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These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication. They are listed by page number. Boldface indicates the titles of historical vignettes.

Chapter 1-Urban Outlook

1

"The ambiguous nature of the operational environment . . . .": FM 1, The Army, 14 June 2001: 12.

2

Rome: A Microcosm of Urban Warfare: R. Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy, The Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1977).

Chapter 2-Urban Environment

3

"From a planning perspective, commanders view cities . . . .": FM 3-0, Operations, 14 June 2001: 6-19.

4

"Me and Somalia against the world, . . . .": cited in Andrew S. Natsios, "Food Through Force: Humanitarian Intervention and U.S. Policy," The Washington Quarterly (winter 1994): 136.

5

"Whoever coined the phrase 'The Theatre of Operations' . . . ": General Sir Rupert Smith, "Wars in Our Time-A Survey of Recent and Continuing Conflicts," World Defence Systems (July 2001): 121.

6

Seeing the Urban Area and Its Parts: Russell W. Glenn, "Urban Combat is Complex." Proceedings (February 2002): 65.

 

Chapter 3-Urban Threat

7

". . . [T]he United States could be forced to intervene . . . .": Quadrennial Defense Review Report, 30 September 2001: 6.

8

Tempo: 26th Infantry Regimental Association, Aachen. Military Operations in Urban Terrain (Lititz, PA: 26th Infantry Regimental Association, 1999); Irving Werstein, The Battle of Aachen (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1962); Charles Whiting, Bloody Aachen (New York: Stein and Day, 1976).

9

"Chechen fighters sometimes disguised . . . .": Olga Oliker, Russia's Chechen Wars 1994-2000: Lessons From Urban Combat (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001): 21.

10

Identifying Soldiers from Civilians: Olga Oliker, Russia's Chechen Wars 1994-2000: Lessons From Urban Combat (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001).

11

Information and the Media: Eric Hammel, Fire in the Streets: The Battle for Hue, Tet 1968 (New York: Dell Publishing, 1991).

12

Cultural and Religious Instability: Sid Heal, "Crowds, Mobs and Nonlethal Weapons," Military Review (March/April 2000): 45-50.

13

Food and Water Shortages: Leif R. Rosenberger, "The Strategic Importance of the World Food Supply," Parameters (spring 1997): 84-105.

14

Urban Insurgencies: Sid Heal, "Crowds, Mobs and Nonlethal Weapons," Military Review (March/April 2000): 45-50; Lawrence A. Yates, "Military Stability and Support Operations: Analogies, Patterns and Recurring Themes," Military Review (July/August 1997): 51-61.

15

Crime and Criminal Organizations: Eugene Linden, "The Exploding Cities of the Developing World," Foreign Affairs (January/February 1996): 52-65; Andrew S. Natsios, "Commander's Guidance: A Challenge of Complex Humanitarian Emergencies," Parameters (summer 1996): 50-66.

Chapter 4-Contemplating Urban Operations

16

"We based all our further calculations . . . .": S. M. Shtemenko, The Soviet General Staff at War, 1941-1945: Book One (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1981): 317-318.

17

"Four hostile newspapers . . . .": Napoleon Bonaparte, Justin Wintle (ed.), The Dictionary of War Quotations (New York: The Free Press, 1989): 73.

Chapter 5-Foundations for Urban Operations

18

"Utilities such as electricity . . . .": Richard Connaughton, John Pimlott, and Duncan Anderson, The Battle for Manila: The Most Devastating Untold Story of World War II (Novata, CA: Presidio Press, 1995): 103.

19

Applying the Urban Operational Framework: Panama - December 1989: Ronald H. Cole, Operation Just Cause (Washington DC: Joint History Office, 1995); Thomas Donnelly, Margaret Roth, and Caleb Baker, Operation Just Cause: The Storming of Panama (New York: Lexington Books, 1991); John T. Fishel, The Fog of Peace: Planning and Executing the Restoration of Panama (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 1992); Malcolm McConnell, Just Cause: The Real Story of America's High-Tech Invasion of Panama (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991); John Embry Parkerson, Jr., "United States Compliance with Humanitarian Law Respecting Civilians During Operation Just Cause," Military Law Review (1991): 31-140; Jennifer Morrison Taw, Operation Just Cause: Lessons for Operations Other Than War (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1996).

20

"Fighting in a city is much . . . .": Vasili I. Chuikov, The Battle for Stalingrad (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1964): as cited by JP 3-06, Doctrine for Urban Operations, 16 September 2002: 1-8.

