OPERATING IN CONCERT
(SQUAD-MINUS TO PLATOON-PLUS)
Sometimes you must operate with several teams, or many, to control actions or events in a particular locale. Some measures require a number of teams to work in concert. Other measures require a mix of mounted and dismounted teams or of mobile patrols as well as static posts. As few as two teams working jointly may operate a forward EPW collecting point. But conducting mobile screening, OPs/LPs, and access control for a corps main CP takes many more.
MP security measures are employed throughout an AO to reduce unit and operations vulnerability. Increased security measures are used for top-priority units or especially critical supplies. You must help protect critical assets in your AO. Stockpiled critical supplies are a target for all levels of Threat forces. Most often you provide "standoff protection" for critical facilities. You operate mobile security screens in the area of the facility. Sometimes you combine mobile patrols with OPs/LPs to give early warning. If called upon to protect key Personnel or materiel inside a facility, you provide access control to the restricted areas. (Close-in personal security is most often provided by MP assigned to US Army Criminal Investigation Command [USACIDC].) Your intent is to detect and defend against the enemy before they can move within direct-fire range.
PROVIDING COMMAND POST SECURITY
The security of CPs can be crucial to winning the battle. CPs at divisions, corps, and TAACOMs are "designated critical assets" that traditionally expect and receive MP help in maintaining security. When CPs relocate, in-transit security is also provided. See FM 19-1.
The amount and type of security provided to an established CP depends on whether the CP is dispersed or massed, large or small. In all cases the focus of MP security efforts is on providing early warning of Threat activity. Because of your mobility and communications your most valuable use is in operating security patrols around the CP. Elements in a dispersed CP do not share a common defensive perimeter. Each cell provides its own local security and its own access control. You provide a "screening force" to give early warning of the enemy.
Elements in a massed CP operating fairly close to each other, can share a common perimeter. MP elements may, like other elements collocated at a base, contribute to its perimeter defense.
Unless a CP is massed, MP security must focus on providing early warning by operating a screening force. Only when a CP is massed can MP provide "close-in" security.
SECURITY FOR A DIVISION MAIN CP
Most division main CPs are dispersed. CPs are dispersed wherever the Threat levels are high.) With its elements spread out in cells, a dispersed CP is less easily destroyed in a single attack. And dispersion makes finding the CP's electronic signature more difficult for the enemy.
Some division main CP elements are massed, for ease of coordination and function, where the Threat level permits. Only after augmentation by MP from corps, can you provide internal security at a massed CP. The type of security MP provide at a massed CP depends on the presence or absence of augmentation by the division band or by a corps MP company. At that time you can extend your security to include the All Source Production Section (ASPS) as well as providing a screen of OPs/LPs and security patrols for early warning. (An ASPS receives, processes, and distributes intelligence information.)
There is an ASPS in each division, located inside the division tactical operations center (DTOC) or within 5 kilometers of the DTOC. Because of its importance to the commander, internal security for the ASPS requires an access control point. (An access list is provided by MI personnel responsible for the ASPS.) When the ASPS is located in the DTOC, you can combine internal security measures for the ASPS with measures for the DTOC.
Augmenting MP or band members can complement the assigned MP security elements or perform security measures alone. (When the band is taking part in CP security, you must ensure that the bandmaster and his soldiers know the tactical situation and the defensive plans for the CF.) The band can--
- Secure the ASPS.
- Assist in perimeter defense of the CP.
- Provide access control on the road to the CP.
- Operate the dismount point for the CP.
- Provide access control at the DTOC and at the ASPS.
- Augment or relieve security personnel on the defensive perimeter.
After your assets have been augmented, you can employ--
- One team to operate the dismount point to help control movement into and out of the CP area.
- A second team to operate the access control point at the ASPS.
- The remaining teams to serve as the screening force. They can provide stand-off protection by detecting and keeping the enemy outside direct-fire range of the CP.
SECURITY FOR A CORPS MAIN CP AND A CORPS TACTICAL CP
Security is provided to both the corps main CP and the corps tactical CP. A corps' tactical CP is small and mobile. A corps' main CP is very large and, for that reason, traditionally has been a massed CP. In recent times many of the main CP's functions have been pushed to the tactical CP and the rear CP to allow greater dispersion of resources and to reduce the electronic signature.
How MP elements deploy depends on the CP's dispersion, the particular situation, and on METT-T. Normally an MP company provides corps CP security. If the CP is massed, one platoon secures the tactical CP and the remainder of the company secures the main CP. Or, depending on METT-T--
- One squad provides access control within the corps tactical operations center (CTOC).
- Two squads serve as a response force.
- Two squads secure the tactical CP.
- Two squads man dismount points or augment other squads.
- Remaining squads operate OPs/LPs and security patrols.
Like other units within a massed CP, MP share in the base's perimeter defense. But MP security efforts and emphasis are on screening for early warning and on internal access. Both internal and screening force measures provide security of the tactical CP: internal guard posts, access control points on the perimeter, and OPs/LPs and security patrols outside the perimeter.
