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CHAPTER EIGHT

LOGISTICS

This chapter discusses the aspects of logistics that affect smoke units. Essentially, logistics keeps forces mobile, fed, armed, clothed, maintained, and supplied for combat operations. Like any other unit, smoke units require all classes of supply (classes I through IX).

In future combat, US Army forces probably will not have the amount of time they had to prepare for the 1991 Persian Gulf War. The very meaning of the phrase "combat readiness" implies being prepared today to tight tonight. To realize the potential of smoke on the battlefield, the smoke unit leader must support his operations with robust, flexible, self-sufficient sustainment systems. The NBC environment provides unique challenges for leader at all levels, but there are few challenges as big as sustaining a force under NBC conditions. Not only must the leader anticipate support needs, integrate support for every phase of the operation, preclude interruption of sustainment functions, prepare sustainment systems for the surge that accompanies a crisis, and complement anticipation with improvisation - the leader must do so under the degradation that accompanies the NBC environment.

NBC CONDITIONS AND LOGISTICS

Degradation of logistic operations primarily results from the physiological and psychological impact of encapsulation in MOPP gear. Tests and lessons learned at the Combat Training Centers, from Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM, and from the Combined Arms in a Nuclear/Chemical Environment (CANE) program have shown that logistic operations are seriously degraded while wearing MOPP 4 versus the battledress uniform:

  • Vehicle recovery takes 1/3 longer when in MOPP 4.
  • Changing vehicle power packs takes 2/3 longer when in MOPP 4.
  • Re-fueling operations takes longer in MOPP 4.
  • Re-arming takes longer in MOPP 4.
  • Most logistic activities require more time when the unit is in MOPP 4.

NBC CONDITIONS AND LOGISTICS
LOGISTICS PLANNING
MANNING
ARMING
FUELING
FIXING
MOVING
SUSTAINING SOLDIERS AND THEIR

SYSTEMS
GENERAL SUPPLY SUPPORT

LOGISTICS PLANNING

The company headquarters plans, coordinates, and executes logistic functions for the company. The platoon leader is responsible for logistics, just as he is for everything that relates to his platoon. He constantly stays abreast of the platoon's logistic status and, along with the platoon sergeant, plans and executes logistic. The platoon sergeant, however, carriers the bulk of this load. He consolidates information from the squad leaders, and they can delegate some functions to their team leaders. SOPs should address additional responsibilities and duties in detail. They should standardize as many of the routine and recurring logistic operations as possible.

In general, the commander will require assistance to: establish a good command supply discipline program; promote aggressive maintenance and test, measurement and diagnostic equipment (TMDE) programs; support the surgeon in keeping immunizations and physicals up to date; and keep visibility up through periodic checks. Guidance will help subordinate unit leaders ensure that they acquire, store, maintain, man, and protect the systems required for total unit readiness.

Key considerations:

  • Plan alternate positions for logistic activities.
  • Unlike cross-attached combat arms companies, chemical elements will not have an organic CSS slice.
  • Simple supply and services plans work best - be aware that NBC conditions can foul up the best plans, and complexity adds to the confusion.
  • Plan materials to cover supplies to prevent/reduce contamination.
  • Plan to assign maintenance crews based on the buddy system - check that no one works alone.
  • Plan work/rest cycles and frequent checks to prevent accidents.
  • Rehearse vehicle recovery plans in MOPP 4.
  • Plan for the conduct of frequent serviceability checks on equipment.
  • Plan for road guides or MPs to clearly mark and control main supply routes.
  • Plan time to rehearse logistics packages (LOGPAC) operations, particularly movement in MOPP 4 from the BSA/trains to the supported unit.

The key preparatory actions to conduct sustainment functions are training, enforcing unit and soldier compliance with plans and SOPs, and command interest. Check to ensure subordinate unit leaders are enforcing the command water plan, the sleep plan or any other aspect that will help to prevent avoidable casualties.

Base planning considerations for logistics on filling unit needs under the six tactical logistics functions shown below.

Tactical Logistics Functions

Manning
Arming
Fueling
Fixing
Moving
Sustaining Soldiers and Their Systems

MANNING

The platoon manning functions are strength accounting and casualty reporting. The platoon leader and NCOs are also responsible for handling EPWs and for the programs to counter the impact of stress and continuous operations.

