Weapon Systems and Ammunition Capabilities
Through its lethal weapons and maneuverability, the HMMWV provides the cavalry crew the means to survive as an effective reconnaissance element. This chapter discusses the weapon systems on the HMMWV and the capabilities of ammunition used by those weapon systems.
M60 7.62-mm Machine Gun
The M60 machine gun is used to engage dismounted infantry, crew-served weapons, ATGM teams, thin-skinned vehicles, and aircraft. This fully automatic machine gun fires from the open-bolt position and is belt fed, gas operated, and air cooled with fixed headspace and timing (see Table 2-1, Weapon Systems Characteristics).
The preferred combat ammunition mix for the M60 machine gun is four ball (M80) and one tracer (M62).
M240B 7.62-mm Machine Gun
The M240B machine gun is the latest version of the 7.62-mm machine gun. As units are fielded with the M240B, the M60 will be phased out.
The M240B machine gun is designed as a tripod-mounted or bipod-supported 7.62mm machine gun for use by ground forces. Like the M60, the M240B is a fully automatic machine gun, fires from the open-bolt position, and is belt fed, gas operated, and air cooled with fixed headspace and timing. The M240B has a butt stock and can be ground mounted on the M122A1 tripod mount (refer to TM 9-1005-245-13&P) or integral bipod. (See Table 2-1, Weapon Systems Characteristics.)
|M60/M240B 7.62-MM MACHINE GUN|
|M61 Armor-piercing||Against light-armor targets.|
|M62 Tracer||For observation of fire, incendiary effects, signaling, and training.|
|M80 Ball||Against light, materiel targets and personnel, and for range training.|
|M172 Dummy||During mechanical training.|
|M82 Blank||During training when simulated live fire is desired. (A blank firing attachment must be used to fire this ammunition.)|
M2 HB Caliber .50 Machine Gun
The M2 HB machine gun is used to engage dismounted infantry, crew-served weapons, ATGM teams, light-armor vehicles, and aircraft. The M2 fires from the closed-bolt position and is belt fed, recoil operated, air cooled, and crew operated. The gun is capable of single shot and automatic fire (see Table 2-1, Weapon Systems Characteristics).
The preferred combat ammunition mix for the M2 HB machine gun is four (API-M8) and one (API-T-M20). Maximum effective range is 1,830 meters.
|M2 HB CALIBER .50 MACHINE GUN|
|M2 Ball||In marksmanship training against personnel and light, materiel targets.|
|M1 Tracer||To aid in observing fire. Secondary purposes are for incendiary effect and signaling.|
|M2 Armor-piercing||Against armored aircraft, light-armor vehicles, concrete shelters, and other bullet-resisting targets.|
|M1 Incendiary||Incendiary effect, especially against aircraft.|
|M8 Armor-piercing||Combined armor-piercing and incendiary effect.|
|M20 Armor-piercing||Combined armor-piercing and incendiary effect, with the additional tracer feature.|
|M903 SLAP||Saboted, light-armor penetrating.|
|M962 SLAP||Saboted, light-armor penetrating, with tracer.|
|M1 Blank||For simulated fire (contains no bullet).|
|M2 Dummy||For training (completely inert).|
MK 19 40-mm Grenade Machine Gun
The MK 19 is used against slow-moving, hovering, or low-flying hostile rotary-wing aircraft; dismounted infantry; and light-armor vehicles. The MK 19 automatic fires from the open-bolt position and is belt fed, blowback operated, and air cooled (see Table 2-1, Weapon Systems Characteristics).
The MK 19 fires the following cartridges: M430/M430A1 high-explosive, dual-purpose grenades, M383 high-explosive grenade, M385/M918 training practice, and M922/M922A1 dummy rounds (see the table below for a description of the characteristics of these cartridges).
|MK 19 40-MM GRENADE MACHINE GUN|
|M430/M430A1 High-Explosive Dual-Purpose Grenades||
The M430 and M430A1 are designed to penetrate armor and inflict personnel casualties.
|M383 High-Explosive Grenade||
The M383 is designed to inflict personnel casualties. It is packed in linked, 48-round belts.
|M385/M918 Training Practice||
The M385 is an inert round with a propellant charge. The M918 is a flash-bang round with a propellant charge.
|M922/M922A1 Dummy Rounds||The M922/M922A1 rounds are totally inert. They are used to check gun functioning and train gun crews. They are issued only to armorers.|
Tube-Launched, Optically Tracked, Wire-Guided (TOW) Weapon System
The TOW weapon system consists of a launcher with tracking and control capabilities, and a missile encased in a launch container. The launcher is equipped with self-contained, replaceable units (see Table 2-1, Weapon Systems Characteristics).
The TOW weapon system can be employed in all weather conditions, if the gunner can see his target through the optical sight or night sight. The TOW is primarily an antitank weapon system, used to provide long-range engagement of all known armored targets. It also provides a long-range assault capability against heavily fortified bunkers, pill boxes, and gun emplacements.
There are six missiles available for the TOW:
- BGM-71A Basic TOW (range 3,000 meters).
- BGM-71A-1 Basic TOW Extended Range (range 3,750 meters).
- BGM-71C Improved TOW (range 3,750 meters, and larger warhead).
- BGM-71D TOW 2 (range 3,750 meters, warhead standoff).
- BGM-71E TOW 2A (range 3,750 meters, extended warhead standoff).
- BGM-71F TOW 2B (range 3,750 meters, top attacking warhead).
Note. All missiles have a minimum arming range of 65 meters, with the exception of the BGM-71F TOW 2B, which has a minimum arming range of 150 to 300 meters.
The TOW missiles listed below may be fired from an unprotected system. These systems include helicopters, HMMWVs, and ground-launched systems.
|TOW WEAPON SYSTEM|
Weapon Systems Characteristics
The following table depicts the characteristics of the weapon systems discussed in this chapter.
|WEAPON SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS|
|WEAPON||M240B||M60||M2 HB||MK 19||TOW|
|Weight (pounds)||27.6||23||84||76||93 (with overpack)|
|Length (inches)||49||43.5||65.13||43||57.3 (with overpack)|
|Maximum Range (meters)||3,725||3,725||6,767||2,212||3,750|
|Arming Range (meters)||NA||NA||NA||18 to 30||65|
|Minimum Safe Range (meters)||NA||NA||NA||310||NA|
|RATE OF FIRE|
|Cyclic (rpm)||650 to 950 (firing at 950 rpm will cause damage to the weapon)||
|Rapid (rpm)||200* (2 to 3 sec between bursts) (change barrel every 2 min)||200* (6 to 9 rds per burst at 2 to 3 sec intervals)||40* (6 to 9 rds per burst at 5 to 10 sec intervals)||60||NA|
|Sustained (rpm)||100* (4 to 5 sec between bursts) (change barrel every 10 min)||100* (4 to 5 sec between bursts)||40*||40||NA|
|Slow (rpm)||NA||NA||<40* (6 to 9 rds per burst at 10 to 15 sec intervals)||NA||NA|
|Single Shot||NA||NA||(One round every 2 to 3 seconds, as dictated by target)||NA||NA|
|Example Load (rounds)||600||600||NA||NA||NA|
* With barrel change.
Table 2-1. Weapon Systems Characteristics.
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