When a corps main CP is dispersed in cells, MP efforts will focus on screening force measures. Allocation of assets then is based on location of function and METT-T.
PROVIDING CONVOY SECURITY
Convoy security helps battlefield resources reach their destination as quickly and as safely as possible. MP provide security for convoys first and foremost by maintaining security in the area through which the convoys will pass. Most convoys can move safely through an AO in which MP are providing area security. Only special ammunition convoys will routinely receive fully-accompanied, in-transit MP security. See Chapter 13.
When you are notified that a convoy will cross your AO, you will be given detailed information about the convoy. This information includes--
- The time the convoy is due to enter the AO.
- The size of the convoy.
- The convoy's route.
- The time the convoy is due to leave the AO.
Coordinate with MP in the AOs from which the convoy came to get the information you need to maintain continuity of the convoy's security. Relay this information to MP in the AOs to which it will be going. They also need this information. Know the convoy's rally points, actions on contact, and vehicle recovery operations. Designate a contact point where your unit transfers responsibility for the convoy to the next MP unit.
To help the convoy move through the area as quickly as possible (thus reducing its exposure to the enemy) you--
- Set up checkpoints, TCPs, and mounted patrols to limit traffic on the convoy's route.
- Increase NBC detecting and monitoring efforts along the route.
- Use TCPs or OPs/LPs along the route to prevent ambushes and the placing of mines on the route.
- Concentrate security on "choke" points along the route. Convoys are especially vulnerable on bridges, in tunnels, at critical intersections, and at sharp bends in the road.
When convoys are transporting critical supplies, the security is usually enhanced along the convoy's route within an AO. Additional measures might include--
- Increased route recon and surveillance.
- Increased area recon and surveillance.
- For a very critical convoy, a designated team to travel with the convoy in your AO and hand it off to a team from the next AO. The team would--
--Maintain communications with MP forces in the area.
--Coordinate for a response force if the convoy is attacked.
--Call for indirect fire or CAS and direct the fires on the enemy.
--Request more MP support in order to take action to defeat the enemy.
Reports from mobile patrols and OPs/LPs can give you early warning of enemy activity. If you perceive a convoy is at risk, notify your superior immediately. Try to advise the convoy commander of the threat. Be ready to reroute the convoy to an alternate MSR. And be ready to consolidate assets for a hasty attack if need be.
Defiles keep traffic moving smoothly despite narrowed passage ways. Controls at defiles ensure that traffic moves through the passage, one direction at a time, first from one end and then from the other. At a defile you--
- Brief drivers about obstructions like limited road widths.
- Control access so vehicles move through quickly.
- Ensure vehicles enter one at a time.
- Provide security and defend the position.
- Reroute traffic when necessary.
You suit the number and types of control measures at a defile to METT-T. You use the simplest methods of control. When you can, use two control measures to be sure the operation runs smoothly. Terrain or traffic needs may dictate a need for vehicle holding areas and signs or TCPs. Larger defiles require a holding area at each end. Placement of holding areas depends on the sites available and the ease of communicating between the sites and the defile.
Sometimes a squad may be needed to run a defile if two vehicle holding areas are needed. The squad leader provides leadership. One team sets up a near-side vehicle holding area. A second team sets up a far-side holding area. And a third team provides control at the defile site.
Control measures can include--
- Visual signals to tell traffic when to move. You can signal with an arm motion, a flashlight, or a hand-held flag. Use any technique that shows vehicles when to move. Visual signals work best for small defiles where holding areas are not needed. See FM 21-60 for more details.
- An FM radio or wire communications to tell teams in holding areas to hold or start traffic through the defile. Link communications directly between holding areas. Or route them through the leader at the defile site. Use wire communications as the main means of communication. Use FM communications as a backup or when no other means are available. Use FM communications as little as possible; they might be monitored by the enemy.
- A flag to identify the last vehicle moving through a defile. You give the flag to the last driver or attach it to the last vehicle entering the defile. Another MP removes the flag when the vehicle reaches the end of the defile. This serves as a signal for traffic to start in the opposite direction. The MP gives the flag to the last driver or vehicle now entering the defile, and the flag is recovered at the other end. This is repeated as often as needed.
- An MP rider to indicate the last vehicle of a column. The rider stays in the last vehicle until the column reaches the opposite side. He dismounts and rides back in the last vehicle returning. This technique ensures all vehicles clear the defile.
- MP lead and trail vehicles in the front and rear of a column to guide it through the defile. After the column clears the defile, the vehicles guide a column moving in the opposite direction. Use this method when movement through a defile is complex and requires an escort. The trail vehicle ensures all vehicles clear the defile. You can also use a single lead or a single trail vehicle, depending on the number of vehicles and the complexity of the defile.
