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Appendix E

Police Information Assessment Process

The PIAP differs somewhat from the tactical IPB. While the IPB allows the maneuver commander to see the effects that a variety of factors may have on his forces, the PIAP looks beyond this approach to determine how other relevant information may impact his forces. This information may be obtained from police or criminal actions or incidents encountered during the performance of MP functions.

IMPLEMENTATION

E-1. The PIAP is not a substitute for the IPB. MP leaders must continue to rely on the IPB and to use its estimates as a starting point for the PIAP. However, the PIAP is a dynamic and continuous cycle that complements the IPB (Figure E-1). The following paragraphs represent the doctrinal approach to implementing the PIAP. These steps provide the basic foundation to the process. They are not exclusive; the successful development of the PIAP will depend on the MP leader's ability to apply the process to his specific environment, METT-TC, and the commander's priorities.

Figure E-1. The PIAP

DETERMINE THE SCOPE OF THE PIAP

E-2. While determining the scope of the PIAP might sound simple, it is one of the most crucial elements of the entire process. It entails identifying what you want to be the end result of your PIAP. To help determine the scope of the PIAP, MP leaders must perform the following subtasks:

  • Conduct a mission analysis. A detailed mission analysis will ensure that all available resources are focused toward one goal. The more specific the mission is, the more focused and productive the effort. This involves more than just looking at the mission statement, the commander's intent, and the concept of operations. It involves translating the mission and situation into easily understood, manageable goals. The following are examples of these missions:

    • Identifying criminal threats from local national to US Army logistics operations within the port of Mogadishu, Somalia.
    • Determining the impact of gang violence on US forces operating in the vicinity of Camp Bondsteel, Kosovo.
    • Determining how rioters' violence will affect force protection before deploying forces to Los Angeles, California.
    • Determining the status of public service agencies (such as the police, the fire department, and the emergency medical services [EMS]) in Homestead, Florida, after the city was struck by Hurricane Andrew.

NOTE: As you can see from the examples, these missions are quite specific. In all likelihood, it would be necessary to establish several different PIAP missions to adequately protect Army elements operating in the MP's AOR.

  • Prioritize missions. MP leaders must prioritize each PIAP mission since MP resources will probably be limited. The commander's intent is the key factor for determining priorities. When the commander's most important mission has been determined, MP leaders must decide how they can contribute to the overall success of that mission.
  • Determine the AO. Generally, the AO is a geographical area (including the airspace above) usually defined by lateral, forward, and rear boundaries assigned to a commander. MP leaders must know where major units are located and how the characteristics of the location may impact ongoing operations. For example, units in direct contact with the enemy or isolated from the local population are less likely to be the target of a PIAP mission than those units adjacent to great population centers or in rest and relaxation centers.
  • Determine key terrain. Key terrain is any locality or area that affords a marked advantage to the retaining side.
  • Determine the AOI. An AOI is the area of concern to the commander. This includes the area of influence and the areas adjacent thereto and extending into enemy territory and to the objectives of current or planned operations. A thorough understanding of the AOI may help predict potential threat actions. For example, how far are local agitators and ringleaders willing to travel to interfere with US operations in Pristina, Kosovo? Would they go to other US compounds?
  • Determine required information products/sources. The desired end-state product must be decided. Should it be a report? An updated SITREP? An upgrade in force-protection measures? Or a combination of products? It should also be determined who can provide the best information (the CID; MI; the local police chief; or joint, interagency, or multinational agencies).

ASSEMBLE WORKING AIDS

E-3. During this step, MP leaders assemble the necessary graphic and nongraphic aids and information that will help them accomplish their mission. The CID and the MP may form an analysis team to track and analyze police information that might assist tactical operations or population-control operations. Working aids include, but are not limited to-

  • Maps. Besides the standard military maps that depict the military AOs, the MP must attempt to procure indigenous maps of AOs. Detailed city and street maps will prove to be invaluable even if they are in a foreign language.
  • Language aids. Phrase books and translation dictionaries cannot take the place of intensive language training, but they are better than nothing. These are essential even if the MP have assigned interpreters.
  • Open-source information. This can cover an extensive range of invaluable information, but it should be available from a variety of sources. Examples include-

    • Demographic information on the HN population.
    • Societal information on the HN.
    • The locale and disposition of HN police forces.
    • Historical crime data of the area.
    • Environmental information (terrain and weather factors).
    • Local newspaper articles.
    • Internet sources on all of the above.

