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Chapter 3




Deployment is the relocation of forces (from both CONUS and outside continental United States [OCONUS] areas) to desired AOs. It encompasses all activities from origin or home station through destination, specifically including intracontinental United States, intertheater and intratheater movement legs, staging, and holding. Redeployment is the transfer of forces and materiel to support another operational requirement, or to return personnel, equipment, and materiel to the home and/or demobilization stations for reintegration and/or out-processing.


Deployment and redeployment usually pertain to those contractors, either external support or system, that reside outside the AOR and require air or sea transportation to move personnel and equipment to or from the area. Theater support contractors normally reside within such close proximity of the actual AO that the actions associated with deployment and redeployment would not be required. However, when the distances to be traveled are great enough, theater support contractors may be included in the deployment and redeployment process. When such is the case, the governing contract will contain specific provisions regarding the requirements to be followed.


One of the benefits of using contractor support is that theater support contractors do not usually require deployment support since they are already in the AO. Additionally, in some operations, external support and system contractors can self-deploy using commercial assets. During all contractor deployment/redeployment operations however, the Army establishes measurable performance-oriented requirements and closely monitors contractor performance, including moving personnel and equipment to the AO. Throughout this process, the Army remains responsible for the prudent and legal expenditure of taxpayer dollars even if the contractor self-deploys.


In operations in restricted environments, the combatant commander often assumes control of lift and port assets. This is especially true when deploying to austere environments and/or limited ports of debarkation (POD) capacity in theater, especially with APODs with limited maximum-on-the-ground capacity. In these operational situations, contractor deployment must be integrated into the combatant commander's deployment priority system. This integration must include establishing Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) visibility via the TPFDD process of deploying contractor employees and equipment. The use of habitual relationships between units and their supporting contractors can facilitate the accurate and timely accomplishment of this essential process.


Responsiveness is a key concern to the Army when determining the use of contractor support. If support is to be effective and responsive, the contractor must be operational at the time it is needed. Some system contractors, especially in digitized units, may be vital to early entry operations and must be placed on the TPFDD accordingly. Support operations that require movement of contractor employees and equipment into an AO must be included in an operations deployment schedule, regardless of whether or not the contractor arranges its own transportation. By doing so, the Army is assured of having the support in place at the proper time.



Responsibility for ensuring contractor support is available when needed is shared among several commands and agencies, including the contractor. A unity of effort among these activities is paramount in order for contractor support to be properly included in deployment and redeployment operations. The deploying supported combatant commander, the ASCC, ARFOR, and subordinate support commands utilizing contractor support must be aware of and coordinate special contractor deployment and redeployment requirements.



The supported geographical combatant (and subordinate unified commander, if applicable) is overall responsible for deployment and redeployment operations planned and executed during joint force missions in the AOR. This responsibility includes identification of the movement, timing, and sequence of deploying forces, including contractors in the TPFDD; reception and integration of supporting units and materiel arriving in theater to support the operation; and assisting these units in recovery and reconstitution prior to redeployment. The supported combatant commander validates movement requirements for all forces and agencies deploying or redeploying in support of an operation and provides these validated requirements to USTRANSCOM for planning and execution of strategic movement. At this level major policy decisions regarding the deployment of contractor employees and equipment, including how they will deploy, predeployment processing requirements, and arrival sequencing are first made.



The ASCC commander, in conjunction with the subordinate ARFOR commander(s), is overall responsible for establishing operational specific Army policies and procedures for collecting, verifying, processing, maintaining, and submitting ARFOR deployment planning data. The ASCC is also responsible for ensuring that contractor deployment requirements, based on the combatant commander's decisions, are included in the ARFOR TPFDD planning process and that they receive the priority that enables the contractor to provide support when needed.



The supporting ASCCs/MACOMs, typically FORSCOM, USAREUR, USARPAC, and USAMC, are the commands that provide the additional resources to the supported combatant commander. The supporting ASCCs are often responsible for the deployment of their forces in support of other theater requirements, while USAMC routinely deploys some units and/or individuals in support of major, and most minor, Army operations. These supporting Army commands ensure the proper integration of force deployment data into the TPFDD for both units and individuals. The supporting ASCCs/MACOMs must identify any supporting contractor presence and integrate their employees and equipment requirements into the TPFDD and deployment/redeployment structure.



USTRANSCOM is the functional combatant command responsible for common-user air, land, and sea transportation, as well as port management for the Department of Defense across the range of military operations. It assists the supported combatant commander to ensure that validated movement requirements, including those for contractors, are routed and scheduled for maximum support during deployment, sustainment, and redeployment.