Because defiles involve restricted movement, they are an ideal target for the enemy. Security at a defile is important. The leader at the defile orders a recon for enemy presence around the site before putting the defile into operation. He selects the MG fighting position, picking key terrain that overlooks the defile. He ensures that the team vehicle is covered and concealed. (Teams operating holding areas provide their own security.) See Operating Vehicle Holding Areas, Chapter 5.
You must plan for the removal of disabled vehicles. You may want to request a recovery vehicle to stand by at the defile. But you must be ready to use field-expedient measures when a recovery vehicle is not available. Other useful equipment includes communications wire, field phones, signs, and flags. Teams at defiles should have "standard TCP equipment." See Operating Traffic Control Posts, Chapter 5.
In any conflict involving US forces, accountability and the safe and humane treatment of captives is essential. US policy demands that all persons who are captured, interned, or held by US forces during a conflict be treated humanely. This policy applies from the moment captives are taken until the time they are released or repatriated. See Geneva Conventions and FM 27-10, AR 190-8, and AR 190-57.
Tactical commanders must have their forces available for maneuvering. But they also must resolve the problem of removing captives from the battle area. Maneuvering units must not be hindered by having to deal with large numbers of prisoners. Capturing troops take sick or wounded captives who need medical care directly to the nearest medical facility. Other captives are turned over to MP at the nearest EPW collecting point or holding area.
MP units assigned to divisions, corps, and TAACOMs operate EPW collecting points and holding areas to temporarily hold captives until they can be removed from the battle area. (Escorting captives to the rear is discussed later in this chapter.) MP accept captive EPWs from capturing units as far forward as possible.
Traditionally, MP operate collecting points in a division AO and holding areas in a corps or TAACOM AO. But collecting points and holding areas may be operated wherever they are needed.
At collecting points and holding areas you sustain, safeguard, and field process EPWs. See Field Processing later in this chapter. If captives are wounded or become ill while in your charge, you notify medical personnel, or you see that first aid is given.
You man guard posts and OPs to provide security and surveillance. You man fighting positions and operate enclosures to help prevent escape or liberation of captives. Enemy soldiers, like US soldiers, are trained to believe escape from captivity is a duty. Captives must be closely guarded. Ensure guard duty is rotated frequently so guards are fresh and alert. Consider captives' morale and physical condition when determining the number of guards needed at a given time. You must be prepared to use and maintain firm control and security.
At collecting points and holding areas, you work closely with MI teams determining if captives, their equipment, or their weapons can be of intelligence value. (Interrogators also may interpret for you during field processing.) You enable the MI interrogation teams collecting tactical intelligence to observe captives as they arrive and during processing. And you expedite processing for captives selected for interrogation.
Interrogation during field processing is conducted by MI interrogation teams. MI teams observe the captives as they are brought into the collecting points. The teams select EPWs of higher ranks for interrogation on-site. Those captives who should be interrogated immediately are given priority for processing so that they will be quickly available. High-value captives may be selected for additional interrogation at higher levels.
In an NBC environment, you decontaminate captives in the same way and to the same extent you would US forces. Request assistance through MP channels to the echelon rear CP. Issue new clothing and NBC protective gear to captives. Make requests through normal supply channels. The supply officer issues captured materials when available. If not available, the supply officer issues US equipment.
Captives are held at collecting points only briefly until they can be moved rearward. Often there is a division "forward collecting point" in a brigade's AO to hold captives who surrender or are captured in the battle area. Usually there is a central collecting point set up in the division rear. This collecting point accepts captives taken locally as well those escorted from forward units or collecting points.
DIVISION FORWARD COLLECTING POINTS
If a brigade has an MP platoon in direct support, MP teams may set up and operate a forward collecting point. A brigade that does not have MP in direct support sets up and runs its own collecting point. A division forward collecting point is most needed when the brigade conducts an offensive operation and is likely to take the most captives. The collecting point is least needed when the brigade is in reserve status or is being reconstituted.
The number of MP teams needed to operate a forward collecting point is based on the number of captives expected and METT-T. FM 101-10-1/2 provides possible planning factors for the number of captive a unit may expect to capture based on the type of mission.
A division forward collecting point must be able to set up, expand, and move quickly with little or no notice. The general location of a forward collecting point is given in the brigade operations plan (OPLAN) or OPORD. It often is located near or in the brigade support area (BSA). (Outside the BSA keeps captives from observing activities in the BSA.) Usually the collecting point is close to an MSR. This makes it easier to get supplies like water, food, and barrier material from the BSA. Transport, medical aid, and shelter are also provided by units in the BSA. (Request support through the forward support battalion.) Make every effort to have the actions or support you need from non-MP units for your operation stated in the brigade OPORD. If you are charged with running the collecting point--
- Coordinate with the unit responsible for the area.
- Conduct a recon before selecting an exact location for the collecting point.
- Locate the collecting point far enough from the fighting to avoid minor shifts of the main battle area (MBA) (normally 5 to 10 kilometers from the MBA).