STRENGTH ACCOUNTING

Leaders in the platoon use battle rosters to keep up-to-date records of their soldiers. They provide strength figures to the company at specific intervals. During combat, they provide manual strength reports upon request or when important strength changes occur.

CASUALTY REPORTING

As soon as the tactical situation allows, platoons give casualty information to the company headquarters using a DA Form 1155, Casualty Feeder Report/Witness Statement. If the form is not available at the time, DA Form 1155 information may be sent in any format by fastest means available. Soldiers with direct knowledge of an incident must also complete a DA Form 1155, Casualty Feeder Report/Witness Statement. This form is used to report soldiers who are KIA, MIA, or WIA. The platoon sergeant reviews these forms for accuracy, then forwards them to the company headquarters. Platoon leaders must stress the confidentiality of casualty information to their soldiers and ensure that casualty information is processed only through official channels.

ARMING

All weapons systems must have a basic load of ammunition. Leaders must insure their soldiers have sufficient ammunition to protect themselves. Coordination with the support unit is critical to replenish Class V after the conclusion of a mission and prior to the execution of another mission. It may be necessary to cross level ammunition immediately after an engagement to ensure that all crews can protect themselves.

FUELING

Without fuel and fog oil the platoon can not perform it's mission. The mobility of the platoon is dependent on the availability of Class III. Smoke operations is dependent on the availability of fog oil. It is essential that all leaders monitor their fuel and fog oil consumption and make the necessary arrangements for refueling their vehicles. Crews must take advantage of every opportunity to refuel, regardless of the amount of fuel they have on board.

FIXING

Since smoke units do not have sufficient organic logistics to sustain combat operations, they must rely upon divisional or corps CSS assets for maintenance support. The source of maintenance support will normally follow the nature of the moke unit's deployment role. If the smoke unit is deployed in a direct support role, support will normally be provided by intermediate direct support maintenance (IDSM) resources. If the smoke unit is deployed in a general support role or OPCON, maintenance will normally be provided through intermediate general support maintenance (IGSM) resources. If the smoke unit is attached to the maneuver brigade, maintenance support should be provided by the divisional forward support battalion (FSB) that supports the brigade. In planning for the maintenance support of a smoke unit, it is essential that the plan specify--

  • The smoke unit deployment role (direct support (DS), general support (GS), attached).
  • Support relationship between the maneuver unit and smoke unit.
  • Which activity assets (that is, corps support command (COSCOM), division support command (DISCOM), MSB, FSB) will be used to provide maintenance support.
  • "Tailoring" of the CSS unit providing maintenance support to meet the mission requirements of the smoke unit.

Smoke unit leaders must coordinate closely with the parent unit commander and the supported maneuver brigade S4 to ensure adequate maintenance support.

Proper maintenance is the key to keeping equipment and material in working condition. It includes inspecting, testing, servicing, replacing, repairing, requisitioning, recovering, and evacuating.

Maintenance operations generally have very high rates of work. Under NBC conditions, maintenance is extremely strenuous. Heavy work also can result in the loss of MOPP gear integrity (e.g., suit separation at the waist, neck or wrists; gloves get torn or pulled off). Plan for additional time and use work/rest cycles to the fullest.

The platoon leader/platoon sergeant is responsible for the maintenance practices within his unit. He must coordinate his platoon's maintenance efforts with the XO to ensure that the platoon is acting IAW the company maintenance effort. The platoon sergeant coordinates and supervises the maintenance of the platoon equipment.

Platoon communications equipment in need of repair is turned into the company communications chief. Platoon weapons and other equipment are recovered to the platoon or the company collection points during battle, or turned in to the supply sergeant after the battle.

All soldiers must understand how to maintain their individual and squad weapons and equipment IAW the technical manuals. The platoon leader, platoon sergeant, and squad leaders must understand maintenance for each piece of equipment in the platoon. The platoon SOP should specify maintenance periods (at least once a day in the field) and standards for equipment and who inspects which items (usually the squad leader, with spot checks by the platoon sergeant and platoon leader).

MOVING

Land navigation under NBC conditions is seriously degraded, particularly at night. Plan for more transport time for material, more fuel (because transportation assets/LOGPACs tend to get lost), and movement controls to minimize the impact on your operations.

SUSTAINING SOLDIERS AND THEIR SYSTEMS

Base planning considerations for sustainment on filling soldier needs through personnel services, health services, field services, quality of life, and general supply support.