The requiring unit or activity, as the organization or agency that originates the specific requirement for support, is key to defining deployment requirements for contractor support. Once the decision is made to utilize contractor support, the requiring activity is responsible for identifying when and where the support is needed and for providing the specific data needed to incorporate contractor employees and equipment into the TPFDD. The requiring unit or activity essentially serves as the deployment/redeployment sponsor for the contractor. In the case of ASA(ALT) PEO/PM system contractors, a combination of the requiring unit or activity (the PEO/PM offices) and the supported unit and, if designated, the USAMC LSE is responsible to ensure that the system-contractor employees are prepared to deploy.



The various supporting contracting activities, through coordination with the requiring activity, incorporate all contractor-related deployment decisions into appropriate contract language and ensure that all contractor deployment instructions and requirements are included in contracts. These activities may include the contracting offices supporting PEO/PM system managers or those responsible for theater- or external support-type contracts. For contracting activities to accomplish their tasks, the deployment decisions of the commander must be validated as contract requirements and properly funded. A contracting activity cannot enter into a contractual agreement without valid requirements and proper funding. Therefore, planners must communicate their requirements in a timely manner, through the requiring unit or activity to its supporting contracting activity. The supporting contracting activity serves a key role in communicating deployment/redeployment requirements to supporting contractors and obtaining deployment-related information from them and, therefore, must be included in the deployment information chain.



The supporting installation, some of which are specifically designated as force projection (sometimes called power projection) platforms, is responsible for providing support to deploying/redeploying contractors in the same manner as military forces. When directed by the OPLAN/OPORD, these installations assist with the predeployment processing and facilitate the movement of contractor employees and equipment to the designated ports of embarkation (POE). When necessary, they also may be required to assist a deploying contractor to pack, upload equipment, train, and move employees and equipment. Additionally, they may provide assistance or garrison-type life support in staging areas. The terms and conditions of the contract should clearly stipulate the type and amount of this support.



Contractors share an equal role with government organizations in the deployment/redeployment process. During deployment and redeployment, the contractor is responsible for complying with all related provisions specified in the contract. This includes providing specific employees and equipment data for the TPFDD, complying with prescribed predeployment processing requirements, such as training, medical fitness, and ensuring that their employees are prepared to deploy when notified. The contractor also ensures that its employees are aware of deployment requirements associated with their position, including potential danger, stress, physical hardships, and living conditions.



Prior to deployment, certain requirements must be satisfied for contractors, their employees, and equipment to be properly prepared to move to begin the deployment process. These predeployment requirements, identified during the planning process and included in the appropriate contract, communicate to the contractor the specifics of how their employees and equipment will flow to the AO. They will prescribe whether or not the military will arrange for and provide the transportation to deploy the contractor, the location deployment will commence from, and the specific prerequisites that contractor employees must meet to travel to the AO.



The general government policy is that a contractor provides everything necessary to perform under the contract, including transportation. In many cases, contractor-arranged transportation is the preferred option. However, when the combatant commander assumes control of lift and port assets, contractors may have difficulty obtaining transportation or arrival clearances when deploying. In some operations, it may not be feasible for contractors to self-deploy. Generally, the nature and scale of an operation determines the best method for transporting a contractor to the operational area.


The influences that help determine the manner in which a contractor is transported are the type of relationship (habitual or nonhabitual) the contractor has with the unit(s) it supports, the type of contractor (system, external support, or theater support), and the point of origin (CONUS or OCONUS). Contractors (typically system contractors) who maintain a habitual relationship with a supported unit should be included in that unit's deployment process and move on whatever government-arranged conveyance the unit's personnel and equipment utilize. Contractors with a nonhabitual relationship and those that travel to the operational area from OCONUS may deploy either by commercially available transportation that they arrange or by government-owned or government-arranged commercial transportation. Whichever method is used must be determined during the planning process and communicated to the contractor through the contract.


In some recent military operations, the ARFOR commander has designated the USAMC LSE as the lead organization to coordinate all system-contractor employee (to include ASA[ALT] contractors) deployment and to conduct all in-theater system-contractor management. While this is an option to the ARFOR commander, the USAMC LSE is not currently manned nor equipped to execute this mission without augmentation. See Chapter 4 for more information on the roles and responsibilities of the USAMC LSE.



The austere environment that external support and system-contractor employees may deploy to and operate in, coupled with the fact that limited medical capabilities exist in the theater, dictates that the combatant commander and subordinate ASCC, through the contract, establish and enforce the requirement for certain health, dental, and physical standards. Although it is not the intent of the Army to dictate to the employing contractor the criteria used to make a hiring decision, the reality of the operational environment requires that standards be imposed on US citizen, and some TCN, external support and system-contractor employees. Therefore, these support contractors deploying to a theater will adhere to established fitness standards and criteria as established by Army and/or ASCC policy. Additionally, the appropriate joint surgeon may articulate additional operational specific medical requirements. All fitness standards and criteria are communicated to the contractor through the terms and conditions of the contract. The contractor ensures that its employees meet these standards, including having all required dental work accomplished prior to reporting to the military deployment force-projection platform so that pre-existing medical conditions do not place an unnecessary burden on the theater medical structure. Employees who fail to meet entrance standards set by the joint and/or ARFOR surgeon, or who become unfit through their own actions (pregnancy, alcohol or drug abuse, etc.) will be removed from the AO at the contractor's expense.


