O-1. Contractors are being used to provide many types of CSS throughout the Army. As the Army transitions to Force XXI, the use of contractors is expected to increase. Contracting can increase existing capability, provide a new source of supplies and services, and bridge gaps in the deployed force structure. With this increased use of contractors comes the need to identify the doctrine, policies, and procedures affecting the use of civilian contractors.
TYPES OF CONTRACTORS
O-2. There are three types of contractors that may provide support to aviation maintenance units. These include system contractors, theater support contractors and external support contractors.
O-3. Systems contractors support deployed operational forces under pre-arranged contracts awarded by PM and the AMC. They support specific materiel systems throughout the system's life cycle during both peacetime and contingency operations. The systems include, but are not limited to, weapons systems, aircraft, C2 infrastructure, and communications systems. Contracting officers working for the PMs and for the AMC subordinate commands administer their systems contractors' functions and operations via their contracts. AMC and the individual PMs maintain contracting authority for those contracts, planning required support for their systems, and coordinating that support with the supported CINC's planning staff. Systems contractors establish and maintain liaison with the PARC or senior Army contracting official in the theater as specified in the theater contracting support plan. These contractors procure goods and services they require within the theater according to the PARC's theater contracting plan, published in the OPLAN or OPORD.
THEATER SUPPORT CONTRACTORS
O-4. Theater support contractors support deployed operational forces under prearranged contracts or under contracts awarded within the mission area, by contracting officers serving under the direct contracting authority of the theater PARC. Theater support contractors provides goods, services, and minor construction, usually from the local vendor base, to meet the immediate needs of operational commanders. Immediate contracts involve deployed contracting officers procuring goods, services or minor construction, usually from local vendors or nearby offshore sources, immediately before or during the operation itself. Theater support contracting occurs according to the PARC's theater contracting plan, an appendix to the OPLAN or the OPORD, which governs all procurement of goods, services, and minor construction within the AO.
EXTERNAL SUPPORT CONTRACTORS
O-5. External support contractors provide support to deployed operational forces that is separate and distinct from either theater support or systems contractors. They may be prearranged contracts or contracts awarded during the contingency itself to support the mission. Contracting officers who award and administer external support contracts retain unique contracting authority deriving from organizations other than the theater PARC or systems offices under PMs or AMC. AMC, for example, provides commercial depot support through contracts by its commodity commands. Other organizations providing external support contractors include the LOGCAP program office, which, through LSEs, administers its prearranged umbrella contracts, commonly referred to as LOGCAP; USTRANSCOM commands, which provide CRAF and commercial sealift supporting a theater; and the Corps of Engineers, which procures leased real property and real estate. The LOGCAP program office's umbrella contract, activated only upon Army ODCSLOG approval, supports contingency operations and is administered through the in-theater LSE. These organizations retain contracting authority for those specific functions from their parent commands. Commanders and their staffs include these commands in their mission planning and should include support appendices in the applicable staff section annex to the OPLAN or OPORD. For example, the staff engineer coordinates Corps of Engineer procurement or real estate or real property. The Joint Force transportation planner coordinates with USTRANSCOM commands to monitor their assets. External support contractors establish and maintain liaison with the theater PARC as they conduct their unique support missions. They procure goods and services they require within theater according to the PARC's theater contracting plan, published in the OPLAN or OPORD.
ROLE OF CONTRACTORS
O-6. Contractors can provide augmentation support for CSS and CS functions in peacetime and on the battlefield. Some of those functions and the contracted support associated with them are maintenance support, transportation support, and supply and field services.
O-7. System contractors perform sustainment maintenance on specified weapons systems, including subsystems. The contracts are usually awarded on a case-by-case basis and extend over long time periods encompassing both peacetime and wartime.
O-8. Contingency contractors may be used for limited support and usually in circumstances involving low levels of violence. These contracts, which are executed only during the contingency, normally focus on providing routine, general logistics support.
O-9. System contractors are generally not applicable except as part of a direct vendor delivery in peacetime. During operations, they will routinely deliver to the port of embarkation.
O-10. Contingency contractors may perform selected mode and terminal operation functions (for example, drivers and stevedores) to augment Army transportation units as METT-TC permits. Militarily significant water port operations routinely use contracted stevedore and long-shore capability.
SUPPLY AND FIELD SERVICES
O-11. System contractors can perform item management, stockage, and direct delivery for selected system specific components. They may also provide management, stockage, and delivery for specific ammunition items. They will normally manage high value munitions and munitions requiring close control or relatively high levels of continuous maintenance or security.
