Field Artillery Force Projection Operations
This appendix provides an overview of processes, techniques, and procedures for AC and RC artillery formations in response to a regional crisis or natural disaster. The projection of US forces may be from CONUS, outside the continental United States (OCONUS), or both in support of quick reaction contingency operations or involve a deliberate, slow buildup and deployment. Demands placed on FA RCs are particularly critical since almost 70 percent of the total Army's FA units are in the National Guard. This will require National Guard FA units to mobilize and deploy early. Such force projections normally occur in several stages: mobilization and predeployment activities; movement to ports of embarkation; strategic movement into the theater of operations; and RSOI within the designated area of operations. The FM 100-17 series of manuals provide detailed guidance on all phases of deployment and redeployment.
H-1. Mobilization is the act of preparing AC/RC units for war and other emergencies ranging from a limited presidential call-up to total mobilization. In turn, force projection is a response to a military need or crisis by moving forces to an AO. The introduction of credible and lethal FA capabilities is a critical strategic and operational consideration for rapidly building combat power and enhancing force survivability. This is especially true in case of forced entry operations or other commitments that involve the potential for combat.
H-2. Since the preponderance of the Army's FA is found in the National Guard, the RC corps arty, FA brigades, battalions, and individuals should expect to be called up early to augment the AC force structure in response to warfighting requirements established by regional commanders-in-chief (CINCs) and doctrine (e.g., two FA brigades per deploying division). To respond effectively to shifting threats and contingency environments and fight as an integral part of joint and combined forces, FA formations must, therefore, be mission adaptive. Both AC and RC corps artys, div artys, and FA brigades must be able to reconfigure rapidly.
H-3. Predeployment activities are events normally accomplished by units and installations prior to and upon receipt of a force projection mission. The objective is to prepare, marshal, and outload equipment, weapons, and personnel for movement to ports of embarkation (POEs). Specific requirements depend on whether deploying units are drawn from the active or reserve force. In either case, AC predeployment and RC mobilization activities generally occur simultaneously. Both begin with an alert process to set into motion actions necessary for the deployment and subsequent employment of forces. Activities by AC FA elements include all actions to prepare personnel and equipment for movement to POEs (specific tasks at cannon battalion level are listed in FM 6-20-1 and FM 100-17-4, Deployment [to be published]). Actions for RC FA units are more complex because mobilized units must first be integrated into the active force structure. In addition, they must complete individual and unit combat readiness certification prior to movement to POE.
ACTIVE COMPONENT DEPLOYMENT ACTIVITIES
H-4. AC FA elements may have to respond immediately or on short notice to deployment requirements. The initial alert is provided to corps artys and div artys by their parent organizations. When alerted, corps artys and div artys initiate predeployment crisis action or deliberate planning depending upon whether an OPLAN has already been published. They either review and update existing OPLANs or develop an operation order IAW higher HQ and their commander's planning guidance.
H-5. Installations that deploy forces must identify nondeploying units and/or individual manpower and units to assist in predeployment activities and movement to POE. FM 100-22, Installation Management, provides detailed guidance on installation responsibilities for mobilization and deployment. Since predeployment activities require a wide range of planning and execution steps, it is imperative that FA units and subordinate elements know the organization(s) that support them during each step of force projection operations and establish requisite peacetime coordination and SOPs. Non-deploying AC FA units may be required to assist RC FA units in mobilization station predeployment, and POE activities to attain combat ready status prior to deployment.
RESERVE COMPONENT MOBILIZATION
H-6. The mobilization of RC forces within CONUS is the responsibility of numerous commands and agencies: state area commands (STARCs); Army commands (ARCOMs)/general officer commands (GOCOMs); installation garrisons, continental United States Army (CONUSA); United States Army Reserve Command (USARC); and US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) HQ. RC mobilization consists of five distinct phases and associated activities. Some of these are parallel to AC predeployment activities. Specifics are found in FM 100-17 and FORSCOM Regulation 500-3, Series 1 through 10.
H-7. Transfer of authority over mobilized FA units from STARCs or ARCOM/GOCOM to the mobilization station commander occurs at time of arrival. Transfer of command of RC FA brigades and/or battalions to AC corps or divisions may occur before the corps or divisions depart garrison location(s). Actions during this phase include processing of personnel and equipment and the actual transition of the unit into the active force structure. The goal is to attain an operationally ready status in the shortest possible time consistent with deployment plans or missions. This may require individual or collective training, additional cross-leveling, and soldier readiness processing (SRP) for deployment. Units deploying personnel by air and shipping weapons and equipment by sea should anticipate special training requirements. This may be especially critical when FA weapon systems and associated equipment are shipped to POEs directly from home station. In such cases, special support will be required to conduct predeployment training and meet certification requirements at mobilization stations. This is a special challenge if similar, on-post AC FA units have already deployed with their weapons and equipment.