The final authority for determining fitness is the military physician's evaluation. Figure 3-1 is a representative list of conditions that may medically disqualify a contractor employee from being deployed to an AO. Individuals with any of these conditions must be evaluated by a military physician to determine if a waiver is appropriate. Under no circumstances should a contractor employee be permitted in the AO without first being medically evaluated.

  • Uncontrollable hypertension

  • Seizure disorders of any type

  • Pregnancy

  • Untreated thyroid disorders

  • Renal calculus; chronic recurrent

  • Raynaud's disease

  • Morbid obesity

  • Sarcoidosis

  • History of chronic kidney disorders

  • Diabetes mellitus treated with insulin or oral medications

  • Peptic ulcer disease currently being treated or history of surgery for a peptic ulcer

  • Chronic low back pain or history of herniated nucleus pulposis

  • Any history of cardiac arrhythmias requiring medication

  • Any history of myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery or angioplasty with or without stents, without a full diagnostic workup by an attending physician providing clearance for deployment

  • Absence of dental panograph on file

  • Ongoing treatment of oral pain, trauma, or infection.

  • Emphysema or chronic bronchitis

  • Asthma

  • Any history of transplant surgery

  • HIV positive or AIDS

  • Any history of heat stroke

  • Sleep apnea

  • Tuberculosis

  • Migrane headaches

  • Parkinsons disease; multiple sclerosis

  • Untreated symptomatic inguinal hernias

  • Cancer, including anyone currently undergoing chemotherapy or recent history of surgery for cancer

  • Any neuro-psychiatric disorders, with or without medication

  • Anemia of any type until medically cleared by a military physician

  • Any condition that may be of such a nature to put the employee at risk medically if deployed

  • Any sexually transmitted disease until treated and resolved

  • Active orthodontic appliances

  • Existence of oral disease that, if not treated, is likely to result in a dental emergency within 12 months.

Figure 3-1. Possible Medically Disqualifying Conditions


Medical and dental screening of system and external support contractors will be accomplished prior to deploying contractor employees into the AO. This will avoid the costs to the contractor and the government of returning medically unfit individuals from the AO. Contractor employees will be required to present their medical and dental records with a recent history and physical not over 12 months old for screening purposes. The dental record must indicate a dental examination that is not over six months old. If possible, contractor employees should undergo medical screening with their habitually supported unit. Contractor employees who are not screened in conjunction with their supported unit will be individually screened at one of the designated deployment support centers as discussed in the predeployment processing section of this chapter. A recommended health assessment questionnaire is at Appendix C.


Note: at the time of the approval of this FM, HQDA was in the process of updating AR 715-9. This policy update will mandate the use of the health assessment forms for all contractors deploying with the force.


Contractor employees are normally required to receive the same immunizations as those directed for military personnel. AR 40-562 provides detailed information concerning immunizations. The contractor is responsible for ensuring that its employees are properly immunized prior to deployment to the AO. Governing contracts will provide specific guidance regarding immunizations, including a list of those required for the AO, or instructions on where to go to determine the specific immunizations required. The Centers for Disease Control provide an Internet-based health information service that includes recommended immunizations for each of 17 global regions. Found at, this service is frequently used to update information to deploying contractors. Contractor employees must obtain standard immunizations such as tetanus, typhoid, yellow fever, polio, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), and meningiococcus from their personal physician. The government providew immunizations that are unique to the military and required for entry into the AO.


The combatant commander or subordinate ASCC commander may also establish limited physical standards for contractor employees when they are placed in a nonstandard work environment, such as those related to military operations. Contractor employees, who would not have difficulty working and living in a normal environment, may have physical difficulties when placed in a field environment. This often austere environment may affect work performance as well as overall health. Physical standards for contractors will not be the same as those expected for military personnel, but should be oriented towards the ability of the individual contractor employee to work and survive in an AO.



Personal readiness involves those actions that the individual contractor employee, with the assistance of the contractor, the supported unit, and force-projection platform, is required to accomplish prior to deployment. These include-


  • Obtaining a passport and associated visas.

  • Completing required dental work, personal will, powers of attorney, and family care plan.

  • Reviewing health and life insurance policies.

  • Updating next of kin notification.

  • Collecting personal items and clothing.