- Notify the BSA tactical operations center (TOC) and PM operations section of the selected location. (The BSA TOC reports the exact location of the collecting point to the brigade TOC. The brigade TOC notifies subordinate units where the collecting point is located so troops with captives can take them there.)
- Coordinate with the MI interrogation team to learn if they will be collocating their interrogation site.
A forward collecting point is seldom set up near local inhabitants. But you can use existing structures like vacant schools, apartments, or warehouse when you can. This reduces construction needs and conserves the use of people and material. If existing structures are not used, captives, except officers, can be tasked to help construct the collecting point. See Setting Up and Operating Internment Facilities in the Theater, Chapter 11.
There is no set design for a forward collecting point. Build it to suit the climate, the weather, and the situation. When selecting or constructing a collecting point, consider how you will provide for--
- Security of the captives.
- First aid.
- Food and water.
- Latrine facilities.
- Field sanitation.
(You can have prisoners dig or build cover to protect themselves from artillery, mortar, or air attack.)
Captives arriving from the battle area may need basic sanitary supplies like soap and water. Ensure captives keep themselves clean to avoid disease. Provide water and food as needed.
When captives are field processed and ready for evacuation--
- Report captive status to the BSA TOC and through MP channels to the PM.
- Request transport, rations, and water for the captives from the forward support battalion S4.
- Ensure receipts for captives are ready for signing by escort guards.
- Ensure items taken from captives for security or intelligence reasons are given to the guards taking the captives to the rear. Make sure each item is tagged to identify the owner.
DIVISION CENTRAL COLLECTING POINTS
A central collecting point is larger than a forward collecting point. Your considerations for setting up and operating the collecting points are the same. But it can take many more MP elements to run a central collecting point. Augmentation by the division band and/or by corps MP elements augmenting division MP may be needed.
When a division corps, or echelons-above-corps band augments MP for EPW collection operations, they help MP prevent the escape or liberation of captives. The band members provide security. They control access to collecting points or holding areas. But band members do not process or interrogate captives.
The general location of the central collecting point is given in the division OPORD or OPLAN. It usually is located near the division support area (DSA). When you set up the collecting point be sure to--
- Coordinate with the unit responsible for the area.
- Conduct a recon before picking the exact location for the collecting point.
- Notify the PM and the operations cell of the division rear CP (through MP channels) of the collecting point location. (The operations cell notifies units in the division rear area of the central collecting point's location so units with captives can take them there.)
- Coordinate location of MI screening site (see detailed discussion of sites under Field Processing).
Use existing structures when you can. The collecting point usually is close to an MSR. This makes it easier to get supplies, transportation, and medical support from the DSA. (Request supplies through the division MP company.) Make every effort to have the actions or support you need from non-MP units stated in the coordinating instructions of the division OPORD.
At a central collecting point you must take measures to prevent nonbattle injuries, heat and cold injuries, and communicable diseases. Isolate captives who show signs of having diseases until they can be examined and placed in medical channels.
The division preventive medicine section supports the central collecting point. When needed, request assistance. Preventive medicine countermeasures (discussed in AR 40-5) include--
- Disinfecting and monitoring drinking water.
- Controlling animals and insects that carry disease.
- Ensuring captives help prevent illness by--
--Drinking enough water.
--Wearing clothing suited to the weather, climate, situation; frequently changing socks to keep feet dry.
--Carefully handling gasoline-type liquids in cold weather.
--Avoiding contact between skin and cold metal in cold weather.
--Using insect repellent, netting, and insecticide aerosols. Taking approved preventive medication.
--Using iodine tablets whenever water quality is uncertain.
--Properly disposing of bodily wastes.
--Washing the body as often as practicable.
Make sure incoming captives transferred from MP at forward collecting points are counted. Receipt for captives and their effects. Make sure all captives have been field processed. Keep in mind, some may be brought by capturing units directly to the central collecting point. Contact the division MP company to report captive status to the PM and to request transport, rations, and water for the captives during evacuation. Have receipts for captives being transferred ready for escort guards. Give items taken from captives for security or intelligence reasons to guards taking the captives to the rear. Make sure each item is tagged to identify the owner.
Holding areas can accommodate more captives than can collecting points. And holding areas can maintain captives for longer stays. Most holding areas are, like collecting points, very temporary activities that must be able to move with little or no notice. But sometimes captives must remain at a holding area until they can be moved to an EPW internment facility. And when the special-purpose EPW units that operate internment facilities are not present in a theater, captives may even be processed for internment and retained temporarily in holding areas until hostilities end. See Setting Up and Operating Internment Facilities in Theater, Chapter 11.
Holding areas usually are located near a base or a base cluster. The general location of a holding area is cited in the MP battalion OPLAN or OPORD. If you are setting up the holding area--
- Coordinate with the unit or installation responsible.
- Conduct a recon and select the exact location.
- Tell (through MP channels) MP battalion HQ and the unit HQ responsible for the area the location of the holding area. This information is needed to notify units in the area where to bring captives.
- Coordinate with the MI interrogation element about its operational requirements when its site is to be collocated with or within the holding area.
