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When a field manual has been published under a new number, the bibliography shows the old number after the new number.

Documents Needed

These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication.


JP 1-02. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. Available at

JP 3-06. Doctrine for Joint Urban Operations. 16 September 2002.

FM 3-0 (100-5). Operations. 14 June 2001.

FM 3-06.11 (90-10-1). Combined Arms Operations in Urban Terrain. 28 February 2002.

FM 3-07 (100-20). Stability Operations and Support Operations. 20 February 2003.

FM 3-90. Tactics. 04 July 2001.

FM 34-130. Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield. 08 July 1994. FM 34-130 will be republished as FM 2-01.3.

FM 100-14. Risk Management. 23 April 1998. FM 100-14 will be republished as FM 5-19.

FM 101-5. Staff Organizations and Operations. 31 May 1997. FM 101-5 will be republished as FM 5-0 and retitled Army Planning and Orders Production.

FM 101-5-1. Operational Terms and Graphics. 30 September 1997. FM 101-5-1 will be republished as FM 1-02.



These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication.



Quadrennial Defense Review Report. 30 September 2001.


Joint publications

Most joint publications are available:


JP 3-0. Doctrine for Joint Operations. 10 September 2001.

JP 3-05. Doctrine for Joint Special Operations. 17 April 1998.

JP 3-08. Interagency Coordination During Joint Operations (2 Volumes). 9 October 1996.

JP 3-33. Joint Force Capabilities. 13 October 1999.

JP 4-0. Doctrine for Logistic Support of Joint Operations. 06 April 2000.

JP 5-00.2. Joint Task Force Planning Guidance and Procedures. 13 January 1999.

Joint Military Operations Historical Collection. 15 July 1997.


Army Publications

Most Army doctrinal publications are online:


FM 1 (100-1). The Army. 14 June 2001.

FM 3-05.20 (31-20). Special Forces Operations. 26 June 2001.

FM 3-05.30 (33-1). Psychological Operations. 19 June 2000.

FM 3-06.1 (1-130). Aviation Urban Operations: Multiservice Procedures for Aviation Urban Operations. 15 April 2001.

FM(M) 3-3. Chemical and Biological Contamination Avoidance. 16 November 1992. FM(M) 3-3 will be republished as FM(M) 3-11.3.

FM 3-14. Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Vulnerability Analysis. 12 November 1997. FM 3-14 will be republished as FM 3-11.14.

FM 3-19.4 (19-4). Military Police Leaders' Handbook. 04 March 2002.

FM 3-19.40 (19-40). Military Police Internment/Resettlement Operations. 01 August 2001.

FM 3-21. Chemical Accident Contamination Control. 23 February 1978. FM 3-21 will be republished as FM 3-11.21.

FM 3-31. Joint Force Land Component Commander Handbook (JFLCC). 13 December 2001.

FM 3-31.1 (90-31). AMCI: Army and Marine Corps Integration in Joint Operations. 21 November 2001.

FM 3-34.230 (5-105). Topographic Operations. 03 August 2000.

FM 3-55. Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance. TBP.

FM 3-61.1. Public Affairs Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures. 01 October 2000.

FM 3-97.6 (90-6). Mountain Operations. 28 November 2000.

FM 5-33. Terrain Analysis. 11 July 1990. FM 5-33 will be republished as FM 3-34.330.

FM 5-415. Fire-Fighting Operations. 09 February 1999. FM 5-415 will be republished as FM 3-34.480.

FM 6-0. Command and Control. TBP.

FM 6-22.5 (22-9). Combat Stress. 23 June 2000.

FM 7-15. The Army Universal Task List. TBP.

FM 8-51. Combat Stress Control in a Theater of Operations, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures. 30 January 1998. FM 8-51 will be republished as FM 4-02.51.

FM 19-15. Civil Disturbances. 25 November 1985. FM 19-15 will be republished as FM 3-19.15.

FM 22-51. Leaders' Manual for Combat Stress Control. 29 September 1994. FM 22-51 will be republished as FM 4-02.22.

FM 22-100. Army Leadership: Be, Know, Do. 31 August 1999. FM 22-100 will be republished as FM 6-22.

FM 27-10. The Law of Land Warfare. 18 July 1956. FM 27-10 will be republished as FM 1-04.10.

FM 27-100. Legal Support to Operations. 01 March 2000. FM 27-100 will be republished as FM 1-04.

FM 31-20-3. Foreign Internal Defense Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Special Forces. 20 September 1994. FM 31-20-3 will be republished as FM 3-05.202.

