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Military

Chapter 13

Scout Section Gunnery

Tables IX and X are used to train and evaluate the scout section's ability to conduct reconnaissance and limited security missions, and engage stationary and moving targets. Table IX trains section gunnery, and Table X evaluates the scout sections.

Units may use device-based gunnery to train before a major gunnery density. Available resources (time, training area, range facilities, and ammunition) will determine the commander's method of training.

An AAR for the entire section will be conducted upon completion of each table. The evaluator will debrief each section on its strengths and weaknesses. Videotaped exercises provide visual feedback (of both positive and negative actions) to the section, and should be used whenever possible.

Note. Because of the maneuvering constraints required by safety standards when firing MK 19 practice ammunition, these section tables cannot be fired on all ranges, using the MK 19 weapon system.

Tactical Training

The focus of the tactical scenario used for these tables must be on the scout's primary mission of collecting and reporting information. The scout's ability to effectively use his combat resources (direct- and indirect-fire assets) while remaining undetected on the battlefield must be evaluated.

TASK LIST

To maintain tactical emphasis throughout the scout section tables, a standard list of nine combat-critical tasks are mandatory in each table. Scenarios for each table will include the 9 critical tasks and a minimum of 3 commander-selected tasks (total of 12 tactical tasks per table). Using the information provided in this chapter as a guide, the commander designs his own tables, based on resources available and the unit's training needs (the scoresheets in this chapter are examples only). This flexibility ensures that each unit receives the training required for their scout sections to function effectively.

The following lists the required combat critical tasks for Tables IX and X:

  • Task 1. Execute action on contact.
  • Task 2. Report enemy information.
  • Task 3. Call for and adjust indirect fire.
  • Task 4. Conduct tactical movement.
  • Task 5. Control scout section fires.
  • Task 6. Conduct a screen.
  • Task 7. Perform a passage of lines.
  • Task 8. Cross an NBC contaminated area.
  • Task 9. Perform a zone reconnaissance.

Based on the METL, the commander may choose from, but is not limited to, the following tasks for the tactical scenario (see ARTEP 17-57-10-MTP):

  • Coordinate with adjacent platoon.
  • Perform an area reconnaissance.
  • Perform a route reconnaissance.
  • Perform reconnaissance by fire.
  • Prepare a route reconnaissance overlay.
  • Emplace and retrieve a hasty protective minefield.
  • Reorganize a squad following enemy contact while in the defense.
  • React to indirect fire.

Terrain, weather, and distance between engagements dictate course time. Tactical tasks may be conducted at a nearby training area if range areas are not extensive enough to allow tactical maneuvering; however, total integration of gunnery and tactics is preferred to maximize the training effectiveness of these tables.

Evaluation Procedures

To evaluate the tactical tasks, the evaluator may use the performance checklists provided in Appendix C. Commanders may add subtasks to the checklists to reflect their METL more accurately. To evaluate tasks not included in Appendix C, the evaluator may develop performance checklists using ARTEP 17-57-10-MTP.

These evaluation procedures allow sections to train and practice the skills normally performed in combat. Evaluators will use AARs to critique sections upon completion of the tables.

RESOURCES

Live-fire gunnery requires a multilane range facility (such as an MPRC) that will allow at least two vehicles to maneuver as a section (local range SOPs will dictate support requirements).

Device-based gunnery requires the use of MILES. Equipping a scout section with MILES is simple; however, inattention to detail and failure to properly boresight or follow checkout procedures will cause a serious training degradation. Including MILES in the precombat inspection will help identify and correct shortcomings. Whenever MILES is used, make sure the mounting and checkout procedures are in accordance with TC 25-6-1.

Both device-based and live-fire gunnery tables require evaluator support. Evaluators will be identified, trained, and scheduled before the conduct of the table. A scoring packet with performance checklists and scoresheets, scenarios, OPORDs, and sequence of events will be provided to the evaluator. Internal evaluation is acceptable; however, external evaluation is preferred.

The following is a list of recommended equipment to assist the commander in identifying resources needed for table execution:

For live-fire gunnery:

  • MPRC, or suitable facility allowing two or more vehicles to maneuver as a section.
  • - TOW backblast area (75 meters by 90 degrees) will be clear.
    - Area in which smoke may be used.

  • Class V, consisting of, but not limited to--
  • - Four-and-one-mix caliber .50, four-and-one-mix 7.62mm, and 40-mm TP or ATWESS.
    - Artillery simulators.
    - Smoke pots.
    - Red smoke grenades.
    - White smoke grenades.
    - Green smoke grenades.
    - Red star clusters.
    - White or green star clusters.
    - Illumination.

