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Chapter 2

FIRE SUPPORT RESPONSIBILITIES

"Our goal must be to enable combined arms commanders to fight fire support systems with the same skill and vigor with which they employ direct fire systems."

 

MG Fred F. Marty, Chief
of Field Artillery, June 1992

2-1. You have a FSCOORD at each echelon of command from company through brigade. At company and battalion levels, he is the fire support officer (FSO). At brigade level, the direct support (DS) battalion commander is the FSCOORD; his full-time assistant is the brigade FSO. The FSCOORD's and FSO's first obligation is to enable combined arms commanders to synchronize fires with maneuver. They accomplish this by understanding your intent, translating your guidance into EFSTs, advising you and your staff on the proper employment of fire support means and actively managing the execution of the fire support plan. Each time you sit down with your S3 to discuss current or future plans, concepts or courses of action, your FSCOORD or FSO should be there. While the FSCOORD and FSO are the primary fire support coordinators, virtually everyone on a brigade or battalion staff has a role in the synchronization challenge, as described in the remainder of this chapter.

MANEUVER COMMANDER

2-2. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Synchronize fire support with the scheme of maneuver.

  • Ensure the FSCOORD and FSO understand your fire support guidance. Use doctrinal terms per FM 101-5-1, Operational Terms and Graphics, and FM 3-100.40 or more descriptive language, but state the TASK(s) and PURPOSE(s) in no uncertain terms. Focus on the what, where, when (and for how long) and why - your FSCOORD/FSO will recommend the how.

  • Ensure your staff integrates reconnaissance and surveillance (R&S), maneuver, fires (including offensive IO and other non-lethal means if applicable), Army airspace command and control (A2C2), and obstacles. Have someone responsible for overlaying the overlays - whether analog or electronic.

  • Approve the fires paragraph, high-payoff target list (HPTL), attack guidance matrix (AGM), target selection standards (TSS), or a TSM that combines the preceding three, the EFST, and their logical execution sequence.

  • Approve FSCMs.

  • Clear fires in zone. Normally this is managed at the TOC with the FSO or FS Plans Officer leading the TOC and subordinate units through a clearance of fire battle drill. (More on clearance of fires in Chapter 4).

  • Train company and team commanders to know, understand and execute targets in their zone. Train the staff and brigade reconnaissance troop (BRT) commander on proper tactical employment of the Striker platoon.

MANEUVER EXECUTIVE OFFICER (XO)

2-3. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Integrate the targeting process into the MDMP and normal brigade/battalion battle rhythm.

  • Supervises the DECIDE function of targeting. (Target meetings are key to success. More on targeting meetings in Chapter 4)

MANEUVER S3

2-4. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • In the absence of the XO, integrate targeting into the MDMP and conduct targeting meetings.

  • Based on the FSO's recommendation, integrate all fire support assets into the concept of the operation.

  • Select, with the commander, combined arms engagement areas to kill the enemy.

  • Develop the synchronization matrix that includes fire support.

  • Develop a decision support template (DST) with input from the FSO.

  • Integrate fire support actions and the execution of EFSTs into the combined arms rehearsal.

  • Approve positioning of field artillery and other fire support assets.

  • With input from the staff, especially the S2 and FSO, decide the HPTs that will be presented to the commander for approval.

MANEUVER S2

2-5. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Participate in the targeting process. Develop high-value targets (HVTs). Recommend HPTs. Provide input to the FSO on TSS. Supervises execution of the DETECT and ASSESS functions of targeting.

  • Develop an R&S plan with input from the S3, FSO, Engineer and Air Defence Artillery liaison officer (ADA LNO) that synchronizes targeting requirements with collection assets.

  • In conjunction with the staff, especially the FSO and targeting officer, develop targets.

TTP TIP

Give all battle staff officers/NCOs the responsibility of assisting the S2 with intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB). At a minimum, each can contribute in refining situation templates for high-value targets within their battlefield operating system (BOS). The S2 will benefit from collective staff knowledge on the enemy; the staff will benefit from greater insights on the effects of IPB on their friendly BOS systems.

  • Brief analysis and control element (ACE) sections on HPTL, TSS and AGM.

  • Disseminate HPT related information and intelligence to FS immediately.

BRIGADE/BATTALION ENGINEER

2-6. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Determine if the maneuver commander plans to provide survivability positions for FA assets and what the priority is for those positions.

  • Plan for scatterable mines (SCATMINE) - including those FA-delivered. Coordinate with the S3, S2 and FSO for emplacement. Track the amount of available FA SCATMINE

  • Coordinate fire support coverage of designated mine fields and other obstacles. Ensure that the indirect fire plan is synchronized with the obstacle plan.

  • Determine SCATMINE safety box and disseminate the scatterable mine report.

  • Ensure FA SCATMINE is deconflicted in terms of FA mission priorities and emplacement time requirements. Report emplacement of FA-delivered SCATMINE.