FM 31-50. Combat in Fortified and Built-Up Areas. March 1964.

FM 33-1-1. Psychological Operations Techniques and Procedures. 05 May 1994. FM 33-1-1 will be republished as FM 3-05.301.

FM 34-3. Intelligence Analysis. 15 March 1990. FM 34-3 will be republished as FM 2-33.4.

FM 34-7. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Support to Low Intensity Conflict Operations. 18 May 1993. FM 34-7 will be republished as FM 2-91.1 and retitled Intelligence and Electronic Warfare for Stability Operations and Support Operations.

FM 34-81. Weather Support for Army Tactical Operations. 31 August 1989. FM 34-81 will be republished as FM 2-33.2.

FM 34-81-1. Battlefield Weather Effects. 23 December 1992. FM 34-81-1 will be republished as FM 2-33.201.

FM 41-10. Civil Affairs Operations. 14 February 2000. FM 41-10 will be republished as FM 3-05.40.

FM 44-8. Combined Arms for Air Defense. 01 June 1999. FM 44-8 will be republished as FM 3-01.8.

FM 46-1. Public Affairs Operations. 30 May 1997. FM 46-1 will be republished as FM 3-61.

FM 90-8. Counterguerrilla Operations. 29 August 1986. FM 90-8 will be republished as FM 3-07.11.

FM 90-10. Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT) (How to Fight). 15 August 1979.

FM 90-40. NLW: Multiservice Procedures for the Tactical Employment of Nonlethal Weapons. 06 October 1998. FM 90-40 will be republished as FM 3-22.40.

FM 90-41. JTF Liaison Handbook: Multiservice Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Joint Task Force (JTF) Liaison Operations. 26 August 1998. FM 90-41 will be republished as FM 6-14.

FM 100-5. Operations. 1944.

FM 100-6. Information Operations. 27 August 1996. FM 100-6 will be republished as FM 3-13.

FM 100-8. The Army in Multinational Operations. 24 November 1997. FM 100-8 will be republished as FM 3-16.

FM 100-10. Combat Service Support. 03 October 1995. FM 100-10 will be republished as FM 4-0.

FM 100-25. Doctrine for Army Special Operations Forces. 01 August 1999. FM 100-25 will be republished as FM 3-05 and retitled Army Special Operations Forces Doctrine.

TC 90-1. Training for Urban Operations. 01 April 2002.

Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) U.S. Army Combined Arms Command (CAC). Operation Restore Hope Lessons Learned Report. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.




26th Infantry Regimental Association. Aachen: Military Operations in Urban Terrain. Lititz, PA: 26th Infantry Regimental Association, 1999.

Adan, Abraham. On the Banks of the Suez. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1980.

Akers, Frank H., Jr. and George B. Singleton. "Task Force Ranger: A Case Study Examining the Application of Advanced Technologies in Modern Urban Warfare." Oak Ridge, TN: National Security Program Office, November 2000.

Allard, Kenneth. Somalia Operations: Lessons Learned. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1995.

Bass, Bernard M. "Leading in the Army After Next." Military Review (March/April 1998): 46-58.

Beevor, Anthony. Stalingrad. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.

Bowden, Mark. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999.

Butts, Kent H. "The Strategic Importance of Water." Parameters (spring 1997): 65-83.

Celeski, Joseph D. "Joint Urban Operations: Special Forces in Urban Campaign Planning." Special Warfare (fall 2001): 2-13.

Chuikov, Vasili I. The Battle for Stalingrad. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1964.

Colby, John. War From the Ground Up: The 90th Division in WWII. Austin, TX: Nortex Press, 1991.

Cole, Ronald H. Operation Just Cause. Washington, DC: Joint History Office, 1995.

Connaughton, Richard, John Pimlott, and Duncan Anderson. The Battle for Manila: The Most Devastating Untold Story of World War II. Novata, CA: Presidio, 1995.

Delk, James D. Fires & Furies: The LA Riots. Palm Springs, CA: Etc. Publications, 1995.

Dewar, Michael. British Army in Northern Ireland. New York: Sterling Publishers, 1985.

Donnelly, Thomas, Margaret Roth, and Caleb Baker. Operation Just Cause: The Storming of Panama. New York: Lexington Books, 1991.

Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy. The Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1977.

Dupuy, Trevor N. and Paul Martell. Flawed Victory: The Arab-Israeli Conflict and the 1982 War in Lebanon. Fairfax, VA: Hero Books, 1986.

Edwards, Sean J. A. Freeing Mercury's Wings: Improving Tactical Communications in Cities. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001.