Sustainment Functions Systems

Personnel Services
Health Services
Field Services
Quality of life
General Supply Support

PERSONNEL SERVICE SUPPORT

Platoon leaders coordinate personnel service support provided by the battalion (or Task Force) S1, personnel NCO and chaplain through the company headquarters. Personnel service support includes personnel services (such as mail, awards and decorations, leaves and passes, welfare, and rest and relaxation), financial matters, command information, religious activities, legal assistance, and any other services related to the welfare and morale of the soldiers. Many services are standard procedure. The platoon leader/platoon sergeant must ensure that these services are available to the platoon.

Personnel Sustainment

Leaders must consider visibility constraints and heavy work rates during smoke missions. During operations in an NBC environment, individual protective equipment (IPE) requirements present special problems. Heat buildup becomes critical to the welfare of the soldiers. This is especially true when the operators of the M157 smoke generator set are "buttoned-up" inside the M1059 mechanized smoke generator in IPE. Since smoke generator crews may be difficult to replace in future conflicts, it is important that smoke unit personnel be maintained at peak combat effectiveness. Leaders are the key to maintaining strength and spirit in the unit. Leaders must give special consideration for combat critical functions of personnel service support to include--

  • Strength accountability.
  • Casualty reporting.
  • Replacement operations.
  • Health services support.
  • Administrative support.
  • Discipline.
  • Stress management.
  • Morale and welfare activities.

The supported maneuver unit G1/S1 and the smoke unit leaders should thoroughly rehearse and coordinate personnel sustainment activities prior to execution of a deployment plan.

HEALTH SERVICES

Divisional level health services support is provided by medical companies of the DISCOM MSB and FSBs. The MSB medical company provides support to all units operating in the division support area (DSA) and backup support to the FSB medical companies. The forward support medical companies provide health services in support of the maneuver brigades and area support to all units operating in the BSA. The smoke unit leaders should coordinate with the supported unit's Sl/G1 and medical support staff on standing operating procedures for health services support. Especially critical to smoke unit leaders is the location of the supported unit's aid station and ambulance transfer point.

Platoon health services support consists of prevention, treatment, and evacuation of casualties. Prevention is emphasized; soldiers can lose their combat effectiveness because of disease or non-battle injury. Understanding and applying the principles of field hygiene and sanitation, preventing environmental injuries (heat and cold), and considering the soldier's overall condition can eliminate many casualties. (See FMs 21-10 & FM 21-11.)

The platoon SOP should address casualty evacuation procedures in detail. It must clearly state that personal protective equipment remains with and is evacuated with the casualty. The casualty's weapon and equipment are retained by the platoon, redistributed as appropriate (ammunition, food, water, special equipment) or evacuated to the field trains by back-haul at the next LOGPAC. Machine guns, M203s, and other special weapons are never evacuated but are reassigned to other soldiers in the unit.

The platoon SOP should include the following:

  • Duties and responsibilities of key personnel in planning and executing casualty evacuation.
  • Priorities of evacuation.
  • Provisions for retrieving and safeguarding weapons, ammunition, and equipment.
  • Location of casualty collection points (battalion, company, platoon).
  • Procedures and responsibilities for medical evacuation.
  • Planned use of non-medical transportation assets for evacuation.
  • Procedures for treating and evacuating EPWs and civilian casualties.

Leaders Checks for Health and Welfare

  • Plan immunizations on the unit long range training plan - enforce 100% compliance.
  • Plan physicals on the unit long range training plan - soldiers must be ready to deploy, and be physically fit.
  • Issue individual medications when authorized (e.g., Nerve Agent Pretreatment Tablets; Mark I Nerve Agent Antidote Kits; Convulsive Antidote for Nerve Agent (CANA)).
  • Check immunizations and physicals before deployment and upon receiving replacements.
  • Ensure units are conducting proper field sanitation and hygiene measures.
  • Check for shaves and clean uniforms, socks and boots.
  • Check for proper waste disposal.
  • Check for properly prepared foods.
  • Ensure soldiers are maintaining a high level of physical fitness.
  • Ensure the issue of a health pack to each soldier based on the medical threat (e.g., foot powder; iodine tablets).

