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Chapter 1

Overview of MSE Systems

This chapter gives a brief overview of the mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) systems and range extension capabilities.

BACKGROUND

 

1-1. MSE is a common-user, switched communications system of linked switching nodes. The nodes form a grid that provides the force with an area common-user system (ACUS). It is one of the major communications systems of an Army force at echelons corps and below (ECB). The other major communications systems include combat net radio (CNR) and the Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS).

1-2. The MSE system is digital, secure, and flexible. It contains features that compensate for link or functional element outages, overload in traffic, and rapid movement of users. MSE provides voice and data communications on an automatic, discrete-addressed, fixed-directory basis using the flood search routing technique. MSE supports mobile and wire subscribers with a means to exchange command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) information. A tactical packet network (TPN) is a packet switching network that is overlaid on the circuit-switching network of MSE.

1-3. MSE mounts in shelters on high mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicles (HMMWVs) and is easily transportable by roll-on and roll-off aircraft. Organic tactical satellite (TACSAT) equipment and tropospheric scatter (tropo) equipment provide range extension capabilities for MSE. Range extension improves the employment capability of MSE.

1-4. Integrated system control (ISYSCON) enhances the system control (SYSCON) component of MSE. ISYSCON provides the signal commander and his staff with an automated capability to plan, engineer, and operate all communications systems and networks available to the signal force. ISYSCON also integrates the signal force structure into the Army Battle Command System (ABCS) to support mission plan management (MPM)

EMPLOYMENT

 

1-5. MSE can support a corps of five divisions in an area of operations (AO) up to 15,000 square miles by forming a grid network. For a division, the MSE grid consists of four to six node centers (NCs) that make up the backbone of the network. For the corps, the grid consists of 22 NCs. Throughout the maneuver area, subscribers connect to the small extension nodes/large extension nodes (SENs/LENs) by radio or wire. These extension nodes serve as local call switching centers and provide access to the network by connecting to the node center switch (NCS) at the NC.

1-6. The TPN supports data communications within the corps, joint task force (JTF), adjacent forces, echelons above corps (EAC) assets, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) forces, and commercial networks. See Appendix A for MSE symbology and equipment nomenclature.

MAJOR COMPONENTS

 

1-7. MSE has various integrated components to ensure mobile and static subscribers have voice, data, and facsimile capabilities. These capabilities support the subscribers' communications no matter where they are in the MSE grid network of the AO. MSE major components include-

  • NC.
  • LEN.
  • SEN.
  • Radio access unit (RAU).
  • ISYSCON.
  • System control center-2 (SCC-2).
  • Line-of-sight (LOS) radio system (components of the switches).
  • Subscriber terminals.
  • Mobile subscriber radiotelephone terminal (MSRT).
NC
 

1-8. NCs provide key switching, traffic control, and access points for MSE. After determining the coverage area, NCs are allocated to establish a corps MSE grid network. NCs are primarily linked by LOS radios to provide communications throughout the system via the NCS. TACSAT and tropo are connected to the NCs by cable. If one NC is disabled, the system automatically routes communications through another NC.

1-9. The NCS serves as an access point for LENs, SENs, RAUs, SCC-2s, and ISYSCON. Figure 1-1 shows NCS features. The NCS is the hub of the MSE node and provides network interface for subscriber access elements. It provides automatic subscriber finding features that allow permanent address assignment and removes the requirement of knowing where the subscriber is physically located. It is contained in three S-250 shelters: the switching group, the operations group, and the node management facility (NMF). Each shelter is mounted on an M-1097 HMMWV. The switching group provides the external interface, circuit switching, and associated functions. The operations group provides central processing and operator interface functions.

