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Military

Appendix B

Operations Security

Military police in a theater of operations must be continuously alert for enemy attempts to learn about our plans and capabilities to gain a tactical advantage. The enemy's intelligence collection includes the following four methods.

HUMINT

Human Intelligence--using people to gather information.

Examples:

  • Local population.
  • Intelligence agents disguised as friendly troops to keep track of loose talk, information posted on maps and vehicle windshields, and to gather written materials improperly safeguarded.
  • Ground and aerial reconnaissance.
  • SIGINT

    Signal Intelligence--using devices to intercept our telecommunications and other electronic signal emitters.

    Examples:

  • Telecommunications intercept by wire tap or radio monitoring.
  • Emission monitoring from radar and other signal emitting devices.
  • EW

    Electronic Warfare--using EW assets to intercept, direction find, jam and deceive us.

    Examples:

  • Using intercept techniques to identify EW targets.
  • Using direction finding to locate EW targets.
  • Imitative communications and jamming to confuse or cause poor communications security (COMSEC) for our forces.
  • PHOTINT

    Photographic Intelligence--using photo graphic equipment aboard aircraft and other airborne platforms to gain information.

    Examples:

  • Aircraft with infrared and other photo devices.
  • Other airborne platforms to take pictures of US installations and formations.
  • Operations security (OPSEC) is vital to achieving surprise and security on the battlefield. The term applies to all procedures which keep the enemy from collecting information that would give him a tactical advantage.

    OPSEC consists of four main categories of security measures--deception, physical security, signal security, and information security. All are interrelated. They must be considered simultaneously for each military operation. Military Police in the theater of operations must understand each type security measure.

  • Deception misleads the enemy about our current or intended operations. Deception also includes measures that prevent the enemy from spotting a pattern, or stereotyping our actions. Deception is also used to confuse the enemy when our actions could obviously provide information of our intentions.
  • Examples of deceptive techniques include:

    Camouflage

    Demonstration

    Smoke

    Ruse

    Decoy

    Feint

  • Physical Security is protecting operational information or activity by using security forces (listening posts, observation posts, patrols, guards), barriers (wire, antitank ditches) and anti-intrusion devices (mines, signal flares). These deny or limit enemy access to installations, facilities, documents and personnel.
  • Signal Security protects operational information by practicing communications security (COMSEC) techniques and electronic security (ELSEC) techniques.
  • COMSEC includes the use of numeral cipher authentication system (DRYAD), operation codes, secure voice equipment and proper radio telephone operator (RTO) procedures.

    ELSEC includes radio silence and proper positioning of radars and antennas.

  • Information Security prevents disclosures of operation information through written, verbal or graphic communications. Restrictions are placed on personnel, and the release of operational information and documents to safeguard against unintentional release of data important to the enemy.
  • Military Police units and provost marshal elements must maintain continuous liaison with all staff sections and units which influence their roles and mission functions. All commanders and staff efforts, including intelligence, communications-electronics, logistics, maintenance, and administration, consider OPSEC in providing maximum protection for an operation.

    The G2/S2 estimates the hostile intelligence threat once the G3/S3 has stated the mission. The S2 coordinates with C-E officers, supporting intelligence and security command (INSCOM) elements, and other appropriate sources to determine the enemy's intelligence collection capabilities and resources.

    Of particular importance to MP units and CCPs is information on the following enemy activities:

  • Ground reconnaissance
  • Civilian espionage agents
  • Radio direction finding units
  • Recon by airborne platforms
  • EW forces.
  • Determining sensitive aspects of the operation is a joint task of G3/S3 and G2/S2. Examples of information which, if known by the enemy, could compromise an operation are:

  • Objective(s).
  • Units conducting the attack.
  • Task organization.
  • Command post locations.
  • Combat service support activity, location and movement.
  • Military Police are continuously concerned with the above types of information. They must insure that information is passed only with secure equipment or authorized coding procedures.

    Determining OPSEC vulnerabilities is done by the G3/S3 concerned with staff actions that if known by the enemy could provide elements of friendly information (EEFI). Examples of such staff actions are:

  • Requests for maps of certain areas.
  • Publication of movement orders.
  • Significant increase in reconnaissance activity of certain areas.
  • Movement of combat service support units.
  • OPSEC countermeasures are applied to give maximum protection to each operation. All four categories of OPSEC are considered, as in the following examples.

    Deception

  • Camouflage vehicles, equipment and personnel.
  • Use smoke.
  • Move logistics at night or during reduced visibility.
  • Physical Security

  • Lay wire obstacles and minefield.
  • Use LP, OP and patrols.
  • Limit access to command posts (CP) and tactical operation centers (TOC).
  • Use guards and security forces.
  • Use challenge and password.
  • Practice convoy security.
  • Information Security

  • Briefing all persons on SAEDA.
  • Limit operational information to persons with need to know.
  • Refrain from posting operational information on vehicle windshields and other nonsecure areas.
  • Enforce light and noise discipline.
  • Signal Security

  • Impose radio silence.
  • Use contents of the CEOI properly.
  • Use COMSEC equipment and OPCODES (DRYAD).
  • Operators use only essential radiating power on radios.
  • Use secure voice equipment.
  • Minimize all electrically transmitted messages.
  • Use messengers whenever possible.
  • Use wire communication whenever possible.


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