Casualty Treatment

Leaders must be prepared to provide first aid and evacuate casualties. They must understand the plan for casualty evacuation and immediately begin to evacuate once casualties occur. If medical personnel are not available, the combat lifesavers and the leaders in the platoon must be prepared to evacuate, administer first aid, and evacuate casualties. Seriously injured casualties must be stabilized, within the unit's personnel capabilities, before evacuation to the designated casualty collection point. The supporting unit's health service support plan (including the medical evacuation plan) must be in place and used. Ground ambulances from the supporting medical element should pick up casualties as far forward as the tactical situation permits. In a mass casualty situation (or in a situation where medical evacuation vehicles are not available), any vehicle returning to the vicinity of the medical treatment facility can be used to transport the casualties.

At least one soldier in each smoke squad must be trained as a combat lifesaver to administer enhanced first aid and help evacuate casualties. The combat life savers provide first aid until medical personnel can treat the casualties. they may assist medical personnel in caring for injured soldiers, if the tactical situation permits.

Combat life saver procedures are normally begun at the conclusion of an engagement or during the reorganization of the platoon/squad. Casualties are provided first aid in the form of self-aid, buddy aid, or combat lifesaver procedures. Treatment is provided by the combat medic; after treatment the patient is evacuated to the patient collecting point or is evacuated to the medical treatment facility by ground ambulance. The patient collecting point is chosen by the supporting unit. When selecting the patient collecting point, consideration is given to cover and concealment, security, space in which to treat patients, and access to evacuation routes. KIAs are not collected in or near the patient collecting points.

Casualty Evacuation (MEDEVAC)

The platoon can use any of several means to evacuate the casualties directly to the planned patient collecting point or directly to the medical treatment facility.

The casualties can be moved by vehicles or litter teams to the supported unit's patient collecting point for evacuation. The OPORD should state how the unit plans to move the casualties to the patient collecting point.

In the absence of medical personnel, the platoon sergeant/squad leader can direct litter teams to carry the casualties to the patient collecting point.

Casualties with minor wounds can either walk by themselves or help carry seriously wounded soldiers to the patient collecting point.

In rough terrain, casualties may have to be evacuated by litter teams until transportation can reach them or directly to the medical treatment facility. In some circumstances, casualties may have to be held in a secure location and picked up later by evacuation litter teams/ambulances.

Fatalities are evacuated by backhaul on supply or other vehicles, not by ground or air ambulances.

Table 9-1 provide the format for requesting MEDEVAC.

FIELD SERVICES

Field service provide the basics for soldiers while in the field. Field services consist of food preparation, water purification, clothing repair, tactical showers, mortuary affairs, and rigging equipment for airdrop. Smoke unit leaders must be aware of the location of these services on the battlefield and use them as necessary.

QUALITY OF LIFE

Quality of life and family considerations directly affect a soldier's readiness and willingness to fight. Leaders must ensure that their soldiers quality of life is sustained through effective personnel, health, and field services. Because of the nature of smoke unit operations, delivery of mail may be delayed. leaders must ensure that coordination is accomplished to ensure that their soldiers receive their mail in the most timely manner possible. Art effective command information program is critical component to sustaining a soldier's morale.

GENERAL SUPPLY SUPPORT

Supply is the process of providing all items necessary to equip, maintain equipment, and operate the unit. It involves the procurement, storage, distribution, maintenance, and salvage of supplies.

There are two methods of procuring supplies:

  • On hand supply point distribution. The unit uses its organic transportation to pick up supplies from distribution points.
  • On hand unit distribution. Supplies are delivered to a unit by transportation assets other than its own.

Units always maintain some combat essential supplies on hand either transported or organic combat or support vehicles. These on hand stocks include basic loads and prescribed loads.

Supplies are divided into ten classes for supply management and planning.

SUPPLY OPERATIONS

Squad leaders must know the supply status for each member of the squad. As materials and supplies are used, squad leaders request supply through the platoon sergeant. Platoon and squad SOPs should establish levels of depletion for specified items of supply (for example, water, ammunition). All soldiers and leaders should report supply status once that level of depletion is reached.

The platoon sergeant combines requests from all squads and forwards them to the Chemical Company 1SG or XO, and to the logistics officer (S4) of the unit the platoon is supporting. There is no administrative/logistic net for the platoon. Logistics reports, when required, are sent to the commander. Most supply requests take a lot of time to transmit. Line numbers should be to assigned to supply items to save time. When operating on a non-secure radio net, the platoon sergeant should encode all requests. The request is filled then or during the next supply operation, depending on the urgency.

