Find a Security Clearance Job!

Military

Appendix C

Camouflage Requirements and Procedures

This appendix provides information on the LCSS and describes how to erect it. Also included is a figure for determining the amount of modules needed to camouflage the various vehicles in the Army's inventory. This appendix also includes a sample battle drill that can be used to train soldiers.

LIGHTWEIGHT CAMOUFLAGE SCREEN SYSTEM

C-1. The LCSS is a modular system consisting of a hexagon screen, a diamond-shaped screen, a support system, and a repair kit. You can join any number of screens to cover a designated target or area (Figure C-1). Use Figure C-2 to determine the number of modules needed for camouflaging a given area. Measure the vehicle or use Table C-1 to determine the vehicle's dimensions.

Figure C-1. LCSS modular system.

Figure C-2. Module determination chart.

Table C-1. Vehicle dimensions

Nomenclature Height
(feet)
Width
(feet)
Length
(feet)
No. of
Modules
AVLB 17 13 37 5
C7 loader, scoop, 2-ton, w/o cage 9 9 25 2
D7 dozer, with blade 10 12 19 2
M106A1 carrier, mortar, 107-mm 7 10 16 2
M109A3 howitzer, 155-mm (SP) 11 12 30 3
M113A2 carrier, personnel 7 9 16 2
M113A3 carrier, personnel 7 9 19 2
M125A1 carrier, mortar, 81-mm 7 9 16 2
M149 trailer, water, 400-gal 6 7 7 1
M172 trailer, low-bed, 25-ton 6 10 35 2
M1A1 tank, with mine roller 10 12 40 3
M1A1(2) tank, combat, 105- and 120-mm 10 12 28 3
M2 fighting vehicle, infantry 10 11 22 2
M2 TOW vehicle, improved 11 9 15 2
M3 fighting vehicle, cavalry 10 11 22 2
M35A2 truck, cargo, 2-ton 9 8 23 2
M520 truck, cargo, 8-ton 11 9 32 3
M548 carrier, cargo, 6-ton 10 9 21 2
M54A2 truck, cargo, 5-ton 10 8 26 2
M553 truck, wrecker, 10-ton 11 9 33 3
M559 truck, fuel, 2,500-gal 11 9 33 3
M577A1 carrier, CP 9 9 19 2
M578 vehicle, recovery, light 11 10 21 2
M60A3 tank, combat, 105-mm 11 12 27 3
M713 truck, ambulance, -ton 7 6 12 2
M728 vehicle, combat engineer 11 12 29 3
M792 truck, ambulance, 1-ton 8 7 19 2
M816 truck, wrecker, 5-ton 10 8 30 3
M880 truck, cargo, 1-ton 8 7 19 2
M88A1 vehicle, recovery, medium 10 11 27 3
M9 vehicle, ACE 9 13 21 2
M920 truck, tractor, 20-ton 12 11 27 3
M930 truck, dump, 5-ton 9 8 24 2
M977 truck, cargo, HEMTT 9 8 34 3
M978 truck, tanker, HEMTT 9 8 34 3
M992 ammo carrier (FAAS-V) 11 11 23 3
M998, HMMWV, carrier, personnel 6 7 15 2
MLRS 9 10 23 2
MT250 crane, hydraulic, 25-ton 10 8 45 3
RT crane, boom, 20-ton 14 11 44 4

NOTES:

1. See Appendix E for a list of LCSS national stock numbers (NSNs) and ordering information.

2. See TM 5-1080-200-13&P for more information on maintenance, erection, and characteristics of the LCSS.

CAPABILITIES

C-2. The LCSS protects targets in four different ways. It—

  • Casts patterned shadows that break up the characteristic outlines of a target.
  • Scatters radar returns (except when radar-transparent nets are used).
  • Traps target heat and allows it to disperse.
  • Simulates color and shadow patterns that are commonly found in a particular region.