21

"I heard small-arms fire and . . . .": Mark A. B. Hollis, "Platoon Under Fire," Infantry (January-April 1998): 29-30.

22

Example of Simple Communications Innovation: Israel's Six-Day War - 1967: Trevor N. Dupuy and Paul Martell, Flawed Victory: The Arab-Israeli Conflict and the 1982 War in Lebanon (Fairfax, VA: Hero Books, 1986); Richard A. Gabriel, Operation Peace for Galilee: The Israeli-PLO War in Lebanon (New York: Hill and Wang, 1984).

Chapter 6-Urban Offensive Operations

23

" . . . Capture Suez City . . . .": Abraham Adan, On the Banks of the Suez (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1980): 409.

24

The Operational Context of Urban Operations: Brittany Ports - August to September 1944: Kent H. Butts, "The Strategic Importance of Water," Parameters (spring 1997): 65-83; Paul Carell, Stalingrad: The Defeat of the German 6th Army (Atglen, PA: Schieffer Publishing, 1993); R. Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy, The Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1977); Ralph Peters, "Our Soldiers, Their Cities," Parameters (spring 1996): 43-50; John J. Peterson, Into the Cauldron (Clinton, MD: Clavier House, 1973).

25

Forms of Attack in the Urban Offense: Metz - 1944: Anthony Kemp, The Unknown Battle: Metz, 1944 (New York: Stein and Day, 1981); John Colby, War From the Ground Up: The 90th Division in WWII (Austin, TX: Nortex Press, 1991).

26

Isolating the Urban Area: Hue, Vietnam - January to February 1968: James R. Arnold, Tet Offensive 1968: Turning Point in Vietnam (London: Osprey, 1990); Eric Hammel, Fire in the Streets: The Battle for Hue, Tet 1968 (New York: Dell Publishing, 1991).

27

"Often what seems to be . . . .": Russell W. Glenn, An Attack on Duffer's Downtown (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001): 28.

28

Creative Task Organization: Using Artillery in the Direct Fire Role: 26th Infantry Regimental Association, Aachen. Military Operations in Urban Terrai (Lititz, PA: 26th Infantry Regimental Association, 1999); Ronald H. Cole, Operation Just Cause (Washington DC: Joint History Office, 1995); Thomas Donnelly, Margaret Roth, and Caleb Baker, Operation Just Cause: The Storming of Panama (New York: Lexington Books, 1991); David Eshel, Mid-East Wars: The Lebanon War 1982 (Hod Hasharon, Israel: Eshel-Dramit, 1983); Richard A. Gabriel, Operation Peace for Galilee: The Israeli-PLO War in Lebanon (New York: Hill and Wang, 1984); Malcolm McConnell, Just Cause: The Real Story of America's High-Tech Invasion of Panama (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991); Irving Werstein, The Battle of Aachen (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1962); Charles Whiting, Bloody Aachen (New York: Stein and Day, 1976); Bruce Allen Watson, Sieges: A Comparative Study (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993).

29

Bold Operational Maneuver to Seize an Urban Area: Inchon and Seoul, Korea - September 1950: Robert Debs Heinl, Jr., Victory at High Tide: The Inchon-Seoul Campaign (Annapolis, MD: Nautical & Aviation Publishing Company of America, 1979); Douglas MacArthur, Reminiscences (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964); Shelby L. Stanton, Ten Corps in Korea, 1950 (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1989).

Chapter 7-Urban Defensive Operations

30

Generally, a modern city magnifies . . . .": Christopher R. Gabel, "Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain: The 2d Battalion, 26th Infantry, at Aachen, October 1944," Center for Army Lessons Learned: Urban Combat Operations (Newsletter No. 99-16). Available: http://call.army.mil/products/newsltrs/99-16/chap1.htm.

31

Urban Defense in a Major Operation: Stalingrad - August 1942 to January 1943: Anthony Beevor, Stalingrad (New York: Penguin Books, 1998); Vasili I. Chuikov, The Battle for Stalingrad (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1964); William Craig, Enemy at the Gates: The Battle for Stalingrad (New York: Reader's Digest Press, 1973).

32

"What is the position . . . .": Michael Dewar, War in the Streets: The Story of Urban Combat from Calais to Khafji (New York: Sterling Publishers, 1992): 8.

33

Defensive Combat Power: Suez - October 1973: Abraham Adan, On the Banks of the Suez (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1980).

Chapter 8-Urban Stability Operations And Support Operations

34

"The Rangers were bound . . . .": Mark Bowden, Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999): 18.