One of the most critical supply functions is water. Even in cold areas, all personnel must drink at least two quarts of water a day to maintain efficiency. Water can be supplied either by collecting and filling empty canteens or distributing water cans to the platoons.

  • Leaders must urge soldiers to drink water when not thirsty. This is due to the body's thirst mechanism, which does not keep pace with the loss of water through normal daily activity. The rate at which dehydration occurs will depend on the weather conditions and the level of physical exertion.

  • If water is in short supply, soldiers must use water sparingly for hygiene purposes. When in short supply, water should not be used to heat MREs. Water used for coffee or tea may also be counterproductive because both increase the flow of urine. However, soups are an efficient means of providing both water and nutrition when water is scarce, particularly in cold weather when heated food is desirable. A centralized heating point can be used to conserve water, yet provide warmed MREs.

  • In most environments, water is available from natural sources. Soldiers should be trained to find, treat (chemically or using field expedients), and use natural water sources. The use of iodine tablets is the most common and easiest method to treat water. (NOTE: Iodine tablets that are not uniformly gray in color or no longer have a firm consistency should not be used. However, an alternate method of disinfecting the water should be used; such as boiling before drinking. ) (See FM 21-10 and FM 21-76 for more information.)

REQUESTS FOR SUPPORT AND ROUTINE SUPPLIES

The command and support relationship that the smoke unit has with a supported unit determines the degree of complexity administration and logistics will have during the operation. Platoon leaders and sergeants, that understand their command and support relationship they are operating under. Additionally, they must conduct prior coordination with the supported unit. Without these two things, it is almost impossible to execute a logistically supportable mission. Sustainment planning is essential for successful mission accomplishment.

Requesting support and routine supplies may or may not be a complex issue. Where the smoke unit will submit its request for support depends on the command and support relationship it is under. The platoon sergeant submits logistics status reports and supply requests to the unit providing logistical support. Maintenance and recovery support are requested the same way as supplies.

During the battle, support will normally be limited to medical and maintenance activities and fog oil resupply. During the battle (offense or defense), the unit will request support from the appropriate unit. It is critical that all smoke unit leaders (down to vehicle commanders) know who is supporting them and where these activities are located on the battlefield (aid stations, unit maintenance collection points, brigade/division support areas, and so forth.).

The smoke unit's supply sergeant is responsible for obtaining and delivering most supplies to the platoon. He delivers small items and may require additional support for bulky or high expenditure items. Priorities for delivery are established by the company commander, but the demands of combat dictate classes I, III, and V supplies as the most critical to successful operations.

RESUPPLY OPERATIONS

Resupply operations can be described as routine, emergency, and prestock. Each method is developed in the company SOP and rehearsed in training. The actual method selected will depend on METT-T and the command and support relationship of the smoke platoon.

Routine resupply operations are regular resupply of classes I, III, V, IX items; mail; and any other items requested by the smoke platoon. Routine resupply will take place at least daily. The smoke platoon should resupply class III at every opportunity. Resupply will normally take place during times of limited visibility. Resupply may occur as a logistics package (LOGPAC) from the parent chemical company or from the supported unit. The smoke platoon may be required to resupply with a subordinate element of the supported unit (that is, a maneuver company or at the main CP). A LOGPAC is a centrally organized resupply convoy originating at the chemical company headquarters or the supported unit's field trains or support activity. The LOGPAC will normally contain all necessary supplies to sustain the platoon for a specific time (usually 24 hours or until the next scheduled LOGPAC).

The chemical company supply sergeant assembles the LOGPAC under supervision of the first sergeant or operations officer. Replacements and soldiers released from medical facilities are brought to the platoon on the LOGPAC vehicles. Once the LOGPAC is prepared for movement, the supply sergeant tactically moves it to the platoons. The LOGPAC may be led by the company first sergeant. The platoon sergeant will normally meet the LOGPAC at an logistics release point (LRP) and guide the LOGPAC to the platoon resupply point. The LRP is an easily recognizable point that the LOGPAC and the supported platoons can identify. Depending on the dispersion of the platoons, several LRPs may be used.

Some times the smoke platoon is resupplied by the supported unit or supplies are carried on the supported units LOGPAC vehicles. If this is the case then the resupply of the smoke platoon is based on the resupply techniques of the supported units LOGPAC.