NCS, AN/TTC-47

Switching Group, ON-306/AN/TTC-47

Operations Group, OL-413/AN/TTC-47

NMF, AN/TSQ-154

TPN

  • One gateway packet switch per NCS
  • Two LAN ports (both 802.3 and X.25)
  • 64 trunks of 16 kbps each on the 1024 kbps trunk group between one NCS and another

External terminations

  • Digital: Trunks and local loops
  • Analog: NATO applications
  • 16 DTGs, 15 of which are encrypted by TEDs

TGCs

  • Five internodal.
  • Six SEN TGCs (two local)

Two RAU TGCs (one local)

Four DTGs assignable to any combination of internodal, LEN, SEN, SCC-2, or RAU TGCs

24 local loops for digital telephones

10 kW diesel generator, PU-753/M or PU-798

Figure 1-1. NCS Features

LEN
 

1-10. The LEN provides wired communications for personnel at large command posts (CPs). A LEN enables up to 164 wired subscribers to communicate freely through the large extension node switch (LENS) using automatic flood search routing. Subscribers have access to the NCs and to the rest of MSE via LOS radios that connect to the LENS by cable or super high frequency (SHF) radio systems. Figure 1-2 gives the LENS features.

1-11. The LENS also provides automatic subscriber finding features that allow permanent subscriber address assignment and removes the requirement of knowing where the subscriber is physically located. It consists of two S-250 shelters containing a switching group and an operations group. Each shelter is mounted on an M-1097 HMMWV. The LENS is configured basically the same as the NCS. Differences include the configurations for terminating trunks. The LEN is not a tandem switch because it is not used primarily as an intermediate switching point between other switching centers. The LENS supports flood search routing. The switching group provides the external interface, circuit switching, and associated functions. The operations group provides central processing and operator interface functions. The LENSs can enable CNR users to enter the MSE network and can provide access to commercial networks.

LENS, AN/TCC-46

Switching Group, ON-305/AN/TTC-46

Operations Group, OL-412/AN/TTC-46

TPN

  • Two packet switches per LENS
  • Four LAN ports (both 802.3 and X.25)
  • Seven conditioned diphase X.25 ports
  • 32 trunks of 16 kbps each or two 512 kbps trunk groups between the LEN and two NCSs

External terminations

  • Digital: Trunks and local terminations
  • Analog: Commercial telephone

Three DTGs encrypted by TEDs, KG-194A

  • Two DTGs to two different NCs
  • One DTG assignable to a SEN

CNR interface capability

10 kW diesel generator, PU-753/M or PU-798

Figure 1-2. LENS Features

SEN
 

1-12. The SEN supports the communications needs of smaller CPs. The AN/TTC-48(V1) can support 26 wired subscribers and the (V2) can support 41 subscribers. Users have access to NCs and to the rest of MSE via LOS radios that connect to the small extension node switch (SENS) by cable or SHF radio systems. Figure 1-3 gives SENS features.

1-13. The SEN also provides automatic subscriber finding features when connected to an NCS or a LEN. These features allow permanent subscriber address assignment, and they remove the requirement of knowing where the subscriber is physically located. The SEN is in one S-250E shelter mounted on an M-1097 HMMWV. The SEN consists of switching, multiplexing, and communications security (COMSEC) equipment. It is available in two versions: (V1) and (V2). Both versions provide two commercial office interfaces and a secure digital net radio interface (SDNRI) using the SDNRI unit (SDNRIU), KY-90. The SENS interfaces with the NCS and LENS directly via CX-11230A/G cable, LOS multichannel radio, or multichannel TACSAT.

SENS, AN/TCC-48

TPN

  • One packet switch per SENS
  • Two LAN ports (both 802.3 and X.25)
  • Five conditioned diphase X.25 ports
  • 16 trunks of 16 kbps each on the 256 kbps trunk group between the NCSs or LEN

External terminations

  • Digital: Trunks and local terminations
  • Analog: Commercial telephone

Two digital switch versions:

  • Switch V1: 26 digital terminations
  • Switch V2: 41 digital terminations

Two small switchboards (SB-4303)

One DTG

  • Switch V1: 12 channels to NC or LEN
  • Switch V2: 15 channels to NC or LEN
  • Two commercial drops

CNR interface capability

10 kW diesel generator, PU-753/M

Figure 1-3. SENS Features

RAU
 

1-14. The RAU picks up signals from the MSRT and sends them to the NCs. When a mobile user moves out of range of one RAU and into another, the telephone service automatically transfers to the next (new) and into the range of another RAU, thus providing automatic reaffiliation. Any subsequent calls will be placed through the system via the new RAU ensuring full and continuous functional affiliation throughout the AO. Figure 1-4 gives RAU features.