Contractor employees also need to be advised that personal life insurance coverage may be limited or denied in certain military-related operations. When this is the case, the government is prepared to underwrite the insurance to enable coverage to continue. It is also important to understand that beards, long sideburns, or other facial hair may affect NBC protective mask fit and affect eligibility for deployment. At Figure 3-2 is an individual deployment checklist for personal items.

Individual Deployment Checklist - Personal Items



Prepare Personal Will

Prepare Power of Attorney

Prepare Family Care Plan

Direct Deposit

Review Health Insurance

Review Life Insurance

Blank Checks

Insect Repellent


Lip Balm

Medical Tags

Extra Pair of Eye Glasses

Personal Hygiene Items

Shaving Kit

Wet Weather Gear

Personal Medication (90-day supply)

Towels and Wash Cloths

Shower Shoes

Underwear (2 weeks)

Socks (ample quantity)

Safety Shoes

Sewing Kit

Waterproof Plastic Bags

Telephone Calling Card

Personal Credit Card

Stationary and Stamps

Radio (battery powered)

Hearing Aid Batteries

Pocket Knife

Extra Civilian Clothes

Extra Batteries



*Denotes items that SHOULD NOT be physically transported during deployment.

Figure 3-2. Individual Deployment Checklist-Personal Items



Deploying contractor employees departing from CONUS or OCONUS may require specific training to prepare them for the environment in the AO (Figure 3-3). Training requirements must be identified during planning, specified in the OPORD/OPLAN plan, and stipulated in the contract. The extent and type of the training and equipment will vary depending on the nature of the operation and the type of contractor (theater support, external support, or system) involved. Training may be provided by the military through the supported unit if a habitual relationship exists, through the designated deployment site, or by the contractor himself, utilizing guidelines provided through the contract.


Training may be provided by the military through the supported unit if a habitual relationship exists, through the designated deployment site, or by the contractor himself, utilizing guidelines provided through the contract.


NOTE: There is no standard mechanism to address the cost associated with this training. The cost issue and other training issues must be worked out on a case-by-case basis.


Law of war/law of armed conflict

Code of conduct

Health and sanitation

Customs and courtesies for the area of deployment

Status of forces agreement


Weapons familiarization

Operational security

Rules of engagement

Chemical, biological, and nuclear protection

Survival, escape, resistance, and evasion

Driver and special equipment training

Other training directed by the combatant commander

Figure 3-3. Potential Training Requirements


Contractors and their employees often require certain items of GFE (clothing and equipment) to function properly in the AO. These requirements, like training, must be considered and identified during the planning process and included in the contract. Equipment provided as GFE may include-


  • Organization clothing and individual equipment (OCIE), including chemical defense equipment (when the threat exists).

  • Weapons (for personal defense and only when authorized by the combatant commander, permitted by contractor policy, and agreed to by the individual employee). Weapons can only be a government-issued side arm for personal defense.

  • Government-furnished vehicles.



Like training, there are very limited standard policies or procedures for obtaining and issuing GFE to contractor employees. Department of the Army has authorized installations to carry extra CTA 50 items to equip deploying contractor personnel. Supported unit logistics staff may be required to acquire this via operational or pre-positioned stocks, or other sources. In any case, contractors and their employees will maintain and return all issued clothing and equipment back to the place of issue upon return from the AO. In the event that issued clothing and equipment is lost or damaged, contractors and their employees will be subject to the same requirement for a report of survey, in accordance with AR 735-5, as are government military and civilian personnel. Additionally, the government may require reimbursement from the contractor.



To ensure that contractor employees and equipment arrive in operational theaters when needed and are capable of operating in a hostile environment, they must be included in predeployment processing. The ASCC has the option of allowing the contractor to accomplish the predeployment requirements on his own or requiring that the contractor process through one of a number of military sites. The choice depends upon the nature of the operation and is identified during the planning process. Either way, the ASCC and its subordinate ARFOR (as applicable) must ensure contractor compliance with the requirements. Specific predeployment processing requirements are communicated to the contractor through the contract.



The Army has created several sites within CONUS for expeditiously preparing individuals for deployment and to process individuals during redeployment back to CONUS. These sites are known as CONUS replacement centers (CRC) or individual deployment sites (IDS). An IDS is permanently operational during peacetime operations, while a CRC is activated for mobilization only. CRCs and IDSs expeditiously receive and certify individuals for deployment, redeployment, or demobilization; they receive, outprocess, and account for individuals returning from theaters of operations. These individuals are referred to as non-unit-related personnel (NRP) and consist of five categories:


  • Active component soldiers (including reserve soldiers accessed onto active duty).

  • DACs.

  • Contract civilians.

  • Red Cross workers.

  • Other civilians.

When it is not practical or affordable, contractors deploying from Hawaii or Alaska may not be required to process through either a CRC or IDS. In these cases, predeployment processing will be conducted upon arrival in the theater of operations. In a mature theater such as Europe, this deployment processing may be conducted in a theater processing center similar to a CRC that is in the theater, but outside the actual AO. In worst case scenarios, some contractor employees may have to complete predeployment processing and qualifications in the AO.


