This appendix describes evacuation methods from M1059s. Because mechanized smoke units operate in the forward combat area, there is the possibility that crew members will become wounded. Crew members who are wounded or injured while in the M1059 will require evacuation.
To evacuate casualties quickly, every soldier in the platoon must know the evacuation procedures for different vehicle positions, such as vehicle upright, turned on either side, or overturned. For additional procedures on evacuating personnel from tracked vehicles, see FM 8-10-6.
OBSERVE FOR VEHICLE FIRE
When an M1059 is found that has been hit by enemy fire or damaged by a mine, it should be inspected to determine the extent of damage and to find out if there is a danger of fire. The externally fixed fire extinguisher handle should be pulled and a portable fire extinguisher readied, if the threat of fire exists. The handles for the fixed fire extinguisher on the inside are in the driver's compartment and on the top left side of the M1059. The fixed fire extinguisher is used to extinguish fires in the engine and crew compartments. The portable fire extinguisher is used to extinguish fires around the smoke generators. Open hatches and work exit points should be identified to plan swift evacuation of casualties.
MOVE VEHICLE TO SAFE LOCATION
If the vehicle can move under its own power, it should be moved to a safe location before evacuating casualties. If the driver is wounded and cannot operate the vehicle, he should be removed through the crew compartment, replaced, and the vehicle driven to a safe location.
STEPS IN CASUALTY EVACUATION
PROCEDURES FOR CASUALTY
CHECK AND TREAT CASUALTY
Too rapid an evacuation of a casualty may cause further injury. Before a casualty is evacuated, he should be checked thoroughly to discover the full extent of his injuries, and first aid should be administered to those wounds requiring immediate attention. There may be circumstances when this is not possible and the casualty must be evacuated immediately--for example, if the vehicle is burning or when conditions inside the M1059 do not allow for effective evaluation of injuries.
After giving the necessary first aid, the casualty's CVC helmet should be disconnected or helmet removed and his seat belt released. If the vehicle is on its side or overturned, he must be supported before the seat belt is released, to prevent additional injuries. He is then evacuated. The combat vehicle crew uniform (CVCU) has a strap on inside, close to the collar for lifting personnel.
Before evacuation, the load-carrying equipment (LCE) should be removed from the casualties in the crew compartment so that the equipment does not catch on anything during evacuation.
To evacuate a casualty, crew members must know what exits are available. The M1059 has five exits: Track commander's (TC) hatch, driver's hatch, cargo hatch, ramp door, and ramp. Some may be used to evacuate any of the crew, and others are used for specific crew members.
When possible, the TC's hatch will be used to evacuate the vehicle commander and the smoke generator operator. The driver's hatch will be used to evacuate the driver. If one or both exits are blocked, or if the tactical situation stops their use, casualties will be evacuated through the troop compartment and out the ramp or ramp door. Casualties will be evacuated out the cargo hatch as a last resort.
The following procedures must be rehearsed so that the crew can effectively evacuate casualties:
When the driver's hatch is open and the situation allows, the driver is evacuated through the driver's hatch. The soldiers doing the evacuation will evacuate the driver after opening the hatch fully. One man will then lean head first into the hatch (assisted if necessary) to make sure the engine is off. If possible, he will raise the seat to the full up position, unbuckle the driver's seat belt, and disconnect his CVC helmet. Depending on the driver's injuries, he will be lifted out, from the top, by two soldiers, helped by another from the inside of the vehicle. A pistol belt, placed around the driver's chest and under his arms, can be used to pull him out. Once he is on the top of the vehicle, he will be passed down to personnel on the ground.
The driver may have to be evacuated through the crew compartment and out the ramp, because his hatch is inoperable, the vehicle is receiving enemy fire, or some other tactical situation. The man closest to the driver checks to make sure the engine is shut off. The driver's seat is lowered and pulled to the rear. The driver's seat belt is unbuckled and his CVC helmet disconnected. The driver is grasped under the arms or in another way, depending on his injuries. He is then pulled into the crew compartment. Care must be taken not to further injure the driver because of close quarters or protruding objects. He will be evacuated out the ramp.
If the vehicle is on its side, the driver must be supported while his seat belt is unbuckled, to prevent other injury. If the vehicle is on its left side, it takes two soldiers to pull out the injured driver because the hatch opening will next the ground. If the vehicle is on its right side, four soldiers will be needed to pull out the driver and pass him down from the vehicle.
If the vehicle commander is injured while occupying his position, he is pulled into the crew compartment. His CVC helmet is disconnected and he is evacuated out the ramp or ramp door.
SMOKE GENERATOR OPERATOR
If the smoke generator operator is injured while occupying his position, he is pulled into the crew compartment. His CVC helmet is disconnected and his seat belt unbuckled. He is evacuated out the ramp or ramp door.
The first steps in evacuating casualties are checking for injury and administering first aid before evacuating the casualties from the vehicle. Casualties should be moved quickly, but safely, to the proper medical facility for further treatment. Prompt, sure action on the part of fellow soldiers to evacuate casualties helps increase their chances of survival.
The platoon must understand the supported unit's casualty evacuation plan. Many units have signals stated in their SOPs indicating casualties on board a vehicle, such as flying a VS-17 panel from the antenna. This allows medical evacuation vehicles to move rapidly to those vehicles with casualties.
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