Fishel, John T. The Fog of Peace: Planning and Executing the Restoration of Panama. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 1992.

Funston, Frederick. "How the Army Worked to Save San Francisco." Cosmopolitan Magazine (July 1906). Available at

Gabriel, Richard A. Operation Peace for Galilee: The Israeli-PLO War in Lebanon. New York: Hill and Wang, 1984.

Glenn, Russell W. An Attack on Duffer's Downtown. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001.

---. Heavy Matter: Urban Operations' Density of Challenges. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2000.

---. "Urban Combat is Complex." Proceedings (February 2002): 62-65.

---. ".We Band of Brothers": The Call for Joint Urban Operations Doctrine. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1999.

Grau, Lester W. and Timothy Smith. A 'Crushing' Victory: Fuel-Air Explosives and Grozny 2000. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Foreign Military Studies Office, 2000.

Hamill, Desmond. Pig in the Middle: The Army in Northern Ireland, 1969-1984. London: Methuen, 1985.

Hammel, Eric. Fire in the Streets: The Battle for Hue, Tet 1968. New York: Dell Publishing, 1991.

Heinl, Robert Debs, Jr. Victory at High Tide: The Inchon-Seoul Campaign. Annapolis, MD: Nautical & Aviation Publishing Company of America, 1979.

Herzog, Cham. The War of Atonement, October, 1973. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975.

Higham, Robin. Bayonets in the Streets: The Use of Troops in Civil Disturbances. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1969.

Hoar, Joseph P. "A CINC's Perspective." JFQ Forum (autumn 1993): 56-63.

Infantry in Battle. 2nd ed. Garret & Massie: Richmond, VA, 1939. Reprint, Fort Leavenworth, KS: US Army Command and General Staff College, 1981.

Jomini, Antoine-Henri. "The Art of War" in Roots of Strategy: Book 2. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1987.

Kemp, Anthony. The Unknown Battle: Metz, 1944. New York: Stein and Day, 1981.

Kennedy, John F. Message to Congress, 25 May 1961. Available at

Mabry, Robert L. et al. "United States Army Rangers in Somalia: An Analysis of Combat Casualties on an Urban Battlefield." Journal of Special Operations Medicine (fall 2001): 24-40.

MacArthur, Douglas. Reminiscences. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.

Medby, Jamison Jo and Russell W. Glenn. Street Smart: Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield for Urban Operations. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2002.

Monmonier, Mark. How to Lie with Maps. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Montgomery, Thomas M. Interview. "Ambush in Mogasdishu." Frontline, WGBH Boston. 1998. Available at
ambush/ interviews/montgomery.html

Natsios, Andrew S. "Commander's Guidance: A Challenge of Complex Humanitarian Emergencies." Parameters (summer 1996): 50-66.

Natsios, Andrew S. "Food Through Force: Humanitarian Intervention and U.S. Policy." The Washington Quarterly (winter 1994): 136.

Nolan, Keith William. The Battle for Saigon: Tet 1968. New York: Pocket Books, 1996.

Oakley, Robert B. "An Envoy's Perspective." JFQ Forum (autumn 1993): 44-55.

Oliker, Olga. Russia's Chechen Wars 1994-2000: Lessons From Urban Combat. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001.

Peters, Ralph. "Our Soldiers, Their Cities." Parameters (spring 1996): 43-50.

Peterson, John J. Into the Cauldron. Clinton, MD: Clavier House, 1973.

Senge, Peter M. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Currency Doubleday, 1990.

Shelton, H. Hugh and Timothy D. Vane. "Winning the Information War in Haiti." Military Review (November/December 1995): 3-9.

Shtemenko, S. M. The Soviet General Staff at War, 1941-1945: Book One. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1981.

Smith, Rupert. "Wars in Our Time-A Survey of Recent and Continuing Conflicts." World Defence Systems (July 2001): 120-122.

Stanton, Shelby L. Ten Corps in Korea, 1950. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1989.

Thomas, Timothy L. "The Battle for Grozny: Deadly Classroom for Urban Combat." Parameters (summer 1999): 87-102.

Thomas, Timothy L. and Charles P. O'Hara. "Combat Stress in Chechnya: 'The Equal Opportunity Disorder'." Army Medical Department Journal (January-March 2000): 46-53.

United Nations Population Division. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1999 Revision. New York: United Nations, 1995.

US Agency for International Development, Bureau for Humanitarian Response, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance. Field Operations Guide for Disaster Assessment and Response. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1994.

