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Military

CHAPTER 4

MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING


Section I. GENERAL

63. Introduction

Field firing develops individual proficiency and teamwork for all phases of combat. The unit is conducted through a series of exercises simulating battlefield conditions as nearly as possible. The situation for each exercise is given by the instructor who acts as umpire. Unit commanders direct and control their units in the actions required. At the completion of each exercise, a critique is held by the umpire.

64. Exercises

Where possible, the terrain is varied for each exercise so the unit is presented with a new situation. The following paragraphs are given as a guide for the preparation of such exercises.

65. Direct Fire

a. Purpose. To give the squad leaders practice in control of their units as they engage various types of targets. Direct fire teaches members of the crew selection of positions, use of individual cover and concealment, ammunition supply, and technique of fire.

b. Unit. One 90mm rifle crew.

c. Situation. Crew is located in an assembly area and is issued ammunition. The squad leader is given pertinent portions of an operation order to include position areas, sectors of fire, and location of friendly troops.

66. Method

The squad leader selects his route of approach and his crew's position. He issues necessary orders to place the crew in action. When a target is indicated, the squad leader issues fire commands, opens fire, and adjusts the fire. Neutralization fire is not a part of these exercises. As soon as the fire of the crew has been adjusted, duties of individuals in the crews are rotated and a new target is designated. The squad leader is prepared at any time to displace forward to an alternate or supplementary position or to withdraw to a covered area.

67. Critique

At the completion of each exercise, the instructor conducts a critique covering the following points (care is taken by the officer conducting the critique to avoid confusing effectiveness of fire with overall unit performance):

a. Reconnaissance.

b. Actions and orders of unit leaders.

c. Suitability of observation posts.

d. Suitability of firing positions.

e. Suitability of alternate positions.

f. Use of cover and concealment.

g. Technique of fire.

h. Ammunition resupply plans.

Section II. QUALIFICATION AND FAMILIARIZATION FIRING

68. Qualification Courses

Three qualification courses are prescribed for the 90mm rifle. These courses consist of various combinations of the tables outlined in paragraph 69. The course used will normally be determined by the facilities available.

a. Fundamentals. Fundamentals emphasized in the qualification courses are:

(1) Rapid estimation of range, apparent speed, and leads.

(2) Rapid and accurate firing of the initial round.

(3) Rapid and accurate adjustment of fire.

(4) Rapid engagement of successive targets.

b. Conduct of Fire. For safety precautions, range procedures, and operational instructions, see chapter 3.

**(1) Additional Ammunition Requirement. Prior to firing the qualification tables, the subcaliber device will be zeroed using nine rounds, firing three-round shot groups when firing tables I and II. Firing tables II and IV, the subcaliber device will be zeroed using six rounds. Only the initial firing order will zero the device. All succeeding orders will fire two confirming zero rounds.

c. Courses of Fire. The courses of fire are organized as shown below.

Table

Course A 1
Instruction record

Course B 2
Instruction record

Course C 3
Instruction record

Instruction
course
(modified)

I_ _
II_ _
III_ _
IV_ _
V_ _
VI_ _

Fired once_ _
Fired once_ _
Fired once_ _
Fired once_ _
Not fired_ _
Not fired_ _

Not fired_ _
Not fired_ _
Fired once_ _
Fired once_ _
Fired once_ _
Not fired_ _

Fired once_ _
Fired once_ _
Fired once_ _
Fired once_ _
Not fired_ _
Not fired_ _

Not fired_ _
Not fired_ _
Fired twice_ _
Fired twice_ _
Not fired_ _
Not fired_ _

Fired twice_ _
Fired twice
Not fired_ _
Not fired_ _
Not fired_ _
Not fired_ _

Fired twice_ _
Fired twice_ _
Not fired_ _
Not fired_ _
Not fired_ _
Not fired_ _

Fired once.
Not fired.
Fired once.
Not fired.
Not fired.
Fired once.

1 Used if facilities are available for service firing.
2 Used if midrange subcaliber range is available, but service range facilities are not.
3 Used if neither midrange subcaliber nor service range facilities are available.

d. Qualification Scores.

Course A

Course B

Course C

Expert _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

210-260

320-400

315-380

First class gunner _ _ _ _

185-209

280-319

270-314

Second class gunner _ _

160-184

240-279

230-269

Unqualified _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Below 160

Below 240

Below 230

e. Scorecard. DA Form 2974-R, Individual Scorecard 90mm Recoilless Rifle (fig. 33) will be reproduced locally on 8" x 10½" paper.

69. Tables

a. Table I.

(1) Instructions for firing table I.