Contractor employees may be required to process through an IDS or CRC. If so, use of these sites is identified during planning and specified, if possible, as a specific requirement in the contract. Although the government conducts the processing, it is still the contractor's responsibility to ensure that its employees are provided all required processing information. As part of the processing, the IDS/CRC may:


  • Screen contractor employee records.

  • Conduct theater-specific briefings and training.

  • Issue theater-specific clothing and individual equipment.

  • Verify medical requirements (such as immunizations, DNA screening, HIV testing, and dental examinations).

  • Arrange for transportation to the AO.

  • Issue DD Form 1173 (uniformed services identification and privilege card), DD Form 489 (Geneva Conventions identify card for persons who accompany the armed forces), and personal identification tags (dog tags).

To process through a CRC, the appropriate contracting officer or, if authorized, COR issuea letter of authorization/identification, in accordance with paragraph 6005H of the Joint Travel Regulation. (Invitational travel orders, frequently used for government personnel, are not authorized for contractor employees.) This letter authorizes travel to, from, and within the AO, as well as processing at the CRC. It also identifies any additional authorizations and privileges, such as access to the post exchange and commissary, care and treatment at medical and dental facilities, and use of government messing and billeting. The letter of authorization/identification must include the name of the approving government office and the government accounting citation and must state the intended length of assignment in the AO. Contractor TPFDD information is covered in CJCSM 3122.02B--Crisis Action Time-Phased Force and Deployment Data Development and Deployment Execution, Volume III, 25 May 2001, Enclosure G, Appendix A, which can be found at the Joint Electronic Library web site (,.mi./.gov links, limited CJCS directives).


While processing at the CRC, the government will furnish lodging, but will charge a nominal fee for meals. Transportation and travel to the CRC is normally the responsibility of the contractor, with appropriate government reimbursement, as directed by the contract.



A force-projection platform, sometimes referred to as a power-projection platform, is a designated Army installation that is responsible for assisting in and validating the deployment of Army units moving to an AO. They perform functions similar to CRC/IDS sites, but focus their efforts on units rather than individuals. Contractors deploying to an AO may process through a force-projection platform, either as part of the unit they are supporting (if a habitual relationship exists) or as a separate entity when the number of contractor employees warrants treatment as an organization, such as a LOGCAP contractor.


The force-projection-platform personnel ensure that the contractor employees, typically those without a habitual relationship and having a larger number of employees, deploying through their installation meet directed predeployment requirements and are properly trained (in accordance with established Army standards) and equipped to operate in the destination AO. Additionally, force-projection-platform personnel assist the contractor in preparing vehicles and equipment for shipment and facilitate their movement to the designated POE IAW the terms and conditions of the contract.



A realistic option to government predeployment processing for contractors is for the contractor to perform the contractually mandated requirements. This allows the government to concentrate on its primary responsibility of processing military forces while the contractor assumes full responsibility for preparing its employees to work in the AO. This option may be the preferred option for large contractors, normally external support contractors, deploying a large number of employees and equipment from a number of different locations. However, for contractors who move small numbers of their employees and equipment into the AO, government-performed processing remains the preferred option.


The decision to allow contractors to perform predeployment processing must be made early in the planning process. This decision must be closely scrutinized and coordinated by the ASCC and represent a clear advantage to the government. When this occurs, the requiring unit or activity provides specific processing requirements which are included in the contract, as communicated in the OPLAN/OPORD. The contract contains specific information (lesson plans and reference material) regarding training to be conducted, types of clothing and equipment required. It will also state the location from where these items and identification-type materials (DD Forms 1173 and 489 and dog tags) can be obtained.


When contractors provide their own predeployment processing, the Army has less control over the processing and movement. Although it may be less costly for contractors to orchestrate their own deployment, the use of Army deployment centers and transportation by the contractor may save time and resources as well as increase efficiency and control. This concern, however, can be lessened through specifically written contract clauses and an established system of CORs and other contract administrators who would monitor the contractors processing activities.



As part of the predeployment process, CRC/IDS medical and dental personnel verify that all requirements for deployment are met. Screening will include HIV testing, pre- and post-deployment evaluations, dental screenings, and tuberculin skin test. Any person who does not meet the established standards will be flagged and then reviewed individually by a military physician or dentist. A determination will be made at that time if the condition in question disqualifies that individual from deploying to the AO. The military physician reviewing the record will consider factors such as age, medical condition, job description, medications, and requirement for follow-up care, and will make the determination for fitness. Medical screening will include completion of DD Form 2766, Adult Preventive and Chronic Care Flowsheet (Continuation Sheet), and DA Form 4036-R, Medical and Dental Preparation for Overseas Movement. Completed copies of these forms will be included in the individual's deployment packet. Additionally, the CRC/IDS also forwards copies of all DA Forms 8007 to the appropriate surgeon's office.