Holding areas are constructed much like collecting points. Existing structures are preferred. Lights may be used to illuminate a holding area if the tactical situation permits. Multistoried buildings, reducing the size of the perimeter, may reduce the number of people needed for perimeter security. (But you may need guards on each floor.) Holding areas must be able to be divided into two or more compounds for segregation and ease of command and control.
An MP platoon or company from a corps MP battalion usually operates a corps holding area. A platoon can guard up to 500 captives. A company can guard up to 2,000. If there is a mass capture and you receive more EPWs than you can handle, you can request guard force augmentation. The corps band can augment MP to provide security. Or you can coordinate for more frequent evacuations from the holding area.
Holding areas in the corps most often hold captives from division collecting points. Usually one holding area is set up to support each division that is conducting operations. The number of holding areas depends on--
- The size of the corps area.
- The type of terrain.
- The lengths of the MSRs.
- The number of captives being moved.
Make sure all captives and effects evacuated from division collecting points and any captives and their effects brought directly to a holding area are counted and receipted for. Make sure all captives have been field processed and observed by MI interrogators. You must be able to process captives in and out on a 24-hour basis.
Make bathing facilities available whenever possible, and have captives use them. Request supplies like water, food, soap, barrier material, and shelter, through MP channels, from the local corps support group. (Support agreements may be arranged between MP HQ and a base or a base cluster.) Sanitation facilities and supplies are needed as early in the evacuation process as possible to delouse and disinfest captives. Isolate captives who show signs of having diseases until they can be placed in medical channels.
If EPW holding areas exceed the capability of unit field sanitation teams, preventive medicine units help with--
- Survey and control of disease-carrying insects and animals.
- Sanitary engineering.
- Water treatment.
- Waste disposal.
Contact your company operations section to report captive status and request support for evacuation. (Actions readying captives for transfer to the rear are discussed under Collecting Points earlier in this chapter.)
COLLOCATED SCREENING SITES
MP operating EPW collecting points and holding areas aid the MI collection of tactical intelligence. MP provide MI screening and interrogation teams access to captives and to captured equipment and documents.
MI interrogation teams at collecting points and holding areas screen for captives likely to be sources of information. They do this as close to the dismount point or the entrance to the processing area as possible. The MI screeners observe the captives, examine captive tags, and look for signs like branch insignia that could indicate a captive might have information to support the commander's PIR and IR. Any captive who appears willing to talk is noted by the screeners. Screeners also look for captives attempting to talk to the guards, intentionally joining the wrong segregation group, or showing signs of nervousness, anxiety, or fear.
MP help MI screeners identify captives who might have answers supporting PIR and IR needs. As MP guarding captives are constantly in contact with captives, screeners ask MP about captives' behavior - how a captive responds to orders, what requests he or she makes, and so forth. MI team members may ask MP to strip search captives before interrogation. Try to ensure this search is carried on out of sight of other captives.
Screeners examine captured documents (identification cards, letters, map sections, and the like). They look for information that can identify a captive, his or her organization, mission, and personal background (family, knowledge, experience). (US documents pertaining to captives, like detainee personnel records, also can provide information. Knowledge of a captive's physical and emotional status or other background information can help MI to further assess a captive's willingness to cooperate. And the information can help verify information in the documents acquired at the time of his capture.)
MI teams collocate and establish interrogation operations at EPW collecting points and holding areas. The senior MI member contacts the MP in charge of the collecting point or holding area to coordinate location of site and operating procedures. Screening considerations to be coordinated include--
- A location from which screeners can observe captives as they are unprocessed and segregated. The site should be shielded from the direct view of captives. It should be far enough away that captives cannot overhear screening conversations. When possible the site should have an operations area and an administrative area as well as interrogation areas. An interrogation area must be able to accommodate an interrogator, a captive, a guard, and an interpreter, along with a table and at least three chairs. A light is required for night operations.
- Procedures to verify that sick or wounded personnel selected for interrogation have been treated and released by authorized medical personnel.
- Guards and procedures for escorting selected captives to the interrogation site within the collecting point or holding area.
- Evacuation procedures so that all concerned know the time constraints and procedures of exactly when and who should be evacuated.
Captives are accounted for in ever greater detail at each stage of their removal from a battlefield. Field processing of EPWs helps US forces control and account for captives while they are being moved rearward on the battlefield to greater safety. Capturing US forces use the "five-S-and-T" method to account for the enemy soldiers they take captive. See Captives, Chapter 2. Then MP at collecting points and holding areas provide an extensive "field processing." Later, before captives can be interned, repatriated, or released, MP at processing centers provide full-scale EPW/CI processing.
To process captives at collecting points and holding areas, you use the "STRESS" method: search, tag, report, evacuate, segregate, and safeguard.
Search captives and inspect everything they have. Allow captives to keep--
- Their protective clothing and equipment, such as helmets or protective masks, for use during evacuation from the combat zone. (When captives reach an internment facility these items may or may not be impounded or confiscated. The facility commander makes this decision, based on the likelihood of NBC attack.)
