Mobilization requires advanced planning, skillful execution, and good training. The major challenges will be individual training in the institutional training base, individual and collective training in units, training for newly organized units, and responsive training support.
LEVELS OF MOBILIZATION
The Department of Defense (DOD) mobilizes all or part of the armed forces as authorized by law or congressional resolution and when directed by the President. The extent of the emergency governs the level of mobilization.
The total Army force required during mobilization and war has a number of elements as shown. These elements are derived from the following existing and planned components:
- Component 1. Active Component units located in a theater of operations in the continental United States (CONUS) or outside the continental United States (OCONUS).
- Component 2. Army National Guard (ARNG) units.
- Component 3. United States Army Reserve (USAR) units.
- Component 4. Unmanned and unequipped units for which a requirement is identified in the total Army analysis (TAA). Component 4 represents the portion of the approved current force structure requirement that is not affordable within the Army's peacetime budget.
- Component 6. Units outside the Army's force structure that must be formed and trained upon total mobilization. Department of the Army (DA) has established a force structure, by number and type of units, for total mobilization planning purposes.
The general relationship of the total Army force elements to the various components is shown below. Each element has special training requirements. These training requirements are based on a variety of factors such as mission, location, collective versus individual training, and the availability of training personnel. The requirements become apparent when looking at the total Army force components. The training needs of RC units will differ from those of AC units. The training of Components 4 and 6 units, when activated, will differ from those of the current force structure units. Despite the variety of factors to be considered, the common thread that runs through the force, from units deployed overseas to training of new recruits, is training.
Upon mobilization, the Army will do more individual and collective training, while equipment and key resources become increasingly constrained. Therefore, greater use must be made of substitutions, training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations. The challenge will be to allow trainers to continue to train individuals and units to the required standards.
During peacetime, training support plans must be documented in the mobilization programs of instruction (MOB POI) to allow for the smoothest transition to wartime training. Once MOB POI are established, training support plans, materials, and services will be produced to support both training realism and training standards. Training support materials and services, both in quality and quantity, are essential for a successful mobilization. Forming new units and sustaining proficiency require training support. Training support will be based on the procedures given below.
The United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) will identify the training support needs of the expanded training base. RC commanders will identify their training support needs to their mobilization station as part of their RC postmobilization training plan. Installation mobilization planners will purge or validate requirements and forward them to the installation training and audiovisual support officer (TASO). In turn, the TASO will forward the requirements to the MACOM for entry into the Armywide Devices Automated Management (ADAM) System.
With a listing of all installation inventories on the ADAM system, mobilization requirements can be correlated against holdings and excesses and shortfalls identified with holdings and requirements continually being updated. Upon mobilization, inventories can be redistributed and shortages can be identified by type, quantity, and location so that procurement action can begin. Deploying AC units will turn in their training support material to their installation's training and audiovisual support center (TASC). Training devices held overseas prior to mobilization will remain overseas as theater training assets.
The US Army Wartime Replacement System is centrally managed at HQDA by the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (DCSOPS) and is implemented through decentralized execution within the MACOMs. It will provide units and individual replacements and teams to a theater of operations. The system depends on real or projected attrition factors and the needs of the commander. For instance, prior to M-day, casualty estimates are the primary source for forming stand-by personnel requests. However, the push system provides for individual replacements to the theater. The push system will be based on scenario-driven computer projections. It will continue to be used throughout the war and will be revised based on the total Army requirements and information received by the theater commanders.
Individual replacements and teams from the institutional training base will deploy through a CONUS replacement center. Flag-bearing units from the United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) will deploy directly from their CONUS station or will be integrated into a larger deploying force. Within the theater, individuals and teams will be processed and deployed by the Theater Army Replacement System (TARS). Training policies will be established to support the needs of the replacement system.
Based on the military occupational specialty (MOS), system, or unit, the proponent service schools support RC training by developing training plans, products, and services. The proponent service schools determine the overall training strategy for the support of each MOS, system, or unit based on a critical analysis of each. This strategy is based on the needs of units and the following RC considerations before plans or products are initiated:
- The response to the needs of AC and RC units.
- The impact of the limited time available for RC training.
- The unique requirements of those MOSs which are predominately RC-heavy such as civil affairs, rail transportation, light gun, air defense, graves registration, and terminal operations.
Training plans are used to conduct and support training. They consist of--
- An individual training plan (ITP). A set of documents which collectively constitutes the proponents plan to analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate an individual resident or unit training program.
- An individual and collective training plan (ICTP). A plan which supports development of new or revised individual and collective training programs and the use of these programs in institutions and units.
- A collective training plan. A grouping of six separate but related elements: the Army training and evaluation programs (ARTEPs), drills, simulations, weapon systems training, support systems training, and transition training. When combined, these elements support collective training in units.
- An MOS training plan. The plan is a guide for conducting individual training in units and is included in each trainers guide or soldiers manual.
Training products, referred to as training support materials, include devices and related items which enhance, supplement, or reinforce the training process. These products include--
- Extension training material catalogs. Many trainers will have limited prior experience; therefore, these catalogs will provide an important material reference applicable to units.
- Training Extension Course (TEC) lessons. Mobilization may limit the scope for TEC materials in the combat arms. However, a need will continue in combat support (CS) and combat service support (CSS) MOSs, especially those where communicative technology such as interactive video discs can provide high-quality training.
- Army Correspondence Course Program. Like TEC lessons, this program may have limited mobilization value. Therefore, it should have a lower priority.
- Field manuals, field circulars, and training circulars. These will continue to provide the foundation on which all other training products are based. However, a rapid revision and distribution cycle will be necessary.
- Technical manuals. These will be needed for the operation and maintenance of equipment, especially for new equipment and systems. Their availability upon mobilization is essential. Manuals applicable to formerly obsolete but reintroduced equipment will also be required.
The above products also apply to the ACs.
Training services include mobile training teams, branch training teams, new equipment training teams, and new organization training teams. These teams provide service school expertise to the field.
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