Upon arrival in an AO, the contractor provides a summary of each employee's medical history to the supporting medical treatment facility, whether operated by the Army or contractor. This includes the personal physician's (or health maintenance organization) name and phone number, existing prescriptions, immunizations, major underlying conditions (especially those requiring immediate medications or interventions), and other information that needed to provide adequate medical care for the employee. Additionally, for identification purposes, it will be stipulated that contractor employees have a dental panograph and a DNA sample on file.


For various reasons, some system- and external support contractors may inadvertently deploy without processing through either a force-projection-platform processing center, an IDS, or a CRC. When this occurs, the predeployment processing is conducted in the AO as soon as possible during the reception processing. If the employee is found to have a medical condition that requires them to return to CONUS or their country of origin, it is the employing contractor's responsibility to arrange for the return of the employee and to provide a replacement.



The activities and movement of contractors on the battlefield must be orchestrated along with the combat forces. To accomplish this, commanders must have accountability over all system- and external support contractor employees who deploy with the force, just as with military and DACs. Accountability of contractors in an AO is required for force protection, allocating resources, and administration. Accountability is best established in the pre-deployment stage, capturing the overall deploying contractor employee presence supporting an operation from the point of origin. Chapter 4 discusses contractor accountability in detail.



As discussed earlier, depending on METT-TC, contractors schedule and arrange for their own transportation or utilize government-furnished transportation. This decision is a matter for planners to consider and the commander to determine before an operation begins and, once decided, communicated to the contractor through the contract.



The primary factors to be considered when making a determination of the mode of contractor deployment is how restrictive is the theater deployment infrastructure and when the military requires the contractor to be in the AO. When contractors provide their own transportation, the government is relieved from arranging and scheduling the assets needed to move the employees and equipment. Instead, the government simply specifies a time and location for the contractor to provide support and pays the contractor for this service with associated profit and overhead charges.


Although contractors are generally responsible for providing their own transportation, the government may assist or assume responsibility for deployment transportation. The ASCC G-3, with assistance from the G-4 transportation officer, determines this during the planning process. In many operations, it is expected that US forces will control transportation assets and port facilities. When a contractor does not have full control over the circumstances that affect how it deploys, it may be in the Army's best interest to assist. However, having the military arrange for the transportation may delay the contractor deployment to the AO. In this case, the contractor-arranged option might be preferable. Regardless of the arrangement, the Army must ensure that a contractor's transportation needs are given the same priority as the unit it is supporting, whether the contractor or the Army is responsible for deployment transportation.

Time-Phased Force Deployment Data


TPFDD is the JOPES data base portion of an operation plan. It contains the time-phased force data, NRP cargo and employees data, and movement data for an operation plan.


The TPFDD is the combatant commander's statement of his requirements by unit type, time period, and priority of arrival. When considered during the planning process, it includes estimates of contractor cargo and employee requirements along with those of the combat forces supporting an operation. The TPFDD, developed through the process described in Figure 3-4, is both a force requirements and a prioritized transportation movement document. Further, the TPFDD defines the combatant commander's time-phased lift requirements for supplies, equipment, and replacement personnel needed to sustain the forces specified during force planning.


Responsiveness is key. The combatant commander and his staff ensure that contractor deployment requirements are included in the TPFDD development and that their priority enables the contractor to provide support when needed. Appendix E provides specific instructions for incorporating contractor deployment requirements into the TPFDD.


Deploying contractors must be included in the TPFDD, whether the government or the contractor provides the actual lift resources. This permits the Army to consciously consider contractor deployment requirements and to incorporate them into the flow of forces in an orderly, scheduled manner. When sequenced with the overall operational plan, these requirements enable the Army to specify when contractors should deploy to the theater and to ensure their timely arrival without disrupting or conflicting with the flow of combat forces.


The movement data portion of the TPFDD includes-


  • In-place units.

  • Units deployed to support the OPLAN with a priority indicating the desired sequence for their arrival at the POD.

  • Routing of forces to be deployed.

  • Estimates of non-unit-related cargo and personnel movements conducted concurrently with the deployment of forces.

  • Estimates of transportation requirements filled by common-user lift resources as well as those requiements filled by assigned or attached transportation resources.

Figure 3-4. The TPFDD Development Process

Figure 3-4. The TPFDD Development Process



The global nature of contractor support dictates that contractors may deploy employee and equipment from anywhere in the world. Even US-based contractors may have elements originating from locations outside CONUS. Accordingly, contractor-initiated deployment should be the preferred option for deploying employees and equipment, unless circumstances dictate that government control is necessary. By doing so, the government is relieved of the burden of locating lift assets and performing predeployment processing.