Yates, Lawrence A. "Military Stability and Support Operations: Analogies, Patterns and Recurring Themes." Military Review (July/August 1997): 51-61.


Readings Recommended

These sources contain relevant supplemental information.


Alexander, John B. Future War: Non-Lethal Weapons in Twenty-First-Century Warfare. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.

Arnold, James R. Tet Offensive 1968: Turning Point in Vietnam. London: Osprey, 1990.

Ashworth, G. J. The City and War. London: Routledge, 1991.

Barker, A. J. Dunkirk: The Great Escape. New York: David McKay, 1977.

Breuer, William B. Hitler's Fortress Cherbourg: The Conquest of a Bastion. New York: Stein and Day, 1984.

Brown, Stephen D. "PSYOP in Operation Uphold Democracy." Military Review (September/October 1996): 57-76.

Bulloch, Gavin. "Military Doctrine and Counterinsurgency: A British Perspective." Parameters (summer 1996): 4-16.

Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) U.S. Army Combined Arms Command (CAC). Urban Combat Operations: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures, Newsletter No. 99-16. Available at

Carell, Paul. Stalingrad. The Defeat of the German 6th Army. Atglen, PA: Schieffer Publishing, 1993.

Collins, J. Lawton. Lightning Joe. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1994.

Cordesman, Anthony H. and Abraham R. Wagner. The Lessons of Modern War-Volume II: The Iran-Iraq War. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990.

Craig, William. Enemy at the Gates: The Battle for Stalingrad. New York: Reader's Digest Press, 1973.

Desch, Michael C., ed. Soldiers in Cities: Military Operations on Urban Terrain. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2001.

Dewar, Michael. War in the Streets: The Story of Urban Combat from Calais to Khafji. New York: Sterling Publishers, 1992.

Duffy, Christopher. Fire & Stone: The Science of Fortress Warfare, 1660-1860. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1996.

---. The Fortress in the Age of Vauban and Frederick the Great, 1660-1789-Siege Warfare Volume I. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985.

---. Siege Warfare: The Fortress in the Early Modern World, 1494-1660. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.

Edwards, Sean J. A. Mars Unmasked: The Changing Face of Urban Operations. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2000.

Eikenberry, Karl W. "Take No Casualties." Parameters (summer 1996): 109-118.

Erickson, John. The Road to Berlin: Continuing the History of Stalin's War with Germany. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1983.

Eshel, David. Mid-East Wars: The Lebanon War 1982. Hod Hasharon, Israel: Eshel-Dramit, 1983.

Gerwehr, Scott and Russell W. Glenn. The Art of Darkness: Deception and Urban Operations. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2000.

Glenn, Russell W. Combat in Hell: A Consideration of Constrained Urban Warfare. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1996.

---. Marching Under Darkening Skies: The American Military and Impending Urban Operations Threat. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1998.

Glenn, Russell W., ed. Capital Preservation: Preparing for Urban Operations in the Twenty-First Century: Proceedings of the RAND Arroyo-TRADOC-MCWL-OSD Urban Operations Conference, March 22-23, 2000. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2001.

Glenn, Russell W. et al. Denying the Widow-Maker, Summary of Proceedings, RAND-DDBL Conference on Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1999.

---. Getting the Musicians of Mars on the Same Sheet of Music: Army Joint, Multinational, and Interagency C4ISR Interoperability. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2000.

Glenn, Russell W. et al., eds. The City's Many Faces: Proceedings of the RAND Arroyo-MCWL-J8 UWG Urban Operations Conference, April 13-14, 1999. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2000.

Glenn, Russell W., Steven Hartman and Scott Gerwehr. On the Shoulders of Atlas: Urban Combat Service Support Operations. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, pending publication in 2003.

Gouré, Leon. The Siege of Leningrad. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1962.

Grau, Lester W. and Jacob W. Kipp. "Urban Combat: Confronting the Specter." Military Review (July/August 1999): 9-17.

Groves, John R. "Operations in Urban Environments." Military Review (July/August 1998): 30-39.

Hahn, Robert F., II and Bonnie Jezior. "Urban Warfare and the Urban Warfighter of 2025." Parameters (summer 1999): 74-86.

Heal, Sid. "Crowds, Mobs and Nonlethal Weapons." Military Review (March/April 2000): 45-50.

Heckstall-Smith, Anthony. Tobruk: The Story of A Siege. New York: W. W. Norton, 1959.

Harman, Nicholas. Dunkirk: The Patriotic Myth. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1980.

Hibbert, Christopher. The Battle of Arnhem. London: Batsford, 1962.