35

"In wars of intervention . . . .": Antoine-Henri Jomini, "The Art of War," in Roots of Strategy: Book 2 (Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1987): 441.

36

Assessment of Security and Force Protection: Belfast, Northern Ireland: Michael Dewar, British Army in Northern Ireland (New York: Sterling Publishers, 1985); Desmond Hamill, Pig in the Middle: The Army in Northern Ireland, 1969-1984 (London: Methuen, 1985).

37

"If there is any lesson . . . .": Frederick Funston, "How the Army Worked to Save San Francisco," Cosmopolitan Magazine (July 1906). Available http://www.sfmuseum.org/1906/cosmo.html

38

Support of and Coordination with Civilian Authorities: The 1992 Los Angeles Riots: James D. Delk, Fires & Furies: The LA Riots (Palm Springs, CA: Etc. Publications, 1995); William W. Mendel, Combat in Cities: The LA Riots and Operation Rio (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Foreign Military Studies Office, 1996).

Chapter 9-Urban Combat Service Support

39

"Even supply is different . . . ." Ralph Peters, "Our Soldiers, Their Cities," Parameters (spring 1996): 48.

40

Base Security: Tan Son Nhut, Vietnam - Tet 1968: James R. Arnold, Tet Offensive 1968: Turning Point in Vietnam (London: Osprey, 1990); Keith William Nolan, The Battle for Saigon: Tet 1968 (New York: Pocket Books, 1996).

41

"CSS planning accounts for . . . .": FM 3-0, Operations, 14 June 2001: 6-19.

42

"Greater friendly force density would appear . . . .": Russell W. Glenn, Steven Hartman, and Scott Gerwehr, On the Shoulders of Atlas: Urban Comabt Service Support Operations (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, pending publication in 2003): 3.

43

Combat Stress: Chechnya - 1994 to 1996: Timothy L. Thomas and Charles P. O'Hara, "Combat Stress in Chechnya: 'The Equal Opportunity Disorder'," Army Medical Department Journal (January-March 2000): 46-53.

44

"Urban operations will continue . . . ": FM 1, The Army, 14 June 2001: 35.

Appendix A-Siege of Beirut: An Illustration of the Fundamentals of Urban Operations

45

Siege of Beirut: An Illustration of the Fundamentals of Urban Operations: Trevor N. Dupuy and Paul Martell, Flawed Victory: The Arab-Israeli Conflict and the 1982 War in Lebanon (Fairfax, VA: Hero Books, 1986); David Eshel, Mid-East Wars: The Lebanon War 1982 (Hod Hasharon, Israel: Eshel-Dramit, 1983); Richard A. Gabriel, Operation Peace for Galilee: The Israeli-PLO War in Lebanon (New York: Hill and Wang, 1984).

46

"The IDF had neither the strategy . . . .": Richard A. Gabriel, Operation Peace for Galilee: The Israeli-PLO War in Lebanon (New York: Hill and Wang, 1984): 128.

 

Appendix B-Urban Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield

47

"Maneuvers that are possible . . . .": Infantry in Battle, 2nd ed. (Richmond, VA: Garret & Massie, 1939; Reprint, Fort Leavenworth, KS: US Army Command and General Staff College, 1981): 69.

48

Analysis of an Urban Area's Underlying Terrain: Mitrovica, Kosovo: Joseph D. Celeski, "Joint Urban Operations: Special Forces in Urban Campaign Planning," Special Warfare (fall 2001): 2-13; Russell W. Glenn, "Urban Combat is Complex," Proceedings (February 2002): 62-65.

49

" . . . [T]he adversaries of freedom . . . .": John F. Kennedy, Message to Congress, 25 May 1961. Available http://www.cs.umb.edu/jfklibrary/j052561.htm

50

Shifting Civilian Interests and Intent: James D. Delk, Fires & Furies: The LA Riots (Palm Springs, CA: Etc. Publications, 1995).

 

Appendix C-Operations in Somalia: Applying the Urban Operational Framework to Support and Stability

51

Operations in Somalia: Applying the Urban Operational Framework to Support and Stability: Kenneth Allard, Somalia Operations: Lessons Learned (Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1995).

52

"It's impossible for an American mother . . . .": Major General Thomas M. Montgomery. Available http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ambush/interviews/montgomery.html

 

Appendix D-Joint and Multinational Urban Operations

53

"[Joint force commanders] synchronize the actions . . . ." JP 3-0, Doctrine for Joint Operations, 10 September 2001: II-4.

 

 



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