M-1. Reconstitution is defined as extraordinary actions taken by a commander to restore a unit to a desired level of combat effectiveness. A unit is not reconstituted just because it has lost its combat effectiveness. Reconstitution decisions must be based upon an assessment of the overall battlefield. Available resources are limited and must be used where they will have the greatest effect. FM 100-9 outlines how the Army reconstitutes units in greater detail.
M-2. Reconstitution actions are implemented immediately following a commander's determination that a unit is not sufficiently effective to meet operational requirements. Timely reconstitution sustains the fight and preserves the initiative and agility of commander and subordinates. Possible reconstitution actions include reestablishing or reinforcing C2; cross-leveling or replacing personnel, supplies, and equipment; and conducting essential training. Command priorities should be established to allocate resources and preserve unit cohesiveness.
M-3. If reconstitution is necessary, commanders have two options—reorganization and regeneration. Often these are executed in combination.
M-4. Reorganization shifts internal resources within a degraded unit to increase its combat effectiveness. Equipment and personnel are redistributed among internal elements to balance combat capabilities, match operational weapon systems with crews, and form composite units. Reorganization is categorized as either immediate or deliberate. Immediate reorganization is the quick, temporary restoration of degraded units to minimum levels of combat capability. Deliberate reorganization restores degraded units to a specified degree of combat capability. It involves more extensive repair and cross-leveling procedures and is usually conducted farther to the rear than immediate reorganization.
M-5. Regeneration rebuilds a unit through large-scale replacement of personnel, equipment, and supplies. C2 is reestablished and mission-essential training is conducted. Regeneration is the more challenging reconstitution option. It requires more time and resources. Regeneration can be accomplished by adding personnel and equipment to an existing unit. This is termed incremental regeneration. Whole-unit regeneration is the replacement of whole units or definable subelements in an organization. Regeneration by introducing cohesive, trained units can achieve more rapid assimilation.
ECHELONS ABOVE CORPS
M-6. Reconstitution operations place very high demands on the existing CSS system. High-priority requisitions for replacement materiel are processed by MMCs. ASG provide most of the support required by units undergoing reconstitution. Special procedures may be implemented at an ASG to speed supply support of reconstitution operations.
M-7. The ASG materiel and services directorates are heavily involved in the reconstitution mission. Supply and maintenance units at the ASG will be challenged by surges in workload caused by reconstitution operations. Teams from the ASG may be sent forward to corps areas to assist units being reconstituted. Routine ASG operations may have to be changed to provide maximum support to units being reconstituted. For example, major end items may be restricted to those essential to maintenance operations. This ensures the maximum number of usable systems on the battlefield.
M-8. Reconstitution should take place as far forward as possible. However, the area chosen should be free from enemy harassment. In the COMMZ, the TSC commander normally designates a reconstitution location. Availability of facilities and services is a major consideration. Other factors affecting selection of a reconstitution site include the size of the unit, nearby communication services, and availability of transportation assets. The need for decontamination may make water sources a high priority. The future mission of the renewed unit also influences site selection.
M-9. ASG facilities and adjacent areas are usually good locations for reconstitution. Lost equipment and materiel are replaced by ASG supply units as directed by MMCs. Maintenance or repair of equipment is performed by ASG maintenance units. An ASG petroleum supply company or S&S company refuels the division. If HNS is available and appropriate, the ASG HNS directorate coordinates it. ASG support of reconstitution significantly increases its workload. Supporting reconstitution may reduce the ASG's ability to perform its routine area support mission for other units in the ASG territory. ASG personnel may be task-organized to support a reconstitution mission.
M-10. Reconstitution may also be conducted at ASG facilities for units assigned to EAC. Only the nature of the materiel and other support needed will vary. For all reconstitution missions, the personnel command/group and MEDCOM units serving the area provide personnel and health services. ASG personnel may be diverted from routine duties to support the reconstitution. Unit commanders usually design and direct reconstitution of their units if command lines have survived or have been reestablished. Existing CSS systems and procedures are used to achieve the reconstitution. High priorities and temporary variations to procedures may be necessary to ensure maximum responsiveness of ASG support systems.
M-11. ASG unit commanders must plan for reconstitution of their own organizations. Plans must be developed and refined before a unit is confronted with conditions that may require reconstitution. ASG units may become candidates for reconstitution after involvement in rear operations. For example, if an ASG aircraft maintenance company is hit by an NBC attack, equipment and personnel losses can make the unit ineffective. The ASG will probably be tasked to perform the reconstitution. In this situation, the ASG coordinates with TSC headquarters, the TSC MMC, PERSCOM, local MEDCOM units, MP units, ENCOM headquarters, and others. These organizations are contacted for support to rejuvenate the designated unit. The ASG provides supply, maintenance, and other area support to its own unit in the same way it would to non-ASG units. Each reconstitution mission is different since no two units will have lost the same assortment of personnel and materiel.