Hollis, Mark A. B. "Platoon Under Fire." Infantry (January-April 1998): 27-34.

House, John M. "The Enemy After Next." Military Review (March/April 1998): 22-28.

Jackson, W. G. F. The Battle for Italy. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.

Karslake, Basil. 1940 - The Last Act: The Story of the British Forces in France After Dunkirk. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1979.

Kostof, Spiro. The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History. London: Thames and Hudson, 1999.

---. The City Assembled: The Elements of Urban Form Throughout History. Boston: Little Brown, 1999.

Kuehl, Daniel T. "Airpower vs. Electricity: Electric Power As a Target for Strategic Air Operations." Journal of Strategic Studies (March 1995): 237-266.

Larson, Eric. Casualties and Consensus: The Historical Role of Casualties in Domestic Support of U.S. Military Operations. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1996.

Lieven, Anatol. Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

---. "The World Turned Upside Down: Military Lessons of the Chechen War." Armed Forces Journal International (August 1998): 40-43.

Linden, Eugene. "The Exploding Cities of the Developing World." Foreign Affairs (January/February 1996): 52-65.

McConnell, Malcolm. Just Cause: The Real Story of America's High-Tech Invasion of Panama. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.

McKee, Alexander. Caen: Anvil of Victory. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1964.

McLaurin, R. D. "Military Forces in Urban Antiterrorism." Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: US Army Human Engineering Laboratory, 1989.

McLaurin, R. D. and R. Miller. "Urban Counterinsurgency: Case Studies and Implications for U.S. Military Forces." Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: US Army Human Engineering Laboratory, 1989.

Mendel, William W. Combat in Cities: The LA Riots and Operation Rio. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Foreign Military Studies Office, 1996.

Mercier, Charles E. "Terrorists, WMD, and the US Army Reserve." Parameters (autumn 1997): 98-118.

Milton, T. R. "Urban Operations: Future War." Military Review (February 1994): 37-46.

Moskin, J. Robert. Among Lions: The Battle for Jerusalem, June 5-7, 1967. New York: Ballantine Books, 1982.

Northam, Ray M. Urban Geography. New York: Wiley, 1975.

Parkerson, John Embry, Jr. "United States Compliance with Humanitarian Law Respecting Civilians During Operation Just Cause." Military Law Review (1991): 31-140.

Peters, Ralph. "The Culture of Future Conflict." Parameters (winter 1995-96):

---. "The Future of Armed Warfare." Parameters (autumn 1997): 50-59.

---. "The Human Terrain of Urban Operations." Parameters (spring 2000):

Rosenau, William G. "'Every Room is a New Battle': The Lessons of Modern Urban Warfare." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism (October-December 1997): 371-394.

Rosenberger, Leif R. "The Strategic Importance of the World Food Supply." Parameters (spring 1997): 84-105.

Scalard, Douglas. "People of Whom We Know Nothing: When Doctrine Isn't Enough." Military Review (July/August 1997): 4-11.

Scales, Robert H. "The Indirect Approach: How US Military Forces Can Avoid the Pitfalls of Future Urban Warfare." Armed Forces Journal International (October 1998): 68-74.

Siegel, Adam B. Eastern Exit: The Noncombatant Evacuation Operation (NEO) from Mogadishu, Somalia, in January 1991. Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 1992.

Spiller, Roger J. Sharp Corners: Urban Operations at Century's End. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 2001.

Stech, Frank J. "Winning CNN Wars." Parameters (autumn 1994): 37-56.

Stevenson, Jonathan. Losing Mogadishu: Testing U.S. Policy in Somalia. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995.

Taw, Jennifer Morrison. Operation Just Cause: Lessons for Operations Other Than War. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1996.

Taw, Jennifer Morrison and Bruce Hoffman. The Urbanization of Insurgency: The Potential Challenge to U.S. Army Operations. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1994.

Tully, Andrew. Berlin: Story of a Battle. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1977.

Vick, Alan et al. Aerospace Operations in Urban Environments: Exploring New Concepts. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2000.

Watson, Bruce Allen. Sieges: A Comparative Study. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993.

Weigley, Russell. Eisenhower's Lieutenants. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1981.

Werstein, Irving. The Battle of Aachen. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1962.

Whiting, Charles. Bloody Aachen. New York: Stein and Day, 1976.

Wintle, Justin, ed. The Dictionary of War Quotations. New York: The Free Press, 1989.

Wykes, Alan. The Siege of Leningrad. New York: Ballentine Books Inc., 1968.



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