- Items that qualify as retained property, like identification cards or tags or like personal property having no intelligence value. Items captives are normally allowed to keep include personal effects, clothing, mess equipment (except knives and forks), badges of rank and insignia, decorations, religious literature, and articles that have sentimental value.
Remove items that captives are not permitted to keep. Confiscate any weapons, ammunition, military equipment, or items with intelligence value. Confiscated items are not returned to captives when they are released or repatriated. Check with MI to determine the intelligence value of varied items and to learn which items, if any, will be retained by MI. Personal documents like diaries, letters from home, and family pictures may be taken by MI interrogation teams for review and later returned to MP to be given back to the owner.
Impound items that captives are not allowed to keep during captivity, but which will be returned to them when they are released. Such items include personal effects that make escape easier and items that could be dangerous to US security interests like cameras, radios, and currency. (All currency and negotiable instruments found on EPWs are impounded.) For further discussion about confisated or impounded property, see AR 190-8 and AR 37-36.
When taking property from captives, prepare receipts. See Appendix J. (And consider bundling a captive's property or placing it in bags to keep each captive's property intact and separate.) Be sure to--
- Use the correct and current request for issue or turn-in for confiscated property.
- Use the correct and current receipt for evidence/property custody for impounded property.
- Prepare a receipt for any currency and/or negotiable instruments and both the EPW and you, the receiver, sign it. Use cash collection vouchers when impounding currency and negotiable instruments so that the value can be credited to the individual EPW account concerned. (Turn in to the Finance and Accounting Office.) List currency and negotiable instruments on the captive's personal property list, but treat them as impounded property.
- Keep the original receipt with the property during evacuation.
- Give captives copies of receipts for their property.
- Obtain a receipt for any property that will be retained by MI if screeners want to keep a weapon or document for closer examination and its evacuation will be through MI channels.
- Have the MI element clear confiscated property--
--That can be turned in to supply personnel.
--That will be retained as items of intelligence value to be forwarded through intelligence channels.
You must be able to account for captives' property until its final disposition in accord with instructions from the highest level of command responsible for EPWs You must keep captives from having access to confiscated or impounded property. And US forces must have controlled access to these items. Turn in cleared confiscated property as far forward as possible. Remaining property taken from EPWs is evacuated by the escorting MP.
Tags are used to account for captives. Tags are placed on captives by capturing troops. Check the tag on each captive. Be sure the tag contains, at the least--
- Date and time of capture.
- Location of capture.
- Capturing unit.
- Special circumstances of capture. (Special circumstances of capture include information such as whether the captive surrendered willingly or resisted capture and a statement of the captive's general/visible physical condition.)
Place a tag on any captive who arrives at the collecting point not wearing a tag.
- Instruct captives not to remove or alter their tags. Capture tags must comply with STANAG 2044. Attach part A of the capture tag to the captive. Maintain part Bin the capturing unit. Attach part C to property that is taken from the captive.
- Fill out the tag as accurately as possible.
- State on the tag that the captive arrived at the collecting point without a tag.
Account for arriving captives by filling out the correct and current form for receipt of a prisoner or detained person, specifying--
- From whom the captive was received.
- The time and date the captive was received.
- Identification of the captive. (Use the number on the capture tag when the captive's name, service number, grade, or date of birth are unknown.)
- Name, service number, grade, unit, and signature of the MP who accepts custody of the captive.
- A statement in the remarks section about the general physical condition of the captive. For example: received without wounds, illness, or injury, or wounded in upper left arm.
Account for captives who are not able or willing to provide information for the receipt. Use the number on the capture tag. Use this number also for sick or wounded captives, captives who do not speak English, or when interpreters are not available.
Report your acquisition of captives through MP channels to help plan transportation and security measures.
Evacuate captives to the rear as soon as possible. Do not delay evacuation of captives to obtain name, rank, service number, or date of birth.
Segregate captives using field-expedient materials if you must. Segregate by rank (officers, noncommissioned officers, and enlisted) and by sex. Segregate civilians from military personnel. When possible, segregate captives by nationality and ideology. Segregate also--
- Captives who surrendered willingly or who deserted from those who resisted capture. (This may be difficult because of language differences.)
- Captives who cannot be readily identified as belonging to one of these groups.
For security reasons, segregate captives who do not provide the information needed for you to make a proper classification. Keep them segregated until their status can be determined.
Ultimately all captives are classified as EPWs retained persons, CIs, or other detainees. These categories are discussed in detail in AR 190-8. Not all captives may be readily classified. If there is any doubt as to captives' status, protect them as EPWs until their status can be determined by a competent tribunal. See FM 27-10.
Do not use coercion of any kind to obtain information from captives. This includes information like name, rank, service number, and date of birth that captives are required to provide by the Geneva Conventions.