Contractor-initiated deployment is provided for in the governing contract. When permitted, contractors are given appropriate deployment guidance so that they can arrive at the time and location needed without interfering with the deployment of military forces. As a minimum, contracts should provide information to the deploying contractor regarding notification procedures, predeployment processing requirements, and the date and time required to be in the AO. Additionally, the contract should provide for the establishment of management controls that require contractors-


  • To ensure that their transportation itineraries follow approved lines of communication and do not conflict with other support and operational traffic. When required, the government should assign mission identifiers and control arrival times.

  • To establish and implement in-transit visibility procedures, to include listing the Air Mobility Command Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) as an information addressee on position reports submitted through Aeronautical Radio Inc. and Societe International de Telecommunications Aeronautiques.

  • To establish a means for the supported commander's command and control center to immediately contact the operations center of the transportation provider so that emergency recall or diversion instructions can by issued to contractors who are en route on air, sea, or land transportation.



Designating a POE from which personnel and equipment depart facilitates the movement of contractor employees and equipment according to the established priority of the combatant commander and subordinate ASCC. These activities facilitate contractor movement, thus assisting with preparation and loading of cargo and employees in the same manner they do for deploying military forces. However, port managers cannot properly incorporate them into their deployment operations unless they are aware of their responsibility. Planning and TPFDD must designate POEs that support deploying contractors and inform the required personnel of their support responsibilities.


For deployments under government control, Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) port-call instructions direct the flow of contractor employees and equipment into the POE. Once at the POE, contractors follow the processing instructions issued by the responsible management activity. For seaports of embarkation, MTMC is the worldwide common-user ocean-terminal port manager. It directs deployment of units and sustainment according to the TPFDD. For aerial ports of embarkation, aerial port squadrons and tanker airlift control elements, provided by the Air Mobility Command, furnish the airlift interface. In conjunction with the departure airfield control group and designated Army activities, contractor employees and equipment travelling by air are processed for deployment. At the POE, contractor employees and equipment are handled in the same manner as deploying military forces and receive the same level of support as military units.



Contractor employees and equipment must flow into the AO in a controlled and managed fashion, usually in accordance with the TPFDD. This provides the combatant commander and subordinate ASCC with visibility over incoming contractor employees and cargo, affords the opportunity to deconflict the use of air and sea ports, and avoids placing contractors at risk of becoming targets as unidentified inbound aircraft or ships. Contractor arrival is handled in the same manner as with arriving military forces.



The PODs, either aerial or sea, are the geographic points at which cargo and personnel are discharged. APODs serve as the primary port of entry for all deploying personnel, as well as for early entry forces normally airlifted into an AO with their equipment. Activities at the APOD include terminal control; loading, unloading, and servicing of aircraft; clearing of personnel and cargo; and life support. Seaports of debarkation (SPOD) serve as the primary ports of entry for equipment, where vessels are off-loaded, and where cargo and personnel are cleared and moved to the staging area for movement forward. Contractor employees and equipment, either through the TPFDD or instructions contained in the governing contract, process through PODs in the same manner as military forces.



Effective force projection largely depends on the speed with which forces assemble at the required location. The essential process that transitions deploying forces into forces capable of meeting the combatant commander's operational requirements is reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (RSO&I). JP 4-01.8 and FM 4-01.8 (100-17-3) contain detailed discussions of the RSO&I process. All contractors (especially external support, system, and, to a limited extent, theater support) must be included in the RSO&I process to perform in harmony with other support capabilities. Contractor employees and equipment must be received and integrated into the operational support structure, whether they originated in CONUS, a third country, or the host nation. Contractor reception processing establishes in-theater accountability of contractor employees. A formal reception and integration process is essential for both system- and external support contractors deploying into the theater. For contractors who reside within the AO or travel only a short distance, reception and integration is less formal. Reception of contractors begins upon arrival in the AO at the APOD/SPOD. When arriving by government transportation, personnel and equipment are processed in the same fashion as military forces. For those arriving on carriers provided by the contractor or for contractor employees that are already in the AO, reception processing is similar but requires the contractor to be integrated into the processing flow. Regardless of the situation, the requirement for reception processing must be addressed in the governing contract.


Reception is the process of unloading personnel, equipment, and materiel from strategic or operational transport and marshalling the deploying units or activities for movement out of the reception area. During major deployments, the majority of personnel arrive via strategic airlift and most equipment and materiel arrive by strategic sealift.


Reception operations include all of those functions necessary to receive and clear personnel, equipment, and materiel through the APOD/SPOD. Upon arrival, external support and system contractors flow through the same processing steps as their military counterparts. Personnel and cargo are off-loaded at terminals, processing through the reception center to determine how and where they are to be moved. During reception, accountability is continued for contractors originating from established military POEs or established for those contractors entering the military system for the first time. Once initial processing is completed, contractor employees and equipment are integrated into the military movement control system for movement to their designated destinations.