ERECTING PROCEDURES

C-3. To erect camouflage nets effectively—

  • Keep the net structure as small as possible.
  • Maintain the net a minimum of 2 feet from the camouflaged target's surface. This prevents the net from assuming the same shape and thermal signature as the target it is meant to conceal.
  • Ensure that the lines between support poles are gently sloped so that the net blends into its background. Sloping the net over the target also minimizes sharp edges, which are more easily detectable to the human eye.
  • Extend the net completely to the ground to prevent creating unnatural shadows that are easily detected. This ensures that the net effectively disrupts the target's shape and actually absorbs and scatters radar energy.
  • Extend the net all the way around the target to ensure complete protection from enemy sensors.

SUPPLEMENTAL CAMOUFLAGE

C-4. Camouflage nets are often employed in conjunction with supplemental camouflage because nets alone do not make a target invisible to a threat's multispectral sensors. Use other CCD techniques to achieve effective concealment. Cover or remove all of the target's reflective surfaces (mirrors, windshields, lights). Also ensure that the target's shadow is disrupted or disguised. Use native vegetation, because placing a target in dense foliage provides natural concealment and a smoother transition between the edges of the camouflage net and the target's background. Cover exposed edges of the net with dirt or cut vegetation to enhance the transition.

VEHICLE CAMOUFLAGE

C-5. Measure the vehicle or determine its dimensions from Table C-1. Use the following equations and Figure C-2 to determine the number of modules needed to camouflage a vehicle.

Equation 1: A = 2h + w + 5 feet

Equation 2: B = 2h + L + 5 feet

where

h = height, in feet

w = width, in feet

L = length, in feet

Step 1. Determine the vehicle's dimensions (measure or use Table C-1). For the M2 fighting vehicle, the height is 10 feet, the width is 11 feet, and the length is 22 feet.

Step 2. Use the above equations and the measurements from Step 1 to determine the total dimensions.

A = 2(10) + 11 + 5 = 36 feet

B = 2(10) + 22 + 5 = 47 feet

Step 3. Determine the number of modules needed (use Figure C-2). Since A equals 36 and B equals 47, two modules of camouflage are required to cover the M2 fighting vehicle.

TRAINING

C-6. Units should develop and practice battle drills that cover the requirements and procedures for erecting nets over assigned equipment. Table C-2 shows a sample battle drill.

Table C-2. Sample battle drill

Standards:

  • Complete camouflage net setup drills within 20 minutes.
  • Complete camouflage net teardown drills within 15 minutes.
Personnel Required: Three crew members.

Equipment Required: Two modules or the following items:

  • Nets, hexagonal, 2 each.
  • Nets, diamond, 2 each.
  • Pole sections, 24 each.
  • Stakes, 36 each.
  • Lanyards, 6 each.
  • Spreaders, 12 each.
Stowage Location: The camouflage net is strapped to the right side of the trim vane.

Setup Drill:

  • The gunner and the assistant gunner remove the camouflage net from the trim vane and place it on top of the M2.
  • The driver removes poles and stakes from the bag and places them around the vehicle.
  • The gunner and the assistant gunner remove the vehicle's antenna, position the net on top of the vehicle, and roll the net off the sides of the vehicle.
  • The driver stakes the net around the vehicle.
  • The driver and the assistant gunner assemble plies and spreaders and then erect the net.
  • The gunner inspects the camouflage from a distance.
  • The crew adjusts the camouflage as necessary.

Teardown Drill:

  • The driver and the assistant gunner take down and disassemble plies and spreaders.
  • The gunner and the assistant gunner unstake the net and roll it to the top of the M2.
  • The gunner and the assistant gunner complete rolling the net on top of the vehicle and replace the vehicle's antenna.
  • The driver stores the net on the trim vane.
  • The gunner and the assistant gunner store poles, spreaders, and stakes on the trim vane.

NOTES:

1. Preassemble the nets before placing them on the M2.

2. Supplement camouflage nets by properly placing vehicles and using natural vegetation.



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list