their hospitalization is not an MP mission; therefore, there is not an MP force structure to support this mission. In most instances, the impact of having the MP perform this mission causes trade-offs in missions for which they are responsible.

5-23. The theater MP brigade (I/R) and out-of-theater MP brigade (I/R) subordinate units will evacuate EPWs to internment sites within CONUS (if directed). The theater brigade structure is based on the projected capture rate over time and available out-of-theater transportation assets (frequency and capacity). The out-of-theater brigade structure is based on the total EPW/CI population, the number of internment sites, transportation nodes, and escort requirements. Theater escort-guard MP move the EPWs/CIs to the seaport and aerial port of embarkation (SPOE/APOE). The escort-guard MP assigned to the out-of-theater brigade escort the EPWs/CIs from the theater ports of embarkation (POEs) to the out-of-theater internment sites. The out-of-theater brigade is assigned an I/R evacuation detachment, which is employed at and coordinates the evacuation from the theater POEs, through the out-of-theater ports of debarkation (PODs), to the out-of-theater facilities.

THE MP BATTALION (I/R)

5-24. The MP battalion (I/R) is a modular organization and can be configured to operate internment facilities for EPWs/CIs, confine US military prisoners, or resettle dislocated civilians. When performing EPW/CI internment operations, the MP brigade (I/R) has up to 7 MP battalions (I/R); when augmented with the appropriate number of BLDs, it has up to 21 MP battalions (I/R). The ASCC, the TSC, and the MP brigade (I/R) must consider that the requirement to establish an MP battalion (I/R) internment facility is resource intensive. Therefore, MP I/R units, other supporting units, supplies, and equipment for the EPWs/CIs should arrive in theater ahead of the projected EPW/CI arrival at the internment facilities. Early arrival should be based on the time required to establish fully operational facilities (construct and man) and resupply operations before the EPWs/CIs arrive.

5-25. The MP battalion (I/R) has a command section, a company headquarters, and various staff sections. The staff sections provide the core battalion-level capabilities to conduct internment operations. The modulated design expands as the EPW/CI population increases. The battalion is assigned up to four detachments, two guard companies and, if needed, a processing squad. When fully operational, an MP battalion (I/R) operates an enclosure capable of interning 4,000 EPWs/CIs. The battalion mission centers on eight 500-man compounds. The battalion operates the compounds in close proximity to maximize its resources for the security and internment of the EPWs/CIs. This includes the resources needed to employ EPWs/CIs as a labor force according to the provisions of the Geneva convention.

5-26. Each MP detachment (I/R) (EPW/CI) operates two 500-man compounds and provides augmentation to the battalion staff sections to support 1,000 EPWs/CIs. Each guard company is capable of providing security for 2,000 EPWs/CIs. The guard company has a company headquarters and three platoons. The guard company requires sufficient mobility and communications to support routine battalion missions. While minimum mobility and communications is required to support EPW/CI internment operations, on-site guard personnel must often move considerable distances guarding labor groups performing work projects throughout the COMMZ.

5-27. The MP (EPW/CI) processing squad is capable of processing eight EPWs/CIs per hour and includes interpreters to support the processing. If processing squads are required to augment MP battalions (I/R), the operational requirements will be based on METT-TC.

MP-Battalion Resettlement Operations

5-28. The basic organization used for EPW/CI internment is used for resettlement operations. The primary mission-focus change is from guarding EPWs/CIs to protecting and controlling dislocated civilians. As such, an MP battalion (I/R) with four detachments and two guard companies is capable of supporting 8,000 dislocated civilians. However, the MP battalion (I/R) may require augmentation to conduct L&O operations associated with the resettlement. Augmentation may include the full scope of PM functions (operations, investigations, physical security, MP-station operations, and patrols) and civil affairs.

MP-Battalion Confinement Operations

5-29. When configured with the MP detachment (I/R) (confinement), the MP battalion (I/R) is capable of confining US military prisoners. The MP detachment (I/R) (confinement) provides trained corrections and support personnel required for confinement operations. As with the EPW/CI configuration, the modular confinement structure expands as the US prisoner population increases. With three confinement detachments and three guard companies, the MP battalion (I/R) has a maximum capacity of handling 1,500 US prisoners. Generally, only one MP brigade battalion (I/R) is configured for confinement, but the actual number will depend on the number of US prisoners requiring confinement within a theater. While theater policy for confinement operations remains with the ASCC commander, it is the MP brigade (I/R) that executes the mission.

5-30. When possible, soldiers awaiting trial remain in their units unless reasonable grounds exist to believe that they will not appear at the trial, the pretrial hearing, or the investigation or that they will engage in serious criminal misconduct. Under either of these two pretrial confinement instances, the commander must also reasonably believe that a less severe form of restraint (such as conditions of liberty, restriction in lieu of apprehension, or apprehension) is inadequate. When these circumstances exist and other legal requirements are met, US military personnel may be placed in pretrial confinement under the MP's direct control. Commanders may choose to establish field confinement facilities within their AO. However, corps and division MP companies have the expertise to operate only a field detention facility for a limited period of time. These units cannot operate a confinement facility and have neither the resources nor the capability to operate such a facility on an extended basis. Therefore, all confinement is consolidated in the COMMZ whenever possible.

5-31. All assets of the MP battalion (I/R) (confinement) are employed to detain, confine, sustain, and protect US prisoners. As with the battalions conducting EPW/CI and resettlement operations, the battalion conducting confinement operations is generally located in the rear of the COMMZ, near logistics and transportation support. This allows US prisoners to be moved as quickly as possible from the corps's area to the COMMZ's confinement facility. Movements of US prisoners from the COMMZ to CONUS will be according to DA policy.



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