  • In conjunction with the S2 and FSO continuously adjust target locations as planned locations become emplaced obstacles.

BRIGADE/BATTALION CHEMICAL OFFICER

2-7. Major responsibility for fire support is:

  • Recommend where chemical smoke can be used to augment or be used in lieu of artillery smoke

AIR LIAISON OFFICER (ALO)/TACP

2-9. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Supervise the TACP.

  • Coordinate and monitor requests for close air support (CAS) and air interdiction. Ensure requests are timely to be included in air tasking order (ATO) cycle requirements.

  • Keep the S3 and FSO informed of the current status of available air support.

  • TACPs assist in the integration and synchronization of air support, coordination of preplanned and immediate air requests, and in the coordination of A2C2 issues.

  • Battalion TACPs are responsible for terminal attack control.

FSCOORD/DS BATTALION COMMANDER

2-10. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Plans and coordinates fire support for the maneuver brigade. Is the principal advisor on fire support matters to the brigade commander. Collocate with the brigade commander as necessary, but normally during mission execution.

  • Commands the unit providing primary fire support to the force.

  • Participates as feasible with the brigade orders group and during targeting meetings. Assists in the synchronization of fires and maneuver.

  • Provides accurate, timely and effective FA fires.

  • Approves the DS battalion field artillery support plan (FASP). Ensures the plan provides executing instructions for assigned EFATs. As the DS battalion commander, provides an intent statement (1st subparagraph of paragraph 3 of the FASP) for his field artillery staff, subordinate commander's and soldiers.

BRIGADE FSO

2-11. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Assists in the planning and coordination of fire support for the maneuver brigade. In the FSCOORD's absence is the principal advisor on fire support matters (assets, capabilities, limitations, and missions) to the brigade commander and his staff.

  • Assists in the synchronization of fires and maneuver.

  • Coordinates the DELIVER function of targeting. Directs the attack of targets by fires in accordance with (IAW) the priorities and effects established by the maneuver commander.

  • Keeps the maneuver commander, FSCOORD and staff informed of the current status, location, and activity of all fire support assets.

  • In conjunction with the targeting officer and DS battalion S2, keeps the maneuver S2 informed of enemy indirect fire capabilities and limitations.

  • Participate in the MDMP and targeting process, keeping the DS battalion S3 informed throughout. Develop for approval: the fire support plan with EFSTs and supporting products (HPTL, AGM, TSS, TSM, and FSEM). Disseminate approved plans and products to the DS artillery battalion, battalion FSOs, division FSE, and div arty.

  • Ensures battalion FSOs are aware of assigned EFSTs and are refining targets IAW top-down fire planning. Produces the brigade target list.

  • Acts upon and coordinates requests for fire support from battalion FSOs. Continually assess fire support asset availability and recommends priorities and allocation of fire support.

  • Resolves duplication on planned target lists.

  • Manages the clearance of fire battle drill within the TOC.

  • Recommends FSCMs.

  • Assists the S3 in terrain management for fire support assets.

  • Coordinates with the ALO and S3 Air for use of CAS and with the S3 Air for A2C2 actions.

  • Coordinates with the IEW, IO,civil affairs (CA), psychological operations (PSYOP) and other non-lethal representatives as appropriate for the non-lethal attack of targets and integration of IO into the concept of the operation.

  • Coordinates with the engineer representative to plan fires to support mobility and countermobility operations.

  • During the MDMP and targeting meetings, recommends with assistance from the S2 and S3, what targets to attack, when, where, and with what assets (lethal/non-lethal).

1-3. FM 3-100.40 (100-40), Tactics, is the basic doctrinal reference

  • Anticipates changes during mission execution and recommends and coordinates revisions to the fire support plan.

  • Coordinates with the div arty, maneuver S2, targeting officer, battalion FSOs and DS battalion S3 and S2, to plan for the employment of Firefinder radars and the establishment and managing of radar zones.

  • Coordinates with the ALO on enemy air defense capabilities and employment plans to suppress or destroy enemy air defense as necessary during CAS and Army aviation employment.

  • Participates in combined arms rehearsals and conduct fire support rehearsals.

  • Assists the maneuver S3 in planning combat observation/lasing team (COLT) and Striker employment to ensure they are integrated into the overall R&S plan.

BRIGADE FIRE SUPPORT PLANS OFFICER

2-12. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Assists the brigade FSO perform his duties and acts as the FSO in his absence.

  • See responsibilities of FSO above.

TARGETING OFFICER

2-13. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Coordinate with the maneuver S2 to facilitate the rapid attack of HPTs.

  • Pass important intelligence to the FSO and units providing fire support to the force.

  • Assist the brigade S2 with the R&S plan by providing input on radar zones and search sectors.

  • Manage changes to radar zones. Coordinate with all affected elements.

  • Assist in the development of targeting products.

  • Coordinates with the brigade S2 and FSO, to manage the detect, deliver, and assess functions on brigade HPTs.