1-15. The RAU, AN/TRC-191, is a fully automatic radio interface for MSRT subscribers. The RAU connects directly to the NC by cable or remotely via LOS radio. Through the parent NC, the local RAU provides radio coverage by automatically establishing secure and full-duplex communications between the MSRT and the MSE network. The planning range between the MSRT and RAU is 15 kilometers (9.3 miles). Terrain and weather will affect the actual range.

RAU, AN/TRC-191

Eight digital radios, RT-1539

Capacity of eight simultaneous MSRT calls

One DTG of 256 kbps using 10 channels to NC

Frequency range

OCONUS: 30-88 MHz
CONUS: 30-50 MHz
30-35 MHz low band
40-45 MHz high band

Full duplex (uses high band/low band concept for simultaneous transmit/ receive)

5 kW diesel generator, PU-751/M or PU-797

Figure 1-4. RAU Features

ISYSCON
 

1-16. ISYSCON enables the commander to interact with ABCS by exchanging common battle command information with the force commander and his staff and by exchanging communications information with maneuver force signal officers. ISYSCON uses common hardware and software (CHS) for its workstations. The software meets the Department Information Infrastructure (DII) common operating environment (COE) standards for information exchange. ISYSCON is a suite of hardware and software in an S-250 or a standard integrated command post system (SICPS) shelter, and it is transported by heavy HMMWVs.

1-17. ISYSCON extends to other ISYSCONs through the NC from ECB to EAC providing a complete, integrated network picture. ISYSCON will also extend to the Theater Signal Command (Army) (TSC(A)) ISYSCON and to the Joint Network Management System (JNMS). ISYSCON provides the tools to perform the information management process by automating the following functions:

  • Network planning and engineering (NPE).
  • Wide area network (WAN) management.
  • MPM.
  • Battlefield spectrum management (BSM).
  • COMSEC management.
  • System administration.
  • Local area management (LAN).

SCC-2
 

1-18. The existing MSE SYSCON capability is the SCC-2, AN/TYQ-46(V). It monitors, manages, and configures the MSE network (voice and data) for optimum communications. Figure 1-5 gives SCC-2 features and capabilities.

SCC-2, AN/TYQ-46(V)

Large-screen display

Digitized topographical maps

TPN management/planning

Frequency management/planning/distribution

Automatic updating of standby SCC-2

Figure 1-5. SCC-2 Features and Capabilities

 

1-19. The SCC-2 is an integrated, computerized communications control system that provides automated, near real-time system control to support planning, configuring, reconfiguring, and monitoring the operation and movement of MSE assets. The SCC-2 normally connects to an NCS or LENS using CX-11230A/G pulse code modulation (PCM) cable.

1-20. The SCC-2 comes in two versions: (V1) and (V2). Version 1 at corps consists of three shelters: one technical and two management/planning shelters. Version 2 is a stand-alone workstation for the corps area and support signal battalions. The SCC-2 at division consists of two shelters: one technical and one management/planning.

1-21. The technical shelter contains a network management center (NMC) workstation and a technical workstation that provides a near real-time graphic display of the MSE network. The NMC monitors and controls the TPN. The primary function of the technical workstation is to monitor and to assign management functions. The network planners working inside the management/planning shelter complete the following functions-

  • Deployment management.
  • SCC-2 supervision and management.
  • Boundaries management.
  • COMSEC key management.
  • Very high frequency (VHF) management.
  • Ultra high frequency (UHF)/SHF management.
  • Subscriber database management.
  • Message management.

1-22. The management/planning shelter houses two system management workstations. These workstations provide a near real-time graphic display of the MSE network and the automated tools necessary to create and change databases required for MSE operations.