Do not speak to captives except to give orders or directions. Do not let captives talk to or signal each other. This keeps them from plotting ways to counter security and plan escapes. You may have to gag captives in some tactical situations. Use gags only for as long as they are truly needed. The gags must not harm captives.
Safeguard captives IAW the Geneva Conventions and US policy. You--
- Provide first aid and medical treatment for any sick or wounded captives that medical personnel have declared well enough to be evacuated through MP channels.
- Provide firm, humane treatment at all times.
- Protect captives from abuse by other captives or by local civilians.
- Report through MP channels all acts or allegations of inhumane treatment. See AR 190-40.
EPWs are escorted from the combat zone as soon as possible. The intent is to send captives to the rear from division forward collecting points within 12 hours, from division central collecting points within 24 hours, and from corps to TAACOM holding areas within 48 hours.
When elements from special-purpose MP escort guard companies are present in a theater of operations, elements from these units go as far forward as possible, to corps and even to division, to accept accountability of captives.
The escorts safeguard and provide security for the captives while escorting them either from collecting points to holding areas to await further movement from the combat zone or directly to internment facilities.
If no escort guard companies are yet in the theater, MP in the division rear go forward to escort captives from forward to central collecting points. Corps MP escort captives from division central collecting points to corps holding areas. And TAACOM MP escort captives from corps holding areas to holding or internment areas or other destinations in the TAACOM.
EVACUATING ILL AND INJURED CAPTIVES
US medical personnel decide if captives are healthy enough to be escorted with in MP channels or if they need to be medically evacuated. Generally, the walking wounded go with other captives. Litter patients go through medical channels.
The US provides the same medical care for sick or wounded captives as that given to US and allied soldiers. Sick and wounded EPWs in the combat zone may be treated and returned to MP for evacuation. Or captives may be stabilized and moved through medical channels to the rear as far and as quickly as possible. Captives may be moved to corps medical facilities (combat support hospitals, mobile Army surgical hospitals, and evacuation hospitals). And they may be moved from corps medical facilities to field or general hospitals farther in the rear.
If captives need to be medically evacuated, medical personnel--
- Report this through medical channels to their next higher echelon.
- Request deposition instructions from the corps medical regulating officer (MRO).
- Coordinates transportation.
- Identifies the treatment facility to which sick or wounded captives will be taken.
The MRO and hospital commander coordinate with the branch Prisoner of War Information Center (PWIC) to account for captives in medical channels.
If a question of security arises, MP determine when security will be required for sick or wounded captives. Captives sick or wounded enough to be medically evacuated are not likely to be a security risk. Captives well enough to present a security risk can be treated by medical personnel and returned to MP control as soon as possible.
If medical personnel request security for EPWs at a medical facility in the corps area and the corps commander chooses to delegate that responsibility to MP the PM allocates support on a task, rather than a more permanent basis. (MP force structure does not provide for MP to guard hospitalized EPWs.)
ESCORTING ABLE-BODIED CAPTIVES
Able-bodied captives must be escorted during movement to keep them from escaping or from being liberated. To plan your security measures you must know the--
- Number of captives to be escorted. This helps you decide the number of guards you will need.
- Condition and morale of the captives. Fatigued and cooperative captives do not require as many guards as those who are fresher and more motivated.
- Type of transport to be used. The type of transport also helps set the number of guards.
- Terrain conditions along your route. Close terrain like dense woods or jungle often requires more guards than open terrain.
- Level of enemy activity along the route. The higher the level the greater the need to increase security precautions.
- Likelihood or presence of suspected sympathizers and hostile local nationals along the route.
- Scheduled arrival of your transport.
- Location of MP units or bases/base clusters along the route (in case you need help during the movement).
- Number and locations of rest stops (based on type of transportation, distance, and type of terrain).
When you go forward to escort captives to the rear, your responsibility begins at the collecting point or holding area where you accept custody of them. The method for moving captives, the location and time of pickup, and the number of captives to be moved are contained in your orders.
MP do not have vehicles for transporting EPWs Backhaul transport is used whenever possible. Your transport varies with the availability of vehicles delivering cargo in your area. You may find yourself evacuating captives from a division central collecting point back to a corps holding area on an ammunition vehicle that would otherwise be returning empty from the division rear. See FM 101-10-1/2 for detailed discussion of vehicles and their capacities.
Captives are evacuated on foot only as a last resort when transport is not available. Transport for captives is arranged through your company HQ. At division, the company HQ contacts the local movement control officer. At corps, the EPW/CI officer requests transport through the MP liaison officer assigned to the HTD.
Before leaving for the collecting point or holding area--
- Plan your route recon of the evacuation route.
- Verify the location of the collecting point. Do this shortly before your scheduled time for the move. (BSAs move often, other support areas less often.)
- Plan to stop only during daylight and outside towns or installations if you can.
- Plan ways to segregate captives by category (if possible).
- Check with MI interrogation teams for any property to be returned to captives before they are moved.
- Secure rations and water.
- Try to obtain captured enemy rations for the captives.