MOVEMENT TO PORTS OF EMBARKATION
H-8. Movement to POEs begins when units stage for movement after completion of SRP requirements and certification. It includes loading equipment and personnel on organic or commercial transportation. Units update equipment lists and submit them to appropriate authorities. Based on data provided, United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) provides movement instructions to corps and divisions. These HQ then supervise the decentralized execution of movement instructions by subordinate units enroute from marshaling areas to designated POEs. In the process, FA CPs maintain communications with deploying units as long as feasible, modify deployments as required, and continue to update the FA-focused IPB/LPB and intelligence estimate enroute to the new AO.
H-9. The intertheater deployment begins with a unit's departure from the POE and ends with arrival of units at an aerial port of debarkation/seaport of debarkation (APOD/SPOD) within the theater of operations. On such occasions, as forced entry operations, some units may be introduced well forward in airland or airdrop operations. This allows a commander to receive troops, equipment, and supplies as close as practical to where they are actually needed. Normally, supported CINCs assume command over corps, divisions, and subordinate elements when they depart the POE.
H-10. FA units will normally deploy carrying their basic loads of ammunition and other CSS supplies on organic transportation assets with additional sustainment support phased in with corps force projection packages. Accompanying supplies should be sufficient to meet expenditure requirements during the initial lodgment and expansion phases. Higher HQ must ensure that these basic loads are sufficient to sustain the force until normal supply operations can be initiated.
H-11. Deploying units should be able to receive updated intelligence while in transit. As necessary, unit staffs can then modify plans enroute and adjust to changing conditions.
H-12. Host nation and/or forward presence forces will generally support unopposed entry operations. This is the preferred option because it is low-risk and maximizes lift capabilities. During unopposed entry, CS and CSS forces may either precede or arrive concurrently with combat forces to conduct force reception and onward movement operations as planned by the theater commander. Unopposed entry allows forces to peacefully deploy with the assistance of the host nation.
H-13. Forced entry requires combat operations to establish an arrival site for deploying forces in theater. Forced entry forces must be lethal and survivable, tailored to carry out initial combat operations to secure an airhead, beachhead, or lodgment area. Follow-on forces expand lodgments and build up combat power to conduct extended combat operations. Early entry forces are predominately combat units to include FA formations.
H-14. Other than for raids, the corps is the Army's preferred organization for conducting such joint operations. Since the corps will initially have limited combat power ashore, it may have to rely on support from the other services (e.g., CAS and naval gunfire) while generating enough organic combat power to include FA to protect the force and pursue mission accomplishment. Army corps and divisions may also have to depend to a greater extent on joint, national, and/or host nation ADA and intelligence assets until organic assets are deployed into theater.
H-15. Early defeat, destruction, or control of enemy forces posing an immediate threat to the lodgment area is a key consideration. The objective of corps or division early entry operations must be the establishment of suitable ports of debarkation (POD) to support mission accomplishment. FA units may participate in opposed or unopposed entry operations or a combination of the two.
H-16. RSOI is a critical link between deployment and combat operations. The CINC or JFC develops theater reception, staging, and onward movement plans for arriving forces except in the case of forced entry. The reception, staging, and onward movement of arriving units should be focused on expediting their integration into the theater force structure and readying them for combat while making effective and efficient use of CSS assets assigned to the RSOI mission.
H-17. The ASCC is normally the HQ assigned the RSOI mission for arriving Army forces. Unity of command is critical to successful RSOI operations. Arriving FA formations should be processed as units to maximize unit integrity, expedite operations, and decrease time required to move into tactical assembly areas (TAAs). Except for forced entry operations, critical CSS elements will either precede or arrive concurrently with corps arty, div arty, and FA brigades. They will assist in processing units through the POD and establish marshaling areas. Also, depending on the situation, deploying FA units may initially be supported by a CONUS projected logistic task force, by another service component, host nation support organizations, Department of the Army civilians, and/or in-country contract personnel.
H-18. This phase begins with the arrival of ships and aircraft at designated APODs/SPODs in the theater of operations. It ends when units depart port areas. Reception activities include unloading and moving personnel and material into staging areas; drawing prepositioned equipment; providing life support; establishing personnel and equipment accountability; and preparing for staging.
H-19. In this phase, corps and/or divisions and subordinate units, supported where possible by host nation or forward-presence forces, protect friendly forces even in apparently benign entry operations. FA formations organized for combat based on latest available information, build combat capabilities, conduct training, and acclimate soldiers to the environment.
H-20. Onward movement begins with the linkup of arriving personnel and equipment in marshaling areas and continues with moving units and material to TAAs and sustainment stocks to forward distribution sites. This phase ends when units arrive in TAAs within corps or division AOs and with the transfer of ASCC control over follow-on forces to in-place corps and divisions.
H-21. The integration of arriving units is focused on a seamless transition between phases and the expeditious transfer of C2 over arriving units to designated tactical commanders.
H-22. Postconflict operations are the transition from hostilities to restoration of peacetime activities. They involve reconstitution and redeployment planning. While remaining alert for a potential resumption of hostilities, FA elements may also be called to support humanitarian assistance, population and prisoner of war control, and refugee operations.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|