NOTE: Sources for this type of information can come from intelligence estimates provided by the higher headquarters' S2/G2, other military units, or the HN.

  • OPSEC information. This information includes the disposition of US forces (to include MP, MI, CID, and other services' investigating units) deploying or being used within the AO.
  • Other working aids. These may include items such as computers, printers, boards, and acetate that will be necessary depending on the missions the MP are undertaking.

DETERMINE INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS AND COORDINATE ACCESS TO DATA

E-4. Once the mission analysis is completed, the next step is to determine if there are information gaps. An information gap is a missing piece of information that is critical to the analysis. MP leaders must identify and prioritize the gaps using the time, the available resources, and the commander's intent. Once an information gap is identified, it becomes PCIR. Examples of PCIR are as follows:

  • Where is the nearest police station, and how did they handle a certain problem?
  • What is the composition of the two gangs operating in our AO, and how can they influence US operations?
  • Why is river-crossing point Bravo a danger to US crossing forces? Why are local rioters disrupting only US operations on the east bank?

E-5. The next step is to determine if PCIR can be answered with data already available. To do this, the available military and nonmilitary sources must be identified. Some sources may include-

  • USACIDC. The USACIDC is responsible for programs such as combating terrorism, CRIMINTEL, personal-security assessment, crime analysis, and LOGSEC threat assessment. Some of the information gathered by the USACIDC (although releasable under existing controls and restraints) may help with the PIAP mission. In fact, USACIDC special agents may already be working in the AO and may be available to help the MP with the collection effort.
  • MI element. Like the USACIDC, the MI element operating in the AO may have come across a piece of information (police or criminal) that may help accomplish the PIAP mission. The MP must make daily contact with the S2/G2 and coordinate access to invaluable information. As with the USACIDC, available intelligence information may only be releasable under strict controls and restrictions imposed by the commander.
  • Other MP units. Coordination with an adjacent MP unit may prove to be beneficial, especially if the other MP unit has conducted a similar PIAP mission or has conducted operations in the AOI.
  • HN law-enforcement agencies. Local law-enforcement agencies will provide the essential populace knowledge otherwise not available to US forces. Chiefs of police, sheriffs, and other key community leaders may help MP leaders fill the information need of the PIAP mission.
  • Joint, interagency, and multinational forces. Close and effective liaison with these elements will result in quick access to information that can produce the same benefits as the agencies listed above.

NOTE: If, after consulting with all available sources, the PCIR is not resolved, the MP leader must decide the best collection effort to solve the PCIR.

RECOMMEND AND SUPERVISE THE POLICE/CRIMINAL COLLECTION EFFORT

E-6. The collection effort is the means by which specific PCIR will be met. This implies developing a collection strategy, tasking specific collectors, and supervising the collection effort.

  • Develop a collection strategy. After a through study of the availability, capability, and disposition of the potential collecting resources, MP leaders select which asset is better suitable to perform the mission. Are organic MP the best collectors for this mission? Or do we need to request support from USACIDC units? What unique or organic capabilities do each bring to the effort? Which MP function is the best? Do we conduct MMS, AS, or L&O operations? Part of the collection strategy includes coordinating with the S2/G2, the SJA, the CID, and other agencies before launching the collection effort. This coordination will eliminate duplication of effort, interference with an ongoing effort, or stepping out of legal limits.
  • Task or request specific collectors. The missions that will be tasked to respective collectors must be determined. Information collectors can be tasked with more than one mission at a time. However, it is imperative that their tasks be prioritized based on mission requirements and time available. The appropriate tasking or request chain must be used to request an MP team, a platoon, or USACIDC special agents.
  • Supervise the collection effort. The collectors must be provided with reporting guidelines. How often should they report? Should they report "no information?" Specific reporting instructions should be provided, including how, when, and where they report. A collection tasking chart should also be used (Figure E-2). As more and more collectors are being used, it becomes important to track their missions, capabilities, and success. A brief note on the reporting instructions of each collector should be included.

