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APPENDIX C

DESCRIPTION AND USE OF NBC PROTECTIVE GEAR AND DETECTING EQUIPMENT

USING MOPP GEAR

Each MP has MOPP gear to protect himself from contamination by--

  • Chemical agent vapors.

--Aerosols.

--Droplets of liquid.

  • Live biological agents.
  • Toxins.
  • Radioactive alpha and beta particles.

MOPP gear consists of--

  • Battledress overgarment--a two-piece suit in a camouflage pattern.
  • Chemical-protective footwear covers (overboots) of impermeable black, unsupported butyl rubber soles and butyl sheet rubber uppers.
  • Chemical-protective glove set with impermeable black, butyl rubber outer gloves for protection and thin, white cotton inner gloves to absorb perspiration.
  • Protective mask with hood having--

--A voicemitter to make communicating easier.

--Two outserts to protect the eye lenses and keep lenses from fogging in low temperatures.

--Filter elements in cheeks of facepiece.

--A tube for drinking water from the canteen while masked.

--A waterproof bag to protect the filter elements from water damage.

  • Carrier for storing and transporting the mask.

See FM 3-4 for more details.

USING NBC DETECTORS

Each MP team has--

  • One IM-93/UD dosimeter.
  • One radiacmeter IM-174A/PD, a high-range dose rate instrument for area monitoring and surveying. The dose rate measurement tells you the amount of radiation you will be exposed to in a specific area over a period of time (centigray per hour). The AN/VDR-2 is currently replacing the IM-174 (and the company's APVPDR-27). The AN/VDR-2 is both a high-and low-range instrument used to locate and measure gamma rays and beta particles. It displays dose rates and total accumulated dose resulting from fallout. For detailed care of the radiacmeter, see TM 11-6665-213-12.
  • An M256/M256Al chemical agent detector kit and M8 and M9 detector paper to determine a positive presence or absence of toxic chemical agents. See TM 3-6665-307-10 for further information on this kit.
  • An M8A1 automatic chemical agent alarm system, consisting of an M42 alarm unit and an M43A1 detector unit. The system can detect the presence of nerve agents in the air. The alarm gives either a sound and a sight signal or a sight signal only. See TM 3-6665-312-12&P for further information on the M8A1 automatic chemical agent alarm system.
  • Each squad has one PP-1578A/PD charger. One is also kept at platoon HQ. Use the charger to recharge and zero the dosimeter. See TM 11-6665-214-10 for further information on the use of the IM-93/UD.

Each platoon has two chemical agent monitors (CAMs). A CAM is a portable hand-held, battery-operated instrument for detecting nerve or blister agent vapor present in the air.

The CAM consists of--

  • Monitor.
  • Carrying case.
  • Power source.
  • Carrying sling.
  • Confidence tester.
  • Filter nozzle standoff.

For more information on the CAM, see TM 3-6665-327-13&P.

Each company has one radiac set. Radiac set AN/PDR-27 is a low-range dose rate instrument for monitoring people, food, and equipment.

DETECTING AND MEASURING RADIATION

To detect radiation an MP team uses the IM-174A/PD radiacmeter. When monitoring to detect radiation--

  • The first to detect contamination shouts "fallout" to warn others.
  • All hearing the warning should relay it and seek cover.
  • All cover their mouths and noses with wet handkerchiefs, scarves, or the like. (Do not use your protective mask; it is not designed for radiological protection.)
  • Cover exposed skin with poncho, MOPP overgarment, or the like.
  • The team leader--
  • --Uses the radiological detecting device and dosimeter to determine the extent of contamination.

    --Submits an NBC-4 report when necessary. See FMs 3-3, 3-4, and 3-100.

To measure exposure to radiation each MP team has an IM-93/UD dosimeter. The dosimeter is the size of a fountain pen and is easy to operate. To measure the total dose of radiation to which you have been exposed--

  • Read the dosimeter by--

--Removing the dust cover.

--Using artificial light like a flashlight or vehicle headlights at night.

--Looking through the lens while pointing the dosimeter toward a light or toward the sky (but not directly at the sun).

  • Do not remove the dust cover except when taking a reading.
  • Use a piece of tape to close the open end if the dust cover is lost.
  • Every day--

--Record the daily total dose reading.

--Forward the reading through the chain of command.

--Recharge the dosimeter.

--Record the time of recharging.

To charge the dosimeter, remove the dust cover and place the dosimeter on the charger. Shine a flashlight or other light source through the window of the charger so that the scale of the dosimeter can be seen. Turn the handle on the charger until the indicator on the dosimeter is set at zero.

Each instrument should have a main operator and an alternate operator. The operators are trained in maintaining and using the instruments. See FM 3-4 for detailed instructions.

DETECTING THE PRESENCE OF CHEMICAL AGENTS

To detect the use of chemical agents a team uses its M256/M256Al chemical agent detector kit. The kit detects dangerous vapor concentrations of nerve, blister, and blood agents. It also detects liquid surface contamination. The kit contains operation instructions. Use the kit--

  • When you are under chemical attack.
  • When a chemical attack is reported to be imminent.
  • When you suspect the presence of a chemical agent.
  • Before unmasking.

The M256 kit contains M8 chemical agent detector paper. The paper turns dark green, yellow, or red on contact with liquid V-type or G-type nerve agents or with H-type blister (mustard) agents. You must touch the paper to the liquid agent to be sure of a positive test; the paper does not detect vapor. It works best on nonporous materials like metal. The test is not always reliable on porous materials like wood or rubber, which absorb the liquid agent. Many substances, including some solvents and decontaminants, can cause a color change in this paper. A color change shows only that a chemical agent may be present. Always verify positive reactions using an M256 chemical agent detector kit.

The kit also contains M9 chemical agent detector paper to detect liquid chemical agents. The paper indicates the presence of a nerve agent (G or V) or a blister agent (H or L) by turning red or a reddish color. Wear the M9 paper around the upper right arm, left wrist, and lower right leg, or vice versa, over your overgarment. If the paper changes color, you may be contaminated and need to decontaminate. For night operations, use a white light to read the paper. See TM 3-6665-311-10 for further information on M8/M9 chemical detector paper.

The two chemical agent monitors in each platoon also detect nerve or blister agent vapor present in the air. The CAM responds to nerve and blister agent vapors down to the lowest concentrations that could affect personnel over a short period. Use the CAM to--

  • Search out clean areas.
  • Search for and identify contaminated--

--Personnel.

--Equipment and vehicles.

--Structures and buildings.

--Terrain.

  • Monitor for the effectiveness of decontamination.




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