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Military

Chapter 2

Weapon Systems and Ammunition Capabilities

Through its lethal weapons and maneuverability, the HMMWV provides the cavalry crew the means to survive as an effective reconnaissance element. This chapter discusses the weapon systems on the HMMWV and the capabilities of ammunition used by those weapon systems.

M60 7.62-mm Machine Gun

The M60 machine gun is used to engage dismounted infantry, crew-served weapons, ATGM teams, thin-skinned vehicles, and aircraft. This fully automatic machine gun fires from the open-bolt position and is belt fed, gas operated, and air cooled with fixed headspace and timing (see Table 2-1, Weapon Systems Characteristics).

The preferred combat ammunition mix for the M60 machine gun is four ball (M80) and one tracer (M62).

M240B 7.62-mm Machine Gun

The M240B machine gun is the latest version of the 7.62-mm machine gun. As units are fielded with the M240B, the M60 will be phased out.

The M240B machine gun is designed as a tripod-mounted or bipod-supported 7.62mm machine gun for use by ground forces. Like the M60, the M240B is a fully automatic machine gun, fires from the open-bolt position, and is belt fed, gas operated, and air cooled with fixed headspace and timing. The M240B has a butt stock and can be ground mounted on the M122A1 tripod mount (refer to TM 9-1005-245-13&P) or integral bipod. (See Table 2-1, Weapon Systems Characteristics.)

M60/M240B 7.62-MM MACHINE GUN
AMMUNITION USE
M61 Armor-piercing Against light-armor targets.
M62 Tracer For observation of fire, incendiary effects, signaling, and training.
M80 Ball Against light, materiel targets and personnel, and for range training.
M172 Dummy During mechanical training.
M82 Blank During training when simulated live fire is desired. (A blank firing attachment must be used to fire this ammunition.)

M2 HB Caliber .50 Machine Gun

The M2 HB machine gun is used to engage dismounted infantry, crew-served weapons, ATGM teams, light-armor vehicles, and aircraft. The M2 fires from the closed-bolt position and is belt fed, recoil operated, air cooled, and crew operated. The gun is capable of single shot and automatic fire (see Table 2-1, Weapon Systems Characteristics).

The preferred combat ammunition mix for the M2 HB machine gun is four (API-M8) and one (API-T-M20). Maximum effective range is 1,830 meters.

M2 HB CALIBER .50 MACHINE GUN
AMMUNITION USE
M2 Ball In marksmanship training against personnel and light, materiel targets.
M1 Tracer To aid in observing fire. Secondary purposes are for incendiary effect and signaling.
M2 Armor-piercing Against armored aircraft, light-armor vehicles, concrete shelters, and other bullet-resisting targets.
M1 Incendiary Incendiary effect, especially against aircraft.
M8 Armor-piercing Combined armor-piercing and incendiary effect.
M20 Armor-piercing Combined armor-piercing and incendiary effect, with the additional tracer feature.
M903 SLAP Saboted, light-armor penetrating.
M962 SLAP Saboted, light-armor penetrating, with tracer.
M1 Blank For simulated fire (contains no bullet).
M2 Dummy For training (completely inert).

MK 19 40-mm Grenade Machine Gun

The MK 19 is used against slow-moving, hovering, or low-flying hostile rotary-wing aircraft; dismounted infantry; and light-armor vehicles. The MK 19 automatic fires from the open-bolt position and is belt fed, blowback operated, and air cooled (see Table 2-1, Weapon Systems Characteristics).

The MK 19 fires the following cartridges: M430/M430A1 high-explosive, dual-purpose grenades, M383 high-explosive grenade, M385/M918 training practice, and M922/M922A1 dummy rounds (see the table below for a description of the characteristics of these cartridges).

MK 19 40-MM GRENADE MACHINE GUN
AMMUNITION CHARACTERISTICS
M430/M430A1 High-Explosive Dual-Purpose Grenades

The M430 and M430A1 are designed to penetrate armor and inflict personnel casualties.

  • Identification: Olive drab with yellow-olive and yellow markings.
  • Fuse: PIBD M549.
  • Filler: Composition B.
  • Arming distance: 18 to 30 meters.
  • Kill radius: Approximately 7 meters.
  • Wound radius: Approximately 15 meters.
  • Maximum range: 2,200 meters.
  • Maximum effective range: 1,200 meters.
M383 High-Explosive Grenade

The M383 is designed to inflict personnel casualties. It is packed in linked, 48-round belts.