DS BATTALION S3

2-14. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • IAW the brigade OPORD, div arty FASP and guidance received from the DS battalion commander, plans for the accomplishment of EFATs.

  • Coordinates positioning of FA assets with the brigade S3 through the FSO, to include positions for reinforcing FA elements.

  • Participates as feasible in the brigade MDMP and combined arms rehearsals.

TTP TIP

When possible, have the DS battalion S3 at the maneuver TOC through as much of the MDMP as he can afford. The field artillery piece of synchronization will be better managed and parallel planning will be enhanced - he just has to maintain constant communications with his TOC.

BATTALION FSO

2-15. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • The fire support coordinator for the maneuver battalion commander. His primary advisor on all matters pertaining to fire support.

  • Perform the same or similar duties for the battalion as the brigade FSO does for brigade.

  • Coordinate with the S2 and S3, to assist in the development of the battalion observation plan. Plans for and supervises the execution of assigned and developed EFSTs.

  • Participate in brigade and battalion combined-arms and fire support rehearsals.

  • Recommends to the maneuver battalion commander how to best employ and control fire support teams (FISTs). Options include centralized control of a pool of FISTs to execute brigade and battalion EFSTs; decentralized control down to company level to execute brigade, battalion and company EFSTs; or, a combination of the two.

  • Recommends to the S3 battalion mortar employment and usage considerations.

  • Ensure that the targets received on the brigade target list are refined as necessary and sent back to the brigade FSO.

COMPANY COMMANDER

2-16. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Ensures assigned targets are refined, observed, rehearsed and fired in according to the scheme of fires.

  • Positions fire support personnel where they can best execute EFSTs.

  • Ensures the company FSO participates in all combined arms and fire support rehearsals.

COMPANY FSO

2-17. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • The fire support coordinator for the maneuver company commander. His primary advisor on all matters pertaining to fire support.

  • Assists the company commander in planing for and supervising the execution of assigned and developed EFSTs.

  • Refines brigade and battalion targets assigned to the company.

  • Participates in combined arms (brigade through company) and fire support rehearsals.

COLT TEAM CHIEF and STRIKER PLATOON LEADER

2-18. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Execute brigade EFSTs.

  • Initiate fires on targets within TAI, EAs, or trigger points.

  • IAW with information received from brigade reconnaissance observation of NAIs, act as the brigade commander's killer of targets outside of battalion direct fire/scout range.

INTELLIGENCE AND ELECTRONIC WARFARE STAFF OFFICER

2-19. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Coordinate with FSCOORD

  • Advise the commander and staff on the electronic attack of HPTs.

  • Advise the commander and staff of possible IEW actions to help achieve non-lethal targeting guidance/desired effects during the MDMP and targeting meetings.

  • Conduct frequency deconfliction.

  • Advise the commander on IEW as it pertains to information operations.

STAFF JUDGE ADVOCATE

2-20. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Advise the commander and staff on the legal ramifications of the attack of each HPT.

  • Provide rules of engagement (ROE) advice and expertise during planning and execution.

PSYOP REPRESENTATIVE

2-21. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Keep the commander and staff informed of psychological operations or events that could impact the unit.

  • Advise the commander and staff on possible psychological operations including PSYACTS to help achieve non-lethal targeting guidance/desired effects during the MDMP and targeting meetings.

CIVIL AFFAIRS REPRESENTATIVE

2-22. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Keep the commander and staff informed of civilian activities that could impact the unit.

  • Advise the commander and staff on possible civil affair operations to help achieve (targeting) guidance during the MDMP and targeting meetings.

INFORMATION OPERATIONS (IO) COORDINATOR

2-23. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Keep the commander and staff informed of all IO that could impact the unit.

  • Advise the commander and staff on possible IO actions to help achieve non-lethal targeting guidance during the MDMP and targeting meetings.

MILITARY INTELLIGENCE (MI) COMPANY COMMANDER

2-24. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Keeps staff informed on status of organic and attached collection and electronic attack assets.

  • Ensure assigned detect, deliver (if applicable), and assess tasks are planned and prepared for and executed IAW the concept of the operation, R&S plan, and target synchronization matrix (if applicable).

  • Coordinate the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) and other collection assets to assist in target acquisition and battle damage assessment (BDA).

  • Participate in the MDMP process.

AVIATION LNO

2-25. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Advise the commander and staff on the use of attached/operational control (OPCON) aviation assets.

  • Assist in A2C2 management.

  • Exchange targeting information with parent headquarters during the MDMP and immediately following targeting meetings.

  • Participate in the MDMP process.

AIR DEFENSE ARTILLERY LNO

2-26. Major responsibilities for fire support include:

  • Assist in A2C2 management.

  • Provide SME advice on enemy ADA capabilities during SEAD operations.

  • Coordinate with the S3 Air, ALO and ALO/TACP on airspace control measures.



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