For device-based training:

  • Training area (1 kilometer by 2 kilometers or larger).
  • MILES equipment for each vehicle consisting of--
  • - TM 9-1265-375-10.
    - Laser transmitter.
    - Man-worn helmet and torso harness detector assemblies.
    - Combat vehicle kill indicator.
    - Control console.
    - Battery box assembly.
    - Target-holding mechanisms with MILES target interface devices or OPFOR with VISMODS and MILES.
    - MILES controller guns.

  • Class V, consisting of, but not limited to--
  • - Caliber .50 blank.
    - Caliber 7.62 blank.
    - Hoffman devices.
    - Artillery simulators.
    - Smoke pots.
    - Red smoke grenades.
    - White smoke grenades.
    - Green smoke grenades.
    - Red star clusters.
    - White or green star clusters.
    - Illumination.

Other resources needed for both live-fire gunnery and device-based training:

  • Evaluators and support packages consisting of--
  • - Scoresheets.
    - Performance checklists.
    - Sequence of events.
    - OPORD.
    - Scenario.
    - Dual-net radio capability.
    - Night-vision devices.
    - Vehicles for evaluators.
    - Medical support, as required by local SOP.
    - Any items required by the supporting range facility SOP.

Table IX--Section Training Course

The section training course is used to train and evaluate scout section tactical and gunnery skills in preparation for Table X. It must be designed to evaluate, as a minimum, the nine combat critical tasks, three commander-selected tactical tasks, and the gunnery tasks. At least one NBC engagement will be planned within each table scenario. Day firing should precede night firing, whenever possible.

Each crew in the section must have successfully qualified Table VIII within six months of firing Table IX.

Each vehicle crew member must have passed the GST (appropriate tasks for his specific weapon) in the position he will occupy, in accordance with Appendix A.

SCORING PROCEDURES

All tasks are scored (see Evaluation Procedures in Chapter 12).

Each table uses a 1,000-point scoring system (maximum points for tactics and gunnery combined is 1,000 points). Tactics are worth 60 percent (600 points).

Commanders may use the following formula to determine total tactical points or, at the commander's option based on METL importance, point values may be assigned for each task. Total cumulative tactical points must not exceed 600.

  • To determine the number of tactical points awarded, establish a percentage by dividing the number of tactical tasks passed by the number of tactical tasks possible (day and night combined): Tasks Passed divided by Tasks Possible = Percentage (9 ÷ 12 = .75). Then, multiply by 600 (possible tactical points) (.75 X 600 = 450). The result is the points awarded for the tactical evaluation.
  • Gunnery is worth 40 percent (400 points). To determine the number of gunnery points awarded, establish a percentage by dividing the number of targets destroyed by the number of targets presented (combining day and night phases)--Targets Destroyed divided by Targets Presented = Percentage (8 ÷ 10 = .80). Then, multiply by 400 gunnery points (.80 X 400 = 320). The total points awarded is determined by adding the scores from the tactical and gunnery portions: 450 (tactical) + 320 (gunnery) = 770 total.
  • Each scout is required to achieve a minimum qualifying score on Table IX prior to firing Table X. Minimum qualifying scores on tactics and gunnery are as follows:
  • - 70 percent of tactical tasks--420 points out of 600 points.
    - 70 percent of targets presented (gunnery)--280 points out of 400 points.

CONDUCT OF THE RANGE

A two-vehicle section uses reconnaissance and engagement techniques against threat targets. The section detects elements of an enemy force, identifies the elements, and acquires and engages targets as appropriate. Moving and stationary targets appear individually and simultaneously. The minimum recommended area for this training is one kilometer by two kilometers.

Target arrays should be consistent with the type of threat forces a section could expect to encounter in combat. Based on the METL, the commander determines the number and types of targets to be engaged. At no time will the number of targets exceed the number of rounds allocated by DA Pam 350-38. The number and type of targets must be based on the weapons and size of the scout section. Thermal targets should be used to represent accurate thermal signatures of threat vehicles. When appropriate to the scenario, hostile fire simulators may be used to simulate the threat vehicle(s) firing at the section.

ALLOWABLE VARIATIONS

The commander may change the sequence of the tasks.

Table IX may be conducted in a live-fire or laser-fire mode, at the commander's discretion. Live-fire, full-caliber gunnery, integrated with tactical tasks is preferred; however, range and maneuver constraints may dictate conducting separate tactical and gunnery portions.

Note. Table IX is used to evaluate the section's ability to perform tactical operations, in accordance with ARTEP 17-57-10-MTP, FM 17-98, and unit SOP.

Table X--Section Qualification Course

Table X is used to evaluate the scout section's tactical and gunnery proficiency in a realistic tactical and live-fire scenario. Day firing (Table XA) should precede night firing (Table XB), whenever possible.

The commander designs the tables for Table X; however, vehicles will fire a minimum of three live-fire tasks each. Table IX should be similar in task content to Table X. Table X is a full-caliber gunnery exercise designed for a multilane range facility (such as an MPRC). Where range facilities permit free maneuvering, the tactical phase of the table should be conducted simultaneously with the gunnery phase.

Each vehicle crew member must have passed the GST (tasks appropriate for the weapon system) in the position he will occupy, in accordance with Appendix A.

Each scout section should achieve a minimum passing score on Table IX within three months before firing Table X.

SCORING PROCEDURES

All tasks are scored (see Evaluation Procedures in Chapter 12).

Each table uses a 1,000 point scoring system (maximum points for tactics and gunnery combined is 1,000 points). Tactics are worth 60 percent (600 points).

Commanders may use the following formula to determine total tactical points or, at the commander's option based on METL importance, point values may be assigned for each task. Total cumulative tactical points must not exceed 600 points.

  • To determine the number of tactical points awarded, establish a percentage by dividing the number of tactical tasks passed by the number of tactical tasks possible (day and night combined): Tasks Passed ÷ Tasks Possible = Percentage (9 ÷ 12 = .75). Then, multiply by 600 possible tactical points (.75 X 600 = 450). The result is the points awarded for the tactical evaluation.
  • Gunnery is worth 40 percent (400 points). To determine the number of gunnery points awarded, divide the number of gunnery tasks passed by the number of gunnery tasks possible (combining day and night phases): Targets Destroyed ÷ Targets Presented = Percentage (8 ÷ 10 = .80). Then, multiply the decimal by 400 gunnery points (.80 X 400 = 320). The total points awarded is determined by adding the scores from the tactical and gunnery portions: 450 (tactical) + 320 (gunnery) = 770 total.
  • To qualify on Table X, the section must receive a minimum of--
  • - 70 percent of tactical tasks (420 out of 600 points).
    - 70 percent of targets presented (gunnery) (280 out of 400 points).

Sections will be rated by the following standards:

  • Distinguished: Combined score of 900 points or higher (420 tactical and 280 gunnery points).
  • Superior: Combined score of 800 to 899 points (420 tactical and 280 gunnery points).
  • Unqualified: Combined score of 699 points or less, or section fails to achieve 420 tactical points or 280 gunnery points.

CONDUCT OF THE RANGE

The gunnery phase of Table X requires a multilane facility capable of allowing at least two vehicles to maneuver as a section. The gunnery phase will be conducted live-fire, full-caliber. Local range SOPs dictate the conduct of the range. Scenarios should be developed and approved for firing well in advance of the conduct of Table X.

The tactical phase of Table X requires a free-maneuver range facility or a separate training area, one kilometer by two kilometers. OPFOR or target-lift mechanisms may be used in the training area to reinforce acquisition, reporting, and call-for-fire procedures.

Target arrays should be consistent with the type of threat forces a section could expect to encounter in combat. Based on the METL, the commander determines the number and types of targets to be engaged. At no time will the number of targets exceed the number of rounds allocated by DA Pam 350-38. The number and type of targets must be based on the weapons and size of the scout section. Thermal targets should be used to represent accurate thermal signatures of threat vehicles. When appropriate to the scenario, hostile fire simulators may be used to simulate the threat vehicle(s) firing at the section.

ALLOWABLE VARIATIONS

Depending on the availability of maneuver area and range time, sections may conduct the tactical portion of Table X in a local training area with MILES. The commander must decide the most appropriate location to conduct the table, based on range time availability and his design of Table X. MILES-conducted exercises, using force-on-force engagements or target-lift mechanisms with LTID, represent realistic threat scenarios. The commander may add to the number of live-fire targets, but cannot fire less than the number indicated for a particular task.

Notes. MILES may be used for the tactical portion only; the gunnery portion must be fired live.

On Table X, the section is evaluated on its ability to perform tactical operations IAW ARTEP 17-57-10-MTP, FM 17-98, and unit SOP.



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