  • Fuse: PD M533.
  • Filler: Composition A5.
  • Arming distance: 18 to 36 meters.
  • Blast radius: 15 meters.
  • Maximum range: 2,200 meters.
M385/M918 Training Practice

The M385 is an inert round with a propellant charge. The M918 is a flash-bang round with a propellant charge.

  • Propellant: M2.
  • Maximum range: 2,200 meters.
  • Maximum effective range: 1,500 meters.
M922/M922A1 Dummy Rounds The M922/M922A1 rounds are totally inert. They are used to check gun functioning and train gun crews. They are issued only to armorers.

Tube-Launched, Optically Tracked, Wire-Guided (TOW) Weapon System

The TOW weapon system consists of a launcher with tracking and control capabilities, and a missile encased in a launch container. The launcher is equipped with self-contained, replaceable units (see Table 2-1, Weapon Systems Characteristics).

The TOW weapon system can be employed in all weather conditions, if the gunner can see his target through the optical sight or night sight. The TOW is primarily an antitank weapon system, used to provide long-range engagement of all known armored targets. It also provides a long-range assault capability against heavily fortified bunkers, pill boxes, and gun emplacements.

There are six missiles available for the TOW:

  • BGM-71A Basic TOW (range 3,000 meters).
  • BGM-71A-1 Basic TOW Extended Range (range 3,750 meters).
  • BGM-71C Improved TOW (range 3,750 meters, and larger warhead).
  • BGM-71D TOW 2 (range 3,750 meters, warhead standoff).
  • BGM-71E TOW 2A (range 3,750 meters, extended warhead standoff).
  • BGM-71F TOW 2B (range 3,750 meters, top attacking warhead).

Note. All missiles have a minimum arming range of 65 meters, with the exception of the BGM-71F TOW 2B, which has a minimum arming range of 150 to 300 meters.

The TOW missiles listed below may be fired from an unprotected system. These systems include helicopters, HMMWVs, and ground-launched systems.

TOW WEAPON SYSTEM
MISSILE DODIC
Standard:
BGM-71A-2A PE03
BTM-71A-2B PV04
Extended Range:
BGM-71A-3A PE04
BTM-71A-3A PE64
BTM-71A-1B PV05
BTM-71A-3B PV39
Improved:
BGM-71C-2B PV03
BGM-71C-1A PE05
BGM-71C-4B PV45
TOW 2:
BGM-71D-1B PV01
BGM-71D-38 PV26
BTM-71D-1B PV02
TOW 2A:
BGM-71E-1B PE96
BGM-71E-3B PV47
TOW 2B:
BGM-71-F PV18
BGM 71-F-1 PV82

Weapon Systems Characteristics

The following table depicts the characteristics of the weapon systems discussed in this chapter.

WEAPON SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS
WEAPON M240B M60 M2 HB MK 19 TOW
Weight (pounds) 27.6 23 84 76 93 (with overpack)
Length (inches) 49 43.5 65.13 43 57.3 (with overpack)
Maximum Range (meters) 3,725 3,725 6,767 2,212 3,750
Arming Range (meters) NA NA NA 18 to 30 65
Minimum Safe Range (meters) NA NA NA 310 NA
RATE OF FIRE
Cyclic (rpm) 650 to 950 (firing at 950 rpm will cause damage to the weapon)

550*
approximate

500 375 NA
Rapid (rpm) 200* (2 to 3 sec between bursts) (change barrel every 2 min) 200* (6 to 9 rds per burst at 2 to 3 sec intervals) 40* (6 to 9 rds per burst at 5 to 10 sec intervals) 60 NA
Sustained (rpm) 100* (4 to 5 sec between bursts) (change barrel every 10 min) 100* (4 to 5 sec between bursts) 40* 40 NA
Slow (rpm) NA NA <40* (6 to 9 rds per burst at 10 to 15 sec intervals) NA NA
Single Shot NA NA (One round every 2 to 3 seconds, as dictated by target) NA NA
EFFECTIVE RANGE
Area (meters) 1,800 1,100 1,829 2,212 NA
Point (meters) 800 900+ 1,200 1,500 3,750
Moving (meters) NA NA NA NA 3,750
AMMUNITION
Example Load (rounds) 600 600 NA NA NA

* With barrel change.

Table 2-1. Weapon Systems Characteristics.



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