When the LOGPAC arrives at the platoon's position, the platoon sergeant--

  • Turns in routine reports.
  • Turns in parts requisitions and the deadline status.
  • Picks up routine correspondence and mail.

RESUPPLY TECHNIQUES

Resupply will occur under two different situations: after an operation for routine resupply support and during a smoke operation for class III (fog oil, MOGAS, and diesel).

Resupply Operations During Non-Smoke Operations

For routine resupply operations while not making smoke, the platoon will use either the out-of-position (service-station) or in-position (tailgate) techniques. The platoon leader determines the technique to be used and informs the platoon sergeant. The resupply technique used depends on the tactical situation. The platoon sergeant briefs the LOGPAC or fuel support leader on the technique to be employed.

Service-Station Resupply. The LOGPAC or support squad establishes a resupply point. Each vehicle in the platoon then moves to the resupply point. All resupply activities occur at the resupply point. (See figure 8-1.)

Tail-Gate Resupply. The LOGPAC or support squad moves from vehicle to vehicle in the platoon area. Each vehicle in the platoon is resupplied with all required items; water, fuel, food, and ammo. This is the fastest method of resupply. (See figure 8-2.)

Resupply Operations During Smoke Operations

There are two techniques for resupply during smoke operations: on-line resupply and off-line resupply. Only supplies necessary for the maintenance of the smoke screen will be resupplied during a smoke operation. The platoon leader determines the technique to be used and informs the platoon sergeant. The resupply technique used depends on the tactical situation. The platoon sergeant briefs the support squad leader on the technique to be employed. He also notifies the smoke platoon when they are ready.

On-line Resupply. Stationary smoke points are resupplied on line during a smoke mission. This requires the support squad to move to each point as needed. There are two procedures for on-line resupply: fuel-and-move and drum drop.

  • Fuel-and-Move. Fuel-and-move is a best procedure of on-line fuel resupply for mobile smoke systems (that is, M1059s and HMMWV-mounted generators). When using the fuel-and-move procedure, the support squad moves its tank and pump units (TPUs) to the smoke line and refuels each smoke system in turn. The procedure for fuel-and-move is as follows--
    • The support squad leader links up with the smoke squad leader at a prearranged linkup point. The smoke squad leader ground guides the support squad to the smoke squad's positions. One crew fuels at a time while the other crews maintains security.

    • The fuel supply squad moves with the fog oil/MOGAS vehicle (vehicle 1) in the lead and the diesel vehicle (vehicle 2) in trail.

    • Smoke vehicle commanders will dismount and ground-guide the fog oil/MOGAS vehicle into refueling position (figure 8-3). Refueling position places the fuel vehicle perpendicular to the smoke vehicle. Simultaneously, the generator operator will prepare the system for refueling (for example, lower tailgate, drop amp, open fuel tank). See Appendix F for safety guidance.

    • The fuel handler will dispense fog oil into the fog oil tank. Simultaneously, the vehicle commander will exchange empty can of MOGAS for full cans and reconnect them to the generator.

    • When refueled with fog oil and MOGAS, the smoke squad leader ground-guides the fog oil/MOGAS vehicle to the next crew position. Simultaneously the smoke vehicle commander ground-guides the diesel vehicle into proper refueling position. The fuel handler then dispenses diesel into the smoke vehicle.

    • When refueled, the smoke crew assumes security for the next crew, and signals the fuel squad leader to begin fueling at the next position.

The process continues until all vehicles are refueled.

NOTE

Personnel on the ground must stand well
away from the rear of the truck when the fuel
handler is dropping drums.
  • Drum Drop. The drum drop is a procedure of on-line fuel resupply that is appropriate for stationary smoke systems (that is, M3A4 Smoke Generator mounted on the M998 HMMWV or M151-series truck). When using the drum drop procedure, the support squad moves one cargo truck to the smoke line and drops fog oil drums at each position. The support squad then refuels diesel and MOGAS for each smoke system in turn. The procedures for the drum drop technique are as follows--
    • The support squad leader links up with the smoke squad leader at a prearranged linkup point. The smoke squad leader ground-guides the fuel supply squad to the smoke squad's positions.

    • The support squad moves with the fog oil vehicle (vehicle 1) in the lead and the diesel/MOGAS vehicle (vehicle 2) in trail.