1-23. The network planning tool (NPT) with its planning and management functions supports the SCC-2. The NPT provides improved NPE and operational automated information management capabilities. The enhanced NPE and operational functions of the NPT include-

  • Environmental parameters.
  • Digitized mapping.
  • Radio/antenna system engineering.
  • Terrain analysis profiling.
  • System asset placement.
  • Frequency assignment management (VHF, UHF, SHF).
  • Team information.
  • One-on-one interference analysis.
  • Electronic warfare (EW) threat analysis.
  • Subscriber list management.
  • Word processing program.
  • Spreadsheet program.
  • Electronic mail (e-mail) program.
  • Packet network monitoring.

1-24. The SCC-2 includes the following functional software tools:

  • NPE for MSE assets.
  • BSM.
  • MSE WAN management.
  • System administration.
  • E-mail.

1-25. The ISYSCON program will field the system in a variety of configurations. The ISYSCON(V1) will consist of two servers, four workstations, and ten remotes. The ISYSCON(V1) will reside at the corps signal brigade and the division signal battalions. The ISYSCON(V2) will consist of two servers, two workstations, and five remotes. The ISYSCON(V2) will reside at the corps area signal battalion. The ISYSCON(V1) will replace the SCC-2.

LOS RADIO SYSTEM
  1-26. The LOS radio system consists of versatile links that connect all NCs in a grid network and provides automatic switched services to all wire and mobile subscribers. This radio grid delivers wireless communications to areas covering thousands of square kilometers. The LOS radio system, AN/TRC-190(V), has four versions. Figure 1-6 shows its design features.

 

LOS Radio, AN/TRC-190(V)

Radio, AN/GRC-226(V) equipped with a digital group multiplexer

Two NATO frequency bands

  • Band 1: 225-400 MHz
  • Band 3: 1350-1850 MHz

Nominal range: 25-40 kilometers

5 kW diesel generator, PU-751/M

Four versions

  • AN/TRC-190(V1)
  • AN/TRC-190(V2)
  • AN/TRC-190(V3)
  • AN/TRC-190(V4)

Figure 1-6. LOS Radio Features

 

1-27. The AN/TRC-190(V1) is an LOS multichannel radio terminal. It provides point-to-point UHF radio links using the AN/GRC-226(P) radio set between various nodes of the MSE system. If the AN/TRC-190(V1) has an AN/GRC-224(P) radio set installed, it can provide a short-range and a point-to-point SHF radio link. The SHF radio functions as a short-range, down-the-hill (DTH) radio providing a low signature connection between the sheltered CP site and the more exposed LOS terminal site. Each radio link supports a single, full-duplex, group-level connection and a single digital voice orderwire (DVOW) channel. The (V1) is equipped with one AB-1339 mast with Band I and Band III antennas. The planning range of the UHF radio is 40 kilometers (28 miles). The (V1) typically deploys with the SENS or remote RAU.

1-28. The AN/TRC-190(V2) is an LOS multichannel radio terminal. It provides point-to-point UHF radio links using the AN/GRC-226(P) radio set between various nodes of the MSE system. If the AN/TRC-190(V2) has an AN/GRC-224(P) radio set installed, it can provide a short-range and a point-to-point SHF radio link. The SHF radio set operates in tandem with the primary UHF radio link. Each radio link supports a single, full-duplex, group-level connection and a single DVOW channel. The (V2) is equipped with two AN/GRC-226(P) radio sets (one on-line and one spare) and one AB-1339 mast with Band I and Band III antennas. The planning range of the UHF radio is 40 kilometers (28 miles). The (V2) typically deploys as an analog interface to NATO forces.

1-29. The AN/TRC-190(V3) is an LOS multichannel radio terminal. It provides point-to-point UHF radio links using the AN/GRC-226(P) radio set between various nodes of the MSE system. If the 1-1- AN/TRC-190(V3) has an AN/GRC-224(P) radio set installed, it can provide a short-range and a point-to-point SHF radio link. The SHF radio set operates in tandem with the primary UHF radio link. The SHF radio functions as a short-range radio link providing connectivity for CPs. Each radio link supports a single, full-duplex, group-level connection and a single DVOW channel. The (V3) is equipped with four AN/GRC-226(P) radio sets (two on-line and one spare) and three AB-1339 masts with two Band I and two Band III antennas. The planning range of the UHF radio is 40 kilometers (28 miles). The (V3) typically deploys with the NCS and is a radio relay.