System contractors often have a habitual relationship with the unit they support. These contractor employees deploy with and go through the RSO&I process with their supported military unit. Area support-system contractors deploy with a support unit as designated by the ASCC or subordinate commander. External support contractors without a habitual relationship undergo the same RSO&I process as military forces.


Although theater support contractors do not have to deploy to the AO, they still must undergo a reception and integration process and may require tailored, theater-specific training and/or other RSO&I-related actions. They must be integrated with the unit or activity they will work for and may require issued locally procured ID cards if they require access to military-controlled areas/facilities. Theater support contractor reception and integration processing, as directed by their contract, is provided at an AO reception center by the activity contracting for the support or from the unit/activity receiving the support. However this processing is accomplished, these contractors must be processed and integrated into the support structure.


Once reception is completed, military forces proceed to the next phase of RSO&I-staging and onward movement. Staging includes the assembly, temporary holding, and organizing of arriving personnel, equipment, and materiel into units and forces and preparing them for onward movement and employment. Contractors usually do not proceed to the staging phase, but will be directly integrated into the support structure, which may include limited onward movement to their final destination. Contractors may proceed to the staging phase when they accompany a deploying military unit, or they are awaiting additional employees or cargo before they can proceed to their destination. In this case, contractors follow the same procedures as those for military forces. If staging and/or onward movement of a contractor is required, military planners must recognize the requirement so that the support structure is prepared to handle the additional workload. Additionally, governing contracts will contain appropriate language directing the contractor to adhere to the staging requirement.



Upon completion of an operation, contractors redeploy out of the AO as quickly as METT-TC will allow. The timing of the departure of contractor support operations is as critical as that for military forces. Orderly withdrawal or termination of contractor operations ensures that essential contractor support remains until no longer needed and that movement of contractor equipment and employees does not inadvertently hinder the overall redeployment process. FM 3-35.5 (100-17-5) describes in detail redeployment and the procedures involved in redeploying military forces. To an extent, the same procedures apply to redeploying contractors. However, planners must determine the specific steps desired and be aware of the cost associated with doing so. Because contractors are being paid to perform the support required, it should be terminated when no longer needed. Therefore, the cost effectiveness of requiring a contractor to redeploy through the same stepped sequence as military forces must be assessed before arbitrarily requiring a contractor to do so.




As the operational situation dictates, contractors may redeploy prior to the completion of the operation. Quality and responsiveness of support, force protection, cost, or transfer to civilian control are some of the reasons that may create this situation. When contractors redeploy and the support they are providing is still required, there must be an orderly transfer or transition of that support. Support may be transferred to a military unit, another contractor, or the host-nation infrastructure. Regardless, the transitioning of support must be considered and planned for, so that the redeployment of a contractor does not result in the loss of support.



Redeployment POEs perform essentially the same functions as those involved in deployment. The procedures are similar, whether contractors are redeploying to their point of origin (home station) or to another AO. Redeploying contractors will normally do so in the same manner in which they deployed (either under government control or self-deploy).


Prior to arriving at the aerial ports of embarkation/seaports of embarkation, contractors have accomplished the same preparations as the military forces. Depending on the destination, specific wash-down and customs requirements for vehicles and equipment are met; vehicles and equipment are prepared for shipment; and any GFE issued while in theater is returned. Additionally, transportation arrangements are made for the contractor's employees and equipment. If redeploying to another AO, contractors may be provided with equipment and supplies and any additional training required to conduct follow-on support. Once all preparations are completed, contractor employees and equipment proceed to the designated port (air or sea) for final processing and departure. Similar to deployment, contractor accountability measures continue, enabling the military to maintain accountability of and manage contractors as they proceed through the redeployment process.



Contractor employees who deployed through the CRC or IDS should be required to return through the same processing center for final outprocessing. The CRC/IDS is responsible for assisting the return of individual contractor employees and ensuring employee protection, privacy, and transition from the deployment area to home. Contractor employees that deployed with their habitually supported unit normally redeploys with that unit. At the return processing center, contractor employees are required to return any issued clothing and equipment. They receive a post-deployment medical screening and briefings on signs and symptoms of diseases to watch for, such as tuberculosis. Lost, damaged, or destroyed clothing and equipment are subject to a report of survey IAW AR 735-5 and may result in reimbursement from the individual's employer. Normally, the amount of time spent at the return processing center will be the minimum required to complete the necessary administrative procedures. Transportation for contractor employees from the return processing center to their home destination is normally the employer's responsibility. The provisions of the governing contract determines government reimbursement to the contractor for the travel.

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