    • The smoke vehicle commander ground-guides the fog oil vehicle to a position close to (5 meters or less) the smoke vehicle. The fuel handler drops the tailgate on the fuel truck and drops the required number of drums of fog oil to the ground, bung and vent end up.

    • The smoke squad leader then ground-guides the fog oil truck to the next position. Simultaneously, the smoke vehicle commander will dismount and ground-guide the fog oil/MOGAS vehicle into refueling position. Refueling position places the fuel vehicle perpendicular to the smoke vehicle. Simultaneously, the generator operator will prepare the system for refueling (that is, open fuel tank). See Appendix F for safety guidance.

    • The fuel handler will dispense diesel fuel into the diesel fuel tank. Simultaneously, the vehicle commander will exchange empty can of MOGAS for full cans and reconnect them to the generator.

    • When refueled with diesel fuel and MOGAS, the smoke squad leader ground guides the fog oil/MOGAS vehicle to the next crew position.

    • When refueled, the smoke crew assumes security for the next crew, and signals the fuel squad leader to begin fueling at the next position.

The process continues until all vehicles are refueled.

Off-line Resupply. Mobile units are resupplied by rotating individual systems through a fuel resupply point 1 to 2 kilometers to the rear of the smoke line. You also can resupply stationary units that are displacing in this manner. Off-line resupply increases the fuel supply squad's survivability by placing them at less risk of enemy contact and farther from enemy long-range weapon systems. The process for accomplishing off-line resupply is as follows--

  • The support squad leader links up with the smoke platoon sergeant at a prearranged linkup point. Simultaneously, the platoon leader issues a warning order that establishes an order for resupply.

  • On order, individual smoke vehicles move to the resupply point and refuel.

  • The smoke vehicle crew maintains security while the support squad refuels their vehicle.

  • The fuel handlers dispense fog oil diesel fuel into the fog oil and diesel fuel tanks, respectively. Simultaneously, the vehicle commander exchanges empty cans of MOGAS for full cans and reconnects them to the generator.

  • Once the vehicle is refueled, it returns to the smoke line. The vehicle commander notifies the platoon leader. The next vehicle in the resupply sequence moves to the resupply point.

  • For a mobile smoke mission the resupply point will have to displace forward to maintain contact with the unit being resupplied.

The process continues until all vehicles are refueled.

COMBAT LOADS

The platoon should attempt to maintain combat loads as long as possible. Both class III (fog oil, MOGAS, and diesel) and class V (ammunition) resupply is a major problem on the battlefield. Without proper fire discipline, a vehicle or squad can use its entire combat load of class V in one or two engagements, rendering it ineffective during later encounters. Crews must constantly check the on-board supply of class III and class V. Class III and class V reporting procedures should be established as SOP. The platoon leader should prescribe how low on class III and class V the platoon or squads can get before requesting resupply. Elements should not be allowed to drop below this level except in a combat emergency.

PRE-POSITIONING

Pre-positioning is a technique of resupply where supplies are placed on an occupied position to be used at a future time. The location and amount of pre-positioned supplies must be carefully planned and each squad leader informed. The platoon leader must verify the locations of the pre-positioning sites during his reconnaissance and rehearsals. When pre-positioning supplies, consider the following:

  • Covered and protected positions are needed for prepositioned ammo.
  • Prepositioning frees cargo vehicles and TPUs to return and bring more fog oil and fuel forward.
  • The smoke platoon cannot guard the prepositioned supplies and, therefore, risks the capture or destruction of the prepositioned supplies.

Considerations that determine whether or not to restock are normally made at levels higher than the platoon.

FORWARD FUEL SUPPLY POINT

This is an area where the fuel support element stores large quantities of fog oil close to the smoke unit. The area should be in a covered and concealed location. The position should be located near a road for easy access. However, the site should be far enough away from friendly positions to prevent personnel casualties if the position is hit by enemy fire. The site should have a separate entrance and exit.

The support element establishes the forward fuel point based on the anticipated needs of the smoke unit they are supporting. The drums of fog oil should be stored in such a manner that they can be readily uploaded by the TPUs or cargo trucks. The different types of products (fog oil, MOGAS, and diesel) should be separated. Figure 8-5 shows the layout of a typical forward fuel supply point.

Never exceed the load limit of a vehicle. Table 8-1 lists the maximum load limits for specified fuels and cargo vehicles.



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