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Appendix A

CA/CMO Symbology and Graphics

This appendix describes symbols for use in the force domain (maneuver command and control). FM 101-5-1, Operational Terms and Graphics, provides the military standards for symbols and graphics but does not adequately address the needs of CA operations or CMO. This appendix provides recommended symbology and graphics that can be used to more accurately describe the actions and activities related to CA/CMO (Figure A-1).

Figure A-1. Example of CA/CMO Symbology and Graphics

Figure A-1. Example of CA/CMO Symbology and Graphics




A-1.   There are seven basic rules when building symbols. These rules include the following:

  • Existing symbols or modifiers should be used whenever possible as building blocks for new symbols.
  • Symbols must be usable in both hand-drawn and computer-generated automated modes.
  • Symbols must be easily distinguishable so as not to be confused with other symbols.
  • Friendly symbols must not use attributes that could be confused with enemy symbols.
  • Symbols must be distinguishable without color. (Monochrome display.)
  • Composite symbols will generally have the primary symbol centered on or below the modifying symbols.
  • All symbols will be drawn or portrayed with the top of the symbol facing the top of the overlay (normally North is at the top). Orientation of the symbol will be accomplished by using the "Q" field for moving symbols or another graphic, such as a battle position or support by fire position.

A-2.   FM 101-5-1 describes how to label various graphic control measures. Some boundary labeling can be abbreviated when the abbreviation will not cause confusion. All text labeling should be drawn so that it can be read when the bottom of the overlay is closest to the reader. Labeling written on an angle should be readable when the overlay is turned a quarter of a turn (90 degrees) clockwise (to the left).


A-3.   Overlays are graphics drawn on top of a map, sketch, or photograph. To ensure accurate alignment, the overlay must have at least two reference marks at opposite locations. On automated displays, overlays are graphic information that is joined electronically so that it can be "turned on or off" over or in front of the primary digital display, such as a map, sketch, or photograph.

A-4.   Additional guidance for creating overlays follows:

  • All obstacles-friendly, enemy, neutral, or factional-will be drawn using the color green. These graphics are shown in the mobility and survivability section of FM 101-5-1.
  • All friendly graphic control measures will be shown in black when drawn manually or on a color display.
  • Enemy graphic control measures will be shown in red. If red is not available, they will be drawn in black with a double line or the abbreviation "ENY" placed on the graphic in at least two places to avoid confusion.
  • If other colors are used to show friendly or enemy (hostile) factions, then the colors used will be shown in a legend on the overlay describing what each color means.

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