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Military

Chapter 3

SUPPORTING THE FORCE (DIVISION)

3-1. The Division Environment

The division is the largest Army fixed organization that trains and fights as a tactical team. It is organized with varying numbers and types of combat, CS, and CSS units. A division may be armored, mechanized, infantry, light infantry, airborne, or air assault. It is a self-sustaining force capable of independent operations.

Divisions plan future operations based on the echelons above corps (EAC) and corps commanders' intent. They also allocate resources based on battalions and brigades. Divisions defend against three or more assaulting enemy divisions. The defending division commander directs, coordinates, and supports his brigade's operations. The division interdicts follow-on regiments to disrupt and delay those forces as they try to join the battle. When attacking, the division commander directs, coordinates, and supports his brigade's operations against enemy battalions and regiments. The division interdicts deeper enemy echelons, reserves, and CS forces. Each type of division conducts tactical operations in a low-, mid-, or high-intensity combat environment. Divisions are the basic units of maneuver at the tactical level. See FM 71-100 for more detail of division operations.

3-2. Signal Support Responsibilities

Signal support in the division is a collective and integrated application of information services and systems. This includes telecommunications, automation, and all resources within the IMA. Signal support also facilitates rapid and continuous C2. This is done through the coordinated efforts of signal support staffs and organizations, user units and their functional staff, and unit signal officers.

Division Signal Support Staff. The division's signal support staff is a vital element in accomplishing the overall mission. Its responsibilities are similar to those of the corps signal support staff. It is staffed by many MOSs.

The division signal officer (DSO), LTC (25C), is the principal advisor to the division commander for all division communications. He is a member of the division staff and is the commander of the division signal battalion. These two functions are separate but related. As a member of the division staff, the DSO presents the communications aspects for tactical operations for all staff planning. He is responsible for coordinating with general and special staffs. He has access to the division chief of staff and consults directly on communications matters which affect the command. Normally, the DSO coordinates all communications matters with the general staff. As the division signal battalion commander, he commands, directs, and supervises the division signal battalion's efforts and activities to complete the mission. The DSO does not operate alone. He must coordinate with other division elements and with members of his own staff and battalion. His office is staffed with highly-qualified personnel who support him in satisfying the division's signal support requirements.

The assistant division signal officer (ADSO), MAJ (25E), works for the DSO and represents the signal battalion in most division staff actions. The ADSO and office are on the signal battalion TOE; yet, they work on the division staff. The ADSO--

  • Supervises the division signal office.
  • Represents the signal battalion commander in division headquarters actions.
  • Assists the DSO in planning division communications operations.
  • Assists in preparing the OPORD signal annex.
  • Assists in planning the signal portion of the division SOP.
  • Provides signal assistance to the division headquarters staff element.
  • Assists in planning automated systems and the division telephone directory.
  • Controls RF allocation and provides division RF management.
  • Coordinates host nation and allied signal interface.

The signal battalion staff and the division signal office support the division signal support battalion. See Appendix C for more details on the responsibilities and duties.

Signal Support Organization. The primary signal support organization within the division is the division signal battalion. Its missions are--

  • To install, operate, and maintain a division communications system to support division-level combat functions including C2, intelligence, fire control, CS, and CSS.
  • To provide internal communications at all echelons of the division headquarters including the division main, rear, tactical command posts (CPs), and support area.
  • To provide special staff and technical assistance for planning and controlling all division communications.

The division signal battalion can provide a highly mobile and flexible area communications system. This system supports major subscribers/CPs/operational facilities (OPFACs) throughout the division's area of operation. