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Appendix B

Doctrine and Training Literature

Users of this manual must understand the elements of doctrinal literature and their relationship to each other. The commonly used terms doctrine and tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) are interrelated and mutually supportive; yet, each term has its own usage, level of detail, and place in the hierarchy of doctrinal publications. Because there is a close interrelationship, publications overlap in what they provide to the user. Figure B-1 illustrates the relationship of these doctrinal terms and publications.

Figure B-1. Doctrinal and Training Literature


B-1. Doctrine is the body of fundamental principles by which the military guide their actions in support of national objectives. It is authoritative, but requires judgment in application. Doctrine provides the Army's fighting philosophy, establishes a common language, and structures the manner within which units plan and conduct combat operations.

B-2. Doctrine is not absolute; it is applied by the leader to meet the circumstances of the situation being faced. Doctrine provides for this flexibility with broad fundamentals and principles for conducting operations. Leaders well grounded in doctrine understand how to synchronize the elements of combat power and how to apply TTP using the assets available to accomplish the mission.

B-3. Doctrine is described in FMs. FM 3-0 defines the systems of war fighting practiced by the US Army. FMs 100-15 and 71-100 expand on this foundation. This manual describes the CS doctrine of the MP; it is the capstone manual for MP operations. It defines the role, operational requirements, functions, and C2relationships of MP units. This manual is not oriented on a specific organizational structure. Leaders at all levels apply this doctrine to their unique organizational and operational situations and use various tactics and techniques to accomplish the doctrine.


B-4. Tactics describe how the leader carries out doctrine (relating to the arrangement of forces for battle). Tactics include the-

  • Employment of units in combat (to accomplish a mission assigned by the commander).
  • Ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to each other and to the enemy in order to use their full potential (a description of how the commander should arrange his forces and maneuver to accomplish a mission).

B-5. This is the part of doctrinal literature used for training in preparation for combat. Like doctrine, tactics presented in manuals are applied with judgment by the leader. The FMs prescribe "how to fight" and the mission training plans (MTPs) describe "what to train."


B-6. Techniques are the methods of performing any act, especially the detailed methods used by troops or commanders in performing assigned tasks. Techniques describe the basic methods of using equipment and personnel. Techniques give details on how commanders actually carry out assignments. They improve the force's efficiency by ensuring the uniformity of action or by ensuring that the actions of various individuals and elements complement those of other individuals or elements.

B-7. The FMs and MTPs provide a description of techniques using the personnel and equipment available in actual organizations. These techniques show (at a more detailed level) how to use available assets to carry out tactics.


B-8. Procedures are the lowest level of detail. They address "how to" at the task level. Procedures are a particular course or mode of action that describe how to perform a certain task. Procedures include the-

  • Standing methods used by units to accomplish tasks.
  • Operating procedures for weapons and equipment.
  • Crew drills.
  • Staff actions and coordination requirements.
  • Methods of target engagement by direct- and indirect-fire weapons.

B-9. Procedures are building blocks of individual- and collective-task accomplishment that serve as the foundation of tactics and techniques. Procedures are explained in unit standing operating procedures (SOPs), MTPs, soldier's manuals, operator's manuals, technical manuals (TMs), and similar publications.

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