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CHAPTER 3

Unit Training

Filler personnel and unit packages should have been trained to acceptable levels of proficiency in the institution. Initially, however, some transition training in the unit should be expected. Factors such as changes in mission; new or different equipment; organizational and doctrinal changes; new or changed techniques, tactics, and procedures relayed from the battlefield will impact on the training held in units. Through sustainment training programs, unit training must embed those skills learned into effective collective task performance.

Premobilization training sustains high combat readiness in mission-essential individual and collective tasks. Both AC and RC units must concentrate on mission-essential soldiers manuals, military qualification standards (MQS) manuals, and ARTEP tasks. RC units may not reach the same standards in all tasks as would their active counterparts because of the limited training time, equipment shortages, and facility constraints. The Army CAPSTONE Program (AR 11-30) seeks to take advantage of AC and RC associations based on wartime missions to enhance RC training.

UNIT TRAINING PROGRAMS

ARMY TRAINING AND EVALUATION PROGRAM

The ARTEP is the foundation of unit training. It gives each service school commandant overall training strategy to achieve combat readiness in accordance with established doctrine for the unit. The ARTEP is the umbrella program, with the ARTEP mission training plans (MTPs) and drills forming the actual training documents used by the unit for collective training.

The ARTEP Mission Training Plan

ARTEP MTPs are developed for each echelon of a unit (battalion, company, platoon). The MTPs describe how to train and what to train. The MTPs are flexible, unit-modifiable training plans for typical unit missions and training requirements. These plans call for situational training exercises (STXs). STXs are short, flexible exercises designed to train a single task or a group of closely related tasks. Each plan is capped by a field training exercise (FTX). During the realistic, simulated combat conditions of an FTX, the unit executes the tasks for which it has trained. It is evaluated on its ability to execute them. The STXs and FTXs can be executed with a minimum of modification to fit unit requirements. MTPs also include--

  • Matrixes which show the relationship of FTXs, STXs, drills, leader tasks, and individual soldiers manual tasks. Matrixes facilitate planning training in detail.
  • Integrated leader training for each unit task.
  • Detailed training and evaluation outlines (T&EOs).

Drills

Drills are standardized techniques or procedures. Each specifies the method by which it is to be trained. Drills serve as links between individual and collective proficiency. They are intended for small units (squad, section, platoon) and establish as doctrine the manner of executing a collective task. Drills are published as training circulars and are referenced in MTPs. In the detailed T&EOs, a drill for a particular task is the standard.

The ARTEP Unit Test

The unit test is a part of the MTP. It is a performance-oriented test using the detailed T&EOs of the MTPs and drills as performance standards. It provides the chain of command with a means of determining a unit's level of training readiness based on a demonstrated ability to meet the standards.

CAPSTONE

The Army CAPSTONE Program establishes an AC and RC organizational structure for developing peacetime planning and training associations. These associations enable units to plan and, where feasible, to train in peacetime with the organization they will be aligned with in wartime. The Army CAPSTONE Program further provides for improving--

  • Mobilization and wartime planning, mission capability, and deployability.
  • Wartime mission-oriented training.
  • The management of the total Army by focusing actions taken under other programs on wartime mission accomplishments. These other programs include mutual support (AR 11-22), overseas deployment training (AR 350-9), and joint exercise.
  • The readiness of the total Army through the alignment of AC and RC units to meet total Army wartime requirements and the needs of the CONUS sustaining base, in harmony with the TAA.

CAPSTONE does not establish requirements; rather, it displays alignments which are established by the existing force development process. The organizational alignments allow commanders to enter into cohesive planning and training associations with their designated wartime command. These associations permit thorough and continuous mobilization planning and preparation to facilitate rapid wartime deployment and employment.

TRAINING FOR EXISTING UNITS

Existing units are AC and RC units in the current force structure which are manned and equipped (Components 1, 2, and 3). These units must continue to concentrate on sustainment training throughout the transition from peacetime to wartime. However, transition training in some units will also be required prior to deployment.