M-12. The ASG SPO directorate is responsible for overall ASG reconstitution planning and coordination. Reconstitution is conducted to restore an ASG unit's effectiveness when ordered by TSC headquarters. The overall theater objectives must be the basis for reconstitution decisions. Unit SOPs must include procedures for reconstitution. Innovative management at the ASG and elsewhere is the key to successful, timely reconstitution.
M-13. Regeneration cannot be accomplished using organic resources. Generally, it must be done by the headquarters two echelons above the unit being reconstituted. The assets to accomplish regeneration are estimated based on projected losses developed in the logistics estimate process and the desired levels of combat power. Not all units are regenerated after a battle, only those critical to the follow-on mission that require timely return to combat.
M-14. The corps includes the regeneration requirements in its requirements to theater. In addition, a reconstitution site is selected that is remote enough to be safe from enemy fires but possesses good road nets and suitable areas for bivouac sites and training. This area most likely will be in the corps rear area or in the COMMZ.
CORPS RECONSTITUTION TASK FORCE
M-15. COSCOM MMC commodity managers, together with staff from the COSCOM ACofS SPO, materiel, services, and transportation sections, should form the nucleus of a reconstitution task force. If tasked, CSG will form a casualty and damage assessment team. The team will coordinate requirements with degraded units and determine priority needs for weapons systems, other end items, major assemblies, supplies, and services. CSG support operations staff may provide the best estimate of supply requirements and requirements for maintenance support. They may also provide early notice of the need for reconstitution.
M-16. In addition to C3 and liaison elements, the reconstitution task force may consist of the following elements:
- Replacement-regulating detachment to coordinate personnel replacements according to command priorities, critical MOSs, and the established fill plan.
- Chemical decontamination elements, as required.
- Medical triage personnel, combat stress and mental health teams, and air or ground MEDEVAC assets.
- Supply elements for replenishment of Classes II, III, IV, VII, and water and rations.
- Service elements for clothing exchange and bath.
- AVIM/IDSM teams for maintenance and Class IX and RX support.
- Ammunition supply point assets to replenish Class V basic loads.
- Transportation assets to support replenishment and evacuation operations.
M-17. An automated decision matrix will enable CSG support operations staff officers to compare reconstitution requirements against available replenishment supplies, support units, and sites.
M-18. The division transmits requirements that are beyond its capabilities to the COSCOM MMC. Initial priority will be to replenish Classes III and V unit basic loads and to refuel and rearm operational combat systems. Staff plans and estimates must also include projected requirements for equipping replacement personnel.
- Given notice, CSGs may be prestocked and prepositioned with materiel:
- Classes I and II supplies may be prepositioned based on head count and requirements.
- Classes V, VII, and IX may be prepositioned based on the type of units to be reconstituted and their condition.
- Class VII items may be made available from prepositioned war reserve stocks, recovered and repaired equipment, redistributed assets, and ready-for-issue replacements through the supply system.
M-19. The TSC MMC maintains backup reconstitution pull packages in unit sets that may be used when corps forward-positioned equipment is expanded. CSG support operations staff will assist in coordinating tailored push packages of Class VII. CSG maintenance staff personnel should review PLL/ASL equipment compatibility to ensure that unique systems can be replenished and that special tools and test equipment for those systems are available. Unique PLL/ASL items may be stored on unitized flex pallets until required for reconstitution.
M-20. Upon receipt of notice to be prepared to reconstitute, the CSG may be tasked to provide members to be part of casualty and damage assessment teams. Reconstitution should be performed as far forward as possible. The corps may determine that reconstitution may take place in the division area. The preferred alternative is to withdraw the unit or battalion to a secure area in the corps rear or EAC and replace it with a reserve element. Decontamination should be performed before entering the reconstitution site. Deliberate decontamination requires an adequate water source.
M-21. Forward-employed BDA teams should have identified component replacement requirements and evacuation support. Reconstitution task force personnel should review evacuation requirements and identify corps and theater transportation assets that may be used to backhaul unserviceable equipment to maintenance collection points. AVIM/IDSM elements will concentrate on repair of critical major end items. Operations orders may restrict maintenance to essential maintenance only.
M-22. Emergency medical treatment, which began as far forward as possible, will continue in the reconstitution area. MEDEVAC air or ground ambulance assets will be on hand to evacuate personnel following any necessary triage or treatment.
M-23. Some Class VII items should be configured in unit sets. Reconstitution Class VII packages will be developed to enable the CSG to rapidly reconstitute those covering force units most likely to suffer heavy losses. Replacement crews will then be matched with ready-to-fight weapon systems. The weapons system replacement operations process will not normally be used in reconstitution.
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