(a) Target layout consists of five 1,000-inch "A" rifle targets for each firing point. Targets are emplaced 1 meter apart and 50 centimeters off the ground (fig. 34).

(b) Zero the rifle at 25 meters using any desired range line, but insure that all rifles on the firing line are zeroed with the same range line.

(c) This table is fired from the prone position.

(d) Use 7.62mm ball ammunition only.

(2) Procedure for officer in charge of firing.

(a) During instructional firing, the officer in charge of firing announces TIME at the end of the prescribed time. He does not command CEASE FIRE until all gunners have completed firing.

(b) During record firing, the officer in charge of firing commands CEASE FIRE at the end of the prescribed time.

(c) Hits on the 1,000-inch "A" rifle target are given the numerical value as shown on the target.

b. Table II.

(1) Instructions for firing table II.

(a) The standard A-22 subcaliber target is used in firing this table (fig. 35). It may be modified by painting over the scoring spaces. A scoring template is then required.

(b) Scoring templates may be locally fabricated.

(c) Zero the rifle in the same manner as in table I.

(d) This table is fired from the kneeling position.

(e) Use 7.62mm ball ammunition only.

(f) Gunner fires one round at each tank in the following order: Top, center, and bottom as target moves in either direction. He uses zero leads when firing at the top tank; one lead when firing at the center tank; and two leads where firing at the bottom tank. Gunner fires on the left vertical column of tanks when the target is moving right to left, and on the right column when target is moving left to right.

(2) Procedure for officer in charge of firing.

(a) The command CEASE FIRE is given at the end of the prescribed time during both instructional and record firing.

(b) Score five points for each hit in a scoring space; but do not score more than three hits in each top silhouette and three hits in each scoring space.

c. Table III.

(1) Instructions for firing table III.

**(a) Targets should be spread laterally in at least a 30-degree fan. Targets should be arranged at random in depth at ranges varying from 150 to 350 meters.

(b) Target panels must have a 10-foot (3-meter) or 20-foot (6-meter) horizontal dimension. Bunker targets may be any size.

***(c) Zero the rifle at a known range between 350 and 400 meters, or use a distance which is 80 percent of the most distant target.

(d) This table is fired from the prone position.

(e) Use 7.62mm tracer ammunition only.

(f) Gunner estimates range to each panel target by use of stadia lines. Gunner estimates range to bunker targets by eye and by noting location in relation to panel targets already engaged.

(g) Gunner attempts to achieve a first round hit on each target. In the event of a miss, he fires a second round using the burst-on-target method of adjustment.

(2) Procedure for officer in charge of firing.

(a) Scorers should have binoculars.

(b) Number of rifles firing at any given time should be controlled so that a scorer need watch only one weapon at a time.

(c) Score 10 points for a first round hit; six points for a second round hit; and zero points if both rounds miss.

(d) In the event of a first round hit, a second round will not be fired.

d. Table IV.

(1) Instructions for firing table IV.

(a) If possible, use a tank as the target.

(b) A diagonal track is preferable to a perpendicular track. When a diagonal track is used, the number of leads will be reduced.

***(c) Zero the rifle at a known range between 350 and 400 meters, or use a distance which is 80 percent of the most distant target.

(d) This table is fired from the foxhole supported position.

(e) Use 7.62mm tracer ammunition only.

(f) Gunner attempts to achieve a first round hit on each target run. In the event of a miss, he fires a second round using the burst-on-target method of adjustment.

(2) Procedure for officer in charge of firing.

(a) Scorers should have binoculars.

(b) Each scorer should be required to score a maximum of two firing points at any given time.

(c) Officer in charge of firing should announce the range to each end of the moving target track.

(d) Score 10 points for a first round hit; 6 points for a second round hit.

e. Table V.

(1) Instructions for firing table V.

(a) Targets may be log and sandbag bunkers, panels, or tank hulls. It is important that each target has a 10-foot (3-meter) or 20-foot (6-meter) horizontal dimension.

(b) Boresight the rifle in the normal fashion.

(c) This table is fired from the prone position.

(d) Either HEAT or TP ammunition may be used.

(e) Gunner attempts to achieve a first round hit. In the event of a miss, he applies burst-on-target and fires a second round.

(2) Procedure for officer in charge of firing.

(a) Scorers should have binoculars.

(b) Each scorer should be required to score a maximum of two firing points at any given time.

(c) Score 20 points for a first round hit; 12 points for a second round hit: zero points if both rounds miss.

f. Table VI.

(1) Instruction for firing table VI. This table is fired in the same manner as table V except that only one round is fired at each target, regardless of results.

(2) Procedure for officer in charge of firing. This table is not scored.



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