Figure E-2. Collection Tasking Chart

PROCESS POLICE/CRIMINAL RAW DATA

E-7. This processing step converts raw data into police intelligence through analysis. The key to processing the data is to understand it. For example, as collectors report raw data it may often appear to be meaningless information. Rarely will one collector receive all of the necessary information to answer the PCIR at one time. Instead, a variety of information must be fitted together to form a coherent, even if incomplete, picture.

E-8. Every piece of data is important. This is the cardinal rule of the entire process. Until the data is analyzed for reliability and compared with other data, all reports must be treated equally. This is important to remember, for the trend will be to use data that either fits your expectations or gives the most complete picture.

E-9. A report of "no activity" can be as important as reports with information. If the collector is capable of collecting the information and is actively trying to collect, reports of "no activity" can be critical. First, if there is no indication of a change, they can be used to reprioritize PIAP missions. Second, they can be used to retask the collectors to other areas. It is important to check the mission's original intent periodically to ensure that it is still valid and merits further efforts.

E-10. To determine the reliability of the data, the MP leader must evaluate the source. Does the information come from the police chief, local youth, or other military forces? One of the best ways to determine the reliability of the information is to have more than one collector reporting on the same PCIR. If more than one collector reports the same information, it can normally be presumed to be accurate.

E-11. Information can be analyzed in a variety of ways-chronologically, geographically, by the impact on the force, by the type of activity or the modus operandi, or by the association of participants. The MP leader must evaluate the information after it is analyzed to determine whether the information collected answers the PCIR or whether it helps accomplish the PIAP mission. If the information does not answer these questions, he must decide whether it is necessary to task other collectors, retask the same collectors, or wait until the situation develops.

REPORT AND/OR DISSEMINATE POLICE AND CRIMINAL ASSESSMENT

E-12. Reporting and disseminating is the most important aspect of the PIAP. Collection and analysis is valueless unless the data is communicated to commanders who can best use the information.

E-13. Reporting requirements must be established based on the unit's SOP and other established processes. MP leaders must decide if the information collected must be sent using an established priority format or if it can wait to be sent using SITREPs. Does the information collected affect the force-protection measures or does it immediately impact the tactical scenario? Do we need to alert units operating in the vicinity of AA Fox to avoid sector 2? Additionally, MP leaders must ensure that any information released follows existing constraints and regulations.

E-14. It is also advantageous to provide feedback to the collectors. Collectors often receive no feedback on their performance. Informing them as to which part of their information was vital and beneficial can often increase their productivity in future operations.

SAMPLE SCENARIO

E-15. The following example helps illustrate the implementation of all six steps of the PIAP:

E-16. While deployed in support of Operation Control Chaos, US forces assigned to TF Blue Thunder are tasked with stability and support operations in the city of Corbina. This city, although currently implementing a peace treaty, was the site of extreme civil unrest. Even though the overall situation is not as chaotic as it was before US intervention, there are some sectors that are still in turmoil. Common crimes (such as robberies, assaults, looting, and vandalism) still occur daily and there is fear that this condition may spread out of control throughout the city. The TF commander knows that in order to bring peace to the entire city, he must attempt to stabilize the situation in some of these bad sectors. He decides that the best way to deal with this situation is to assign a sector (sector 51) to an MP battalion in an attempt to control the situation. If the MP battalion succeeds, he may use the same concept throughout the city. He is aware of the five MP functions and how they can help bring this sector under some control. Under this framework, the TF commander issues the following mission: On order, the MP battalion will conduct stability and support operations in the vicinity of sector 51, the city of Corbina, in support of TF Blue Thunder. Upon receipt of this mission, the battalion commander gathered his staff and initiated the planning process. Before the MP staff could initiate the PIAP, they made contact with the S2/G2 and received an updated IPB estimate. Now that the IPB estimates are on-hand, the staff initiates the PIAP.