Brief the escort element on the need to--
- Accept custody and safeguard the captives.
- Ensure captives follow instructions and orders. (Be firm, but do not punish captives who fail to obey.)
- Ensure all captives (and any equipment) are listed on the custody receipt when custody is accepted.
- Retain custody receipts.
- Inspect passenger areas, latrines, and other places that might be accessible to captives. Look for means of escape or items that could be used as weapons.
- Remove latches from latrine doors, if possible.
- Talk to captives only to give orders and maintain control.
- Be prepared to foil escape attempts. If an escape occurs, recapture prisoners using the least force possible. If an attempt is made, shout "Halt!" If a captive fails to halt immediately, shout "Halt!" a second time. If necessary, shout "Halt!" a third time. After that, if there is no other way of stopping the escape, you may open fire. If you must fire at a captive, aim to disable rather than to kill. Increase security around recaptured EPWs.
- Take appropriate actions on enemy contact (air attack and ambush). Make sure the escort element knows who will control the captives and who will react to the enemy.
Before moving the captives, have them briefed on march discipline. Use a language understood by the captives. If available, have an interpreter give instructions. Captives must be told--
- The meaning of the word "Halt."
- That the "silence rule" applies at all times (no talking to the guards; no talking to each other).
- The actions they are to take during an emergency.
Be sure all captives have been field processed before they enter their transport.
Field detention facilities are used to hold US soldiers in custody until they can be tried. Pretrial confinement is used only to ensure an accused appears at trial or when the seriousness of the offense or the threat of violence makes confinement essential. Whenever possible, soldiers awaiting trial remain in their units. Only when they are a hazard to themselves or others are they detained in pretrial confinement under MP control.
Field detention facilities also are used to hold sentenced prisoners awaiting transfer to a theater's field confinement facility (FCF) or to the continental US (CONUS). After trial, convicted military prisoners are moved, whenever possible, to confinement facilities outside the combat zone.
Each echelon commander sets procedures and policies for detaining and confining soldiers. Often US military prisoners in a combat zone are placed under the control of an MP unit operating an EPW collecting point. When small numbers of US prisoners are on hand, a squad operating an EPW collecting point can best take responsibility for the security of US prisoners. But US military prisoners must be kept physically apart from EPWs And policy and procedures for the care and treatment of prisoners and the safeguarding of their personal effects remain the same as that set for other Army confinement facilities.
When prisoners are retained in-theater, separate temporary detention facilities may be set up in the corps or division areas. US military prisoners are held in the division rear area for the shortest possible time. At a division facility you--
- Safeguard US prisoners.
- Coordinate for their food and medical care.
- Sustain them until they can be evacuated to a corps facility.
- Transfer them to the corps facility as quickly as possible.
When the situation permits, MP from a detention facility at corps come forward to pick up prisoners at the request of the division's detention facility commander. From corps, the prisoners are evacuated to the theater confinement facility.
If a temporary detention facility is set up in the corps, it usually is operated by confinement teams from the confinement battalion in a personnel command (PERSCOM). These teams are organized and trained to perform confinement operations. But when corps detention operations are limited to prisoners being evacuated to a confinement battalion in the PERSCOM, elements from a combat support company can operate a temporary facility.
A field detention facility usually is located near the MP company CP for food, transport, and supply support. Request construction materials from Engineers to set up and run a facility. Your equipment and supplies must include--
- Barbed wire--roll.
- Barbed wire--concertina.
- Fence posts.
- Gates and doors.
- Floodlights and spotlights, complete with wiring.
- Emergency generator.
- Mess equipment and equipment for cleaning mess gear.
- Water cans and/or lyster bags.
- First aid equipment and supplies.
- Spare clothing and bedding.
- Hand restraints or leg irons.
- Heating equipment (cold climate).
- Field sanitation facilities.
The facility must be large enough to separate prisoners by prisoner status, custody grade, sex and rank. The facility must be located away from a base's perimeter or any other area of increased risk.
The size of the facility is based on the number of prisoners being detained. It may be a room or a tent, as long as it provides shelter equal to that offered other soldiers in the combat zone. The physical criteria for permanent and temporary structures are basically the same. Use existing structures if you can. Otherwise, use tents. Field-expedient facilities must be approved and periodically inspected by a Medical Corps officer or his designated representative.
A team or a squad can operate a field detention facility. A team operating a facility may organize so that the team leader controls the operation and relieves the guards. The other team members perform guard duty in alternating 12-hour shifts. When operating a field detention facility--
- Accept sentenced soldiers on the written order (currently a DD Form 497) of a court-martial-convening authority (or his authorized representative).
- Ensure the order states the name, grade, social security number, organization of prisoner, offense for which convicted, and the sentence.
- Accept accused soldiers on the written order (currently a DD Form 497) of the accused's commanding officer.
- Sign a receipt for each prisoner on the correct and current form.
- Sign a receipt for the prisoner's property on the correct and current form.
See Appendix J for a list of forms.
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