SUSTAINMENT

The tasks, conditions, and standards listed in the relevant ARTEPs and soldiers manuals remain the basis for all training. The primary mode of training will be multi-echelon training. Time and resource constraints will limit the amount of time spent on FTXs and the availability of dedicated opposing forces. All training will use the training support materials available.

As a goal to ensure quality control, deployment overseas of all but early deploying units should be subject to satisfactory performance during a unit test. Proficiency must be sustained while awaiting deployment and upon arrival overseas. Training programs will concentrate on acclimation, battle indoctrination, and the infusion of applicable lessons learned. This should occur during theater-sponsored battle indoctrination training.

Deployed units must continue to sustain proficiency, even when actively involved in a theater of operations. Weaknesses not previously known will be revealed in combat, and remedial action will be required. Additionally, units may have to train for future operations requiring mission unique, untrained tasks.

TRANSITION

Mobilization plans may require a number of RC units, and possibly some AC and RC individuals designated as fillers, to draw equipment for which they have received little or no prior training. Service schools, in consultation with installation commanders, will continually review mobilization plans for their type units to establish the need for such transition training. For individuals, an exportable package reinforced by supervised on-the-job training might be appropriate. An ITP should be established based on the status of soldiers manual skills at mobilization. The Army individual training evaluation program (ITEP) results can be used to focus on this effort. This program should define individual training and small unit training requirements for RCs during the period of mobilization at home station per Phase III, FORMDEPS, Volume II, Part I. For units, it may be necessary for the training base to provide a mobile training team to conduct a condensed but intensive course.

As the war continues and new equipment, doctrine, and organizations are introduced, there will be a continuing need for transition training. New equipment and new organization training teams will provide much of the necessary predeployment training for units. But in some circumstances, individual and collective training may be best done in the training base. The base may also need to train unit cadre. Transition training requirements will be determined as overall Army modernization plans are developed.

DEPLOYMENT

The period between mobilization and deployment may be minimal. Therefore, intensive training must occur in the predeployment period. It must concentrate on correcting training shortfalls or deficiencies existing in the unit.

Early Deploying Units

These are units deploying with a latest arrival date (LAD) earlier than 30 days. They will comprise both AC and RC units, many of the latter being CS and CSS units. In the premobilization period, their training program must sustain their proficiency in mission-essential tasks. These are selected by the commander, based on higher level directives, specific missions provided by wartime gaining commanders, or contingency plans.

In most cases, equipment ship dates will precede personnel dates. Unit commanders must plan on conducting as much equipment-intensive training as possible immediately upon arrival at the mobilization station. Non-essential administrative processing, non-equipment intensive training, and training that can be conducted within mobilization station resources should be deferred until after the equipment ship date. Unit commanders must consider this in developing their postmobilization training plan.

Units may be required to assimilate fillers who need one or more of the following:

  • Refresher training.
  • Cross-training.
  • Transition training.
  • Instruction on unit standing operating procedures and other techniques peculiar to the unit.

When mobilization fillers have been identified to units, commanders should map out an ITP that relates to the soldiers' mobilization duties. Mobilization assistance teams from the readiness groups and mobile training teams from TRADOC service schools can assist by conducting intensive, short-duration courses. Supervised on-the-job training is another technique. Any special training support requirements should be identified, communicated, and updated to the mobilization installation.

Deploying unit commanders must take into consideration the training time available en route to the theater of operations. The type of movement, air or sea, will constrain the type and amount of training that may be carried out. However, plans should provide individual refresher and command and staff training en route to war.

Late Deploying Units

These are units deploying with a LAD of 30 days or more. In the period before deployment, the goals should be to attain and to sustain proficiency in wartime missions.

Late deploying units may suffer an initial reduction in unit strengths and trainer levels. If this occurs, installation commanders have the following options:

  • Limit the scope of multiechelon training in units to maintain proficiency in core skills such as those skills most often used to execute essential missions.
  • Where there is a shortage of junior leaders, concentrate on developing potential NCOs.
  • Redistribute subelements of units and train on tasks to standards with full-up teams, crews, and squads. For example, on training exercises an eight gun artillery battery might be restricted to six guns with the other two simulated.
  • Maintain the unit in a skeletal form with emphasis on proficiency in command and control procedures using command post or similar exercises.