DETERMINE THE SCOPE OF THE PIAP

E-17. The staff performs the following steps to determine the scope of the PIAP:

  • Conduct a mission analysis. The staff looks at the given mission, the higher echelon commander's intent, and the concept of operations. After considering all of these factors, they produce a restated mission- On order, the battalion will conduct MP operations in sector 51 to determine the type of threat and to bring this sector under control in support of TF Blue Thunder.
  • Prioritize PIAP missions. Since there is only one mission, this subtask is not applicable.
  • Determine the AO and the AOI. The staff determines that the AO is the entire sector 51 and that the AOIs are the sectors adjacent to 51.
  • Determine key terrain. The staff determines that the key terrains are the market place, the plaza, and the city park. They select these areas because most of the incidents occurred in these populated areas. Stabilization in these key areas may be advantageous to mission success.
  • Determine required information products/sources. The end result is the stabilization of sector 51. Minimize the crime incidents and restore L&O. Information should come from the local police chief, local community leaders, civil affairs, PSYOP, and the CID.

ASSEMBLE WORKING AIDS

E-18. The staff assembles the following working aids in support of the PIAP:

  • Maps. The staff acquires local maps that detail the market place, the plaza, and the city park. Although the maps are in a foreign language, the staff is able to identify these three prominent features and surrounding areas.
  • Language aids. In addition to dictionaries, the staff is able to get two translators from civil affairs.
  • Open-source information. Open-source information includes a variety of encyclopedias and country books. Newspaper reports and historical crime data is available via the internet or through MI sources. The emphasis is in obtaining information on the history and composition of the local police force.
  • Classified intelligence. The staff receives a briefing from the S2/G2 describing the operations of SOF units in the area.
  • Other working aids. Computers, charts, templates, and acetate are available.

DETERMINE INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS AND COORDINATE ACCESS TO DATA

E-19. After a careful analysis of all available information, the following information gaps were turned into PCIR:

  • Why is the police force not actively engaged in L&O?
  • What is the major threat to civilians in each area?
  • Are local gangs involved?
  • Is their local judicial system in place?
  • Where are prisoners housed?

E-20. The staff consults with the USACIDC, MI, other MP units, and other sources but determines that the information provided is not clear or sufficient. Since the PCIR are not resolved, the staff decides to recommend that the commander initiate a collection effort.

RECOMMEND AND SUPERVISE THE POLICE/CRIMINAL COLLECTION EFFORT

E-21. The staff performs the following steps to recommend and supervise the police/criminal collection effort:

  • Develop a collection strategy. Upon coordinating with the S2/G2, the SJA, and the CID, the MP commander decides that the best collectors will come from within organic assets. He decides that he will employ the MP to go out and seek the needed information. The battalion commander will employ a company commander to interview the local police chief and an MP/interpreter will patrol around the designated AOI. The MP commander will need additional interpreters to help him with his collection effort.
  • Task or request specific collectors. The MP staff requests an interpreter through the normal chain of command. The TF G3 assigns six interpreters for a period of 90 days.
  • Supervise the collection effort. All collectors are instructed to report not later than (NLT) 1800 every day. The report will be in the form of an "end of day" outbrief to the S2 and the battalion commander. A collection tasking chart (Figure E-3) will also be completed.

Figure E-3. Sample Collection Tasking Chart

PROCESS POLICE/CRIMINAL RAW DATA

E-22. After receiving all of the above information, the S2 concludes that the inability of the police force to do their job has had a domino effect on all areas

of peace and order. This information is confirmed through other reports from information collected by the CID (through their own efforts) and the CA. The information also reveals that the gangs have intentions of attacking US forces if they interfere with their "business." The S2 determines that although the situation may seem to be chaotic, once the locals are able to trust the police forces, everything should return to normal.

REPORT AND/OR DISSEMINATE POLICE AND CRIMINAL ASSESSMENT

E-23. Since the collection effort identifies a potential threat to US forces, the commander decides to notify higher headquarters and increase his own force-protection measures. He requires MP elements patrolling in designated areas to be no less than a squad. If patrolling dismounted, a HMMWV or an ASV will trail the squad. The MP commander uses the information provided during the PIAP to develop his implementation plan. This plan includes joint patrols, training, and construction of a joint MP/local national police station.



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