O-12. Contingency contractors can, as determined by METT-TC, provide field services such as laundry, bath, and clothing repair to augment quartermaster units. They routinely provide base operations-type support to deployed military forces in austere AO. They can also provide technical expertise and assistance for supply, maintenance, surveillance, utilities, demilitarization, transportation, safety and accountability of munitions and hazardous materials.
CONTRACT STATEMENT OF WORK
O-13. Contractor roles and functional requirements, as well as security issues and the relationship to the military chain of command, must be accurately and adequately defined in the SOW.
APACHE PRIME VENDOR SUPPORT
O-14. Apache PVS is a pilot program for contractor support of Apache helicopters during peacetime, contingencies, and war. The concept is to use one civilian contractor (prime vendor) to enhance maintenance and supply functions for Apache helicopters. The contractor support includes an Apache Field Support Team consisting of technical specialists for maintenance support of the Apache and support operations specialists to assist in streamlining the logistics support and acquisition processes to the unit.
O-15. Apache PVS will be used to enhance the maintenance capabilities within the AVUM and AVIM companies—more of a two-level maintenance system approach. This will be accomplished by the AVUM/AVIM companies retaining their maintenance support responsibilities and using contractor technical specialists (airframe, mission equipment, engine) to provide maintenance support directly to the Apache battalions. These specialists will have the capability to perform some tasks that are currently depot level and to perform diagnostic and fault isolation procedures. The ability to perform limited on-site depot level repairs (such as engine and structural repairs) will reduce downtime. The additional ability to perform diagnostics and fault isolation will reduce the amount of serviceable parts being replaced, saving both time and money.
O-16. Other support to the AVUM/AVIM companies will include technical assistance and factory liaison. The use of new technologies and better maintenance practices will enhance the capabilities of Army maintainers. The contractor specialists will provide the units with direct access to the factory (prime vendor) for technical assistance. Having on-site factory representatives will also improve coordination of new aircraft and/or systems configurations and retrofit.
O-17. Apache PVS will greatly enhance the supply support to the AVUM/AVIM companies. The AVUM companies will retain their PLL and the AVIM will continue to retain their responsibilities for the SSA.
O-18. The contractors will provide support operations specialists that interface with the AVIM SSA. This will be accomplished by having the contractors open a supply support RX window behind the SSA. The contractors will provide total asset visibility, intransit visibility, guaranteed order-to-ship time, process AOG parts requests, provide LRUs, and provide direct support to the AVIM SSA.
CONTRACT MAINTENANCE RESPONSIBILITY
O-19. Contractors for aviation maintenance will provide maintenance/supply support to AVUM/AVIM units as per the contract. Contracts for aviation maintenance should be written with the following principles and considerations:
- Contractors will be deployable under all operational scenarios. They will be subject to the same time-phased force deployment data requirements as deploying military units.
- The contractor information system will interface with the Standard Army Management Information System at both retail and wholesale levels. Army units should not have to contend with two separate information systems.
- The contractors will be located with the AVIM company during peacetime. During deployments, the commander (subject to contract terms and conditions) will determine where contractors operate in the AO. The contractors will provide support forward to the AVUM companies as needed.
- The contractors will not replace force structure. They will augment Army capabilities and provide an additional option for meeting support requirements.
- Force protection, including protecting contractors, is the responsibility of commanders.
- Contracted support must be integrated into the overall support plan. Movement of parts from the POE to the AO and transportation of contractors on the battlefield must be planned.
- C2 of contract personnel is dependent upon terms and conditions of the contract. The contracting officer or his designated representative is the appointed liaison for monitoring contractor performance requirements and will ensure that contractors move material and personnel according to the combatant commander's plan. Because international and domestic law, to include status of forces agreements, affect the relationship between commanders and contract personnel, commanders and contracting officers should seek legal advice concerning issues arising during operations.
- There must be a contractor personnel reporting and accountability system in place. The theater commander may direct the accountability of personnel be accomplished by the logistics support element.
- During deployments, contractors will live and work in field conditions comparable to those for the supported Army forces. Living arrangements, transportation requirements, food, medical, and other support services will be provided according to the contract.
O-20. The Army is developing policies and procedures for the use of contractors during peacetime and on the battlefield. More information on the role, deployment, C2, location on the battlefield, security, and other issues pertaining to contractors can be found in the following publications:
- AR 700-137.
- AR 715-9.
- DA Pam 690-47.
- DA Pam 715-16.
- DODI 3020.37.
- FM 63-11.
- FM 100-21.
- FM 100-5.
- FM 100-10.
- FM 100-10-2.
- DA Policy Memorandum, Subject: Contractors on the Battlefield. 12 Dec 97.
- TRADOC Pam 525-53.
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