As fillers become available, they must be integrated into the unit, although the need for training in high density, combat arms MOSs will diminish as graduates of courses using MOB POI reach the units. For some MOSs, particularly those involving high technology or low soldier densities, there may be a need to conduct training in the unit.

The main source of fillers will be graduates of courses in the training base. Others will arise from a turnover of staff in the training base, the CONUS base, and from previously ineligible individuals such as those recovered from illnesses or combat wounds. Some of these individuals may require refresher or transition training. For example, an individual who has been trained on the Ml tank might join a unit with the M48A5 or M60A3. Where numbers are significant, a service school mobile team might provide the necessary training, or alternatively, a unit cadre might be trained at the school.

Late deploying units will also have the benefit of lessons learned in the theater of operations. These lessons must be incorporated into training.

Late deploying unit commanders must address the same planning considerations for en route and in-theater training as do early deploying unit commanders.

TRAINING FOR NEWLY ORGANIZED UNITS

For full mobilization, Component 4 units will be activated. For total mobilization, Component 6 units will be activated. The planning considerations for manning, equipping, and training both types of newly organized units are essentially the same.

ASSUMPTIONS

The following outlines some considerations necessary to train personnel in newly organized units:

  • Filler personnel will be trained to mobilization Skill Level 1 qualifications in the training base.
  • Cadres will be trained to acceptable levels of proficiency prior to activation of units. Cadre refresher training in both technical proficiency and leadership will be incorporated into unit training programs.
  • The goal for personnel fill will be 100 percent. Commanders will begin training when unit fill reaches C-3.
  • Nuclear capable units will be qualified to perform their nuclear mission prior to deployment. This qualification will be accomplished in accordance with established DOD or service system qualifications for the type unit being activated.

MACOM RESPONSIBILITIES

MACOM responsibilities for newly organized units are as follows:

  • FORSCOM activates and organizes units, as directed by DA, and plans for their commitment to perform wartime missions. FORSCOM obtains and manages resources to support the units. It performs assigned missions to train units in conjunction with other MACOMs.
  • TRADOC provides trained individuals and unit packages to the newly organized units. It provides training support materials and services.
  • AMC requisitions, funds, assembles, and ships all Class VII and Class IX items to units.

CONSIDERATIONS

The following considerations will form the basis for training newly organized units:

  • Unit training programs will be built on existing training programs; for example, ARTEPs, drills, MTPs, STPs ITEPs, and MQSs.
  • As a minimum, the training week will be six ten-hour days. Additional and/or remedial training will be conducted based on unit performance, advancement, and cohesion to meet the projected deployment dates.
  • Internal ARTEP evaluation of units will be continuous with remedial and/or corrective training scheduled to correct deficiencies throughout the training period.
  • Multiechelon training (from individual through battalion) will start as early as possible in the training schedule.
  • Unit training must incorporate maximum use of training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations.

Collective training for newly organized units will focus on battalion or separate company and below. Training for team and/or crew, section, squad, and platoon will be based on the appropriate drill(s) in the ARTEP MTP. For planning purposes, training is categorized into training drills to describe team and/or crew through platoon and into unit-proficiency training to describe company, battalion, and combined arms training. While the activation and initial training of newly organized units may begin with training drills, it must progress into multiechelon training as rapidly as possible. Several factors will allow this rapid progression to multiechelon training. The first is the production of unit packages in the institutional training base. The arrival of these units will allow commanders to bypass those low-level collective tasks which the unit packages are proficient in and move to higher level collective tasks and multiechelon training. As units increase in collective proficiency, the training pace will quicken allowing an early entry into multiechelon training. The key goal will remain unit combat readiness based on a demonstrated ability to meet the standards of the table of organization and equipment (TOE) missions and ARTEP tasks. The assistance of the training base will also be required for the training of battalion and higher level staffs in the application of current tactical doctrine. At the appropriate time, battalion and higher level staffs will integrate with their units in field, combined arms, and live-fire exercises.