1-30. The AN/TRC-190(V4) is an LOS multichannel radio terminal. It provides point-to-point UHF radio links using the AN/GRC-226(P) radio set between various nodes of the MSE system. Each radio link supports a single, full-duplex, group-level connection and a single DVOW channel. If the AN/TRC-190(V4) has an AN/GRC-224(P) radio set installed, it can provide a short-range, DTH, and a point-to-point SHF radio link. The (V4) is equipped with two AN/GRC-226(P) radio sets (two on-line) and two AB-1339 masts with Band I and Band III antennas. The planning range of the UHF radio is 40 kilometers (28 miles). The (V4) typically deploys with the LENS.

MSRT

 

1-31. MSE network users gain mobile access using the MSRT (AN/VRC-97) through the RAU by affiliating onto the network. MSRTs can receive or send voice, facsimile, or data traffic. The planning range between the MSRT and RAU is 15 kilometers (9.3 miles). Terrain and weather will affect the actual rang

SUBSCRIBER TERMINALS
 

1-32. MSE users initiate and end all communications by using subscriber terminals. The terminals are described below.

1-33. The digital nonsecure voice terminal (DNVT), TA-1035-U, provides voice and data access to the MSE network. Its features include-

  • Handset.
  • Keypad.
  • Digital transmission (16 kilobits per second (kbps)).
  • Four wire with data port to interface with computer/facsimile (FAX).
  • Compatibility with other terminals.

1-34. The digital subscriber voice terminal (DSVT), KY-68, provides secure access to MSE for all mobile or fixed subscribers. It functions closely to the DNVT, and its features are the same.

1-35. The FAX terminal, AN/UXC-7, transmits critical information such as overlays, diagrams, and handwritten messages over the system in seconds. Ruggedized versions are usable with both DNVTs and DSVTs. Its features include-

  • Digital transmission (16 kbps).
  • Black and white copy with eight shades of gray.
  • Standard issue paper usage.
  • Embedded memory with burst transmission.
  • NATO interoperable.

FORCE ENTRY SWITCH (FES)
 

1-36. The FES combines the essential functions of the NCS/LEN/NMF shelters and a RAU in one shelter. The FES combined with an LOS AN/TRC-198 comprises the contingency communications package (CCP). The connections between the FES and the LOS are by cable since no SHF is supplied. The FES has packet switch capability, but it has no gateway function. Therefore, it has no direct connections to adjacent corps or EAC. The FES can be operator-controlled outside the shelter by a dismountable node management facility (DNMF) remote terminal. Figure 1-7 gives the FES features

FES

One packet switch

Ports for two LANs and six X.25 local hosts

One dial-in port

Dismounted CNR interface

Downsized RAU capability for up to 25 subscribers

Figure 1-7. FES Features

 

1-37. The FES provides full flood search capability via the downsize routing subsystem (RSS-D), an SHF interface capability, and a DSVT in the truck. The line termination unit (LTU) provides modem/multiplex functions for the local subscriber interface and is equipped with a rear terminal board to permit direct connections instead of the J-1077.

1-38. The LOS AN/TRC-198 is similar to an LOS(V3), except that the LOS AN/TRC-198 UHF radios operate on three separate link connections to the FES (no multiplex) and all links operate on either band.

MSE RANGE EXTENSION

 

1-39. The corps signal brigade has a range extension company that allows the grid network to flex with the dynamics of rapidly changing tactical operations. Range-extension packages are organic to this company and deploy according to mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T) needs. The range extension company has one TACSAT platoon and four tropo platoons. Range-extension packages have two transmission media forms: TACSAT and light tropo. Both are vehicular mounted, air transportable, and have multichannel capability. Satellite availability determines the TACSAT range. The tropo range is about 160.9 kilometers (100 miles).

 



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