The creation of new units after mobilization will be significantly affected by the availability of unit cadre. Immediate sources of designated cadre should include personnel in less critical jobs. These include--

  • Peacetime TDA positions.
  • Officer and NCO students in both military and civilian schools.
  • Prior service volunteers who have attained an officer or NCO grade.

Later sources of designated cadre should include combat returnees, hospital dischargers, soldiers rotating from the training base, and graduates of courses in the training base.

The formation of a newly organized unit is also dependent on the availability of those CS and CSS MOSs that have long production times. It might be possible to produce some critical long lead time MOSs in the required numbers by an emphasis on the quick adaptation of civilian skills by rapid induction and training of civilians. Notwithstanding these options, some divisions may have to be fielded with a degraded capability because soldiers possessing the required skills just cannot be trained in the available time. Equipment shortfalls will have a similar effect. While it may be anticipated that Component 6 units will progressively have less combat capability than earlier deploying units, the intent is to deploy Component 6 units at the same or greater capability.

Newly constituted units can anticipate overseas deployment following the successful completion of unit training based on the relevant ARTEP tasks as demonstrated in the appropriate unit tests. Although time is a prime constraint, the quality of training is also important. It must be tough, demanding, and intensive. Commanders will establish training objectives designed to achieve maximum levels of proficiency prior to deployment. In an emergency, it is possible that circumstances might require the overseas deployment of major units before they complete all of their training program. These units would complete necessary training as part of en route and/or in-theater acclimation and battle indoctrination training.

Unit activation, formulation, and training flow diagrams (see Appendixes A and B) give the sequence of events, event relationships, and decision points for preparing newly organized units for deployment to a theater of operations.

Beyond full mobilization, planning provides that the National Training Center at Fort Irwin will be used for organizing, activating, and training heavy divisions (Component 6) in support of total mobilization. Upon deployment, support units may be essential to meet deployment requirements. Thus, mobilization plans must retain the National Training Center's training role.

TRAINING FOR IN-THEATER UNITS

Deployed units must continue to sustain proficiency, even when actively involved in a theater of operations. Responsibility for the planning and conduct of in-theater training will lie with the theater commander. This responsibility will involve providing for refresher, reconstitution, sustainment, and transition training as required and as the tactical situation permits. However, some individual training may be incorporated into the TARS.

If the war continues beyond D+180, an in-theater training center will become essential to assist units in accomplishing required training. The theater training center would receive individual and unit package combat replacements and equipment for training. The training focus would be to train-up crews and units on critical weapon systems rapidly. The training center would have the capability to forward crew and unit packages (team, section, squad, and platoon) with equipment to divisions for assistance in reconstitution. The divisions would incorporate these trained packages into their reconstitution training programs, speeding the process of regaining combat readiness. When a combat unit or remnant returns from the front lines, regeneration by refresher training programs will be implemented to upgrade it. Finally, the training center would be the focal point for transition training. It would assist theater Army units throughout the period of in-theater operations.

TRAINING FOR HEAVY DIVISIONS

The individual training of CS and CSS soldiers will remain the training base responsibility, as may some aspects of their collective training. Technological levels, systems complexity, and training support availability may require certain units to receive not only individual training in the training base, but also unit training. For example, air defense units and military intelligence units might better be trained by service schools. Their arrival in the division should be timed to enable their participation in the combined arms phase of unit training. All divisional CS and CSS proponents must examine the practicality of their units being able to undergo training programs under divisional control. If not practicable, service schools and training centers must base their mobilization plans on assuming this responsibility. Therefore, unit training conducted in the division must still be supported by the proponent service school.

TRAINING SUPPORT FOR UNIT TRAINING

Required training support materials should be developed, packaged, and distributed, thereby permitting their immediate issue to mobilizing units. All pre-positioned packages will be tailored to meet specific unit and training base requirements based on approved mobilization plans. Master copies of reproducible products will be kept at TASC. They will be updated, reproduced, and issued to meet mobilization requirements. The required training support services must be identified in mobilization plans to include peacetime services that will change to wartime functions, as well as wartime functions that have no peacetime counterpart and must be created.

MATERIALS

Soldiers Manuals

The tasks, conditions, and standards in the common and MOS-specific soldiers manuals will continue to be used in units.

Job Books

These will be an integral part of mobilization training management so that trainers and leaders can track individual proficiency and identify the skills that have not been mastered.

Trainers Guides

Future trainers guides will identify specific individual tasks associated with a given duty position. Commanders should use this information to schedule only applicable tasks for training. Additionally, efficient cross-training and train-up training can be conducted by scheduling only those tasks which the individual has not mastered that are part of the cross-train and train-up duty position.

Individual Training and Evaluation Programs

These will continue to be used to measure soldier proficiency on critical MOS and common tasks. The skill qualification test (SQT) and common task test (CTT) will be discontinued except where the SQT is part of the certification process to ensure proficiency in a designated critical MOS. The commander's evaluation using soldiers manuals will continue to be used.

ARTEPs

The tasks, conditions, and standards in ARTEPs will remain the foundation of collective training.

Training Packages

The content of these packages will be based on a proponent service school's or center's knowledge of their type units' mobilization requirements. They will include MOB POI, relevant STPs, ARTEPs, Army training programs (ATPs), and other publications. Training packages will be required upon mobilization for--

  • Refresher training.
  • Reclassification training.
  • Cross-training.
  • Transition training.
  • Train-up training.
  • Military indoctrination.
  • Theater of operations orientation.

Prior to mobilization, newly organized unit training packages should be planned for each type unit and contain the following:

  • MOB POI where individual training will take place in the unit.
  • ARTEP, MTP, and ARTEP unit test (ATP if ARTEP is not available) for the particular unit.
  • POI for cadre training.
  • NCO academy POI for the PLDC and the BNCOC.
  • Training packages for those involved in base operations.

These packages should also contain the associated STPs and other publications required for training such as technical manuals and training circulars.

Devices and Simulators

Devices and simulators represent an alternate means of training individuals and crews to the required levels of proficiency. They are also more resource efficient. Accurate inventories that cite quantities and locations and a mobilization distribution plan are necessary because equipment shortages are likely.

SERVICES

Mobile Training Teams

Proponent schools will continue to provide these teams on an as-required basis. A demand for mobile training teams to conduct retraining and transition training will occur just after mobilization. They will also be used to monitor the standardization of training.

Mobilization Assistance Teams

These teams are constituted from the peacetime resources of the CONUSA readiness groups and maneuver training commands. They will be attached to each mobilization station. They will assist units in collective training and evaluation of section, platoon, company, or battalion ARTEP tasks and missions.

New Equipment and New Organization Training Teams

These teams will function upon mobilization in a fashion similar to that during premobilization.

Integration and Standardization Training Teams

These teams can be used by integrating centers and proponent schools to obtain feedback from field units regarding their areas of responsibility. However, mobilization man-power shortages may restrict their use and the training base may be more dependent on reports--especially lessons learned--through the normal chain of command.

Contractors

Contractors will conduct new equipment training.

RESOURCES

Training Land and Ranges

The guidelines in TC 25-1 and TC 25-2 describe the planning for training land and ranges. A large number of newly activated installations such as semiactive, state-owned, and new acquisitions will be necessary to support total mobilization. Thus, it may not be possible to provide all areas with the training land and ranges that ideally are needed. Those new ranges that are constructed should be multipurpose and adaptable for at least low-level collective training. Maximum use should also be made of existing ranges and training areas. Low-cost upgrading or adaptation of ranges and training areas may be necessary to maximize training options.

Ammunition

Although TC 25-3 gives valid guidance regarding the quantities of ammunition required to attain individual proficiency with particular weapons, these figures will require a reduction upon total mobilization. Suggested figures will be included as part of the MOB POI. The maximum use of subcaliber and training unique ammunition will also be made. Basic marksmanship and crew-served weapons engagement techniques should use subcaliber ammunition when possible. Service ammunition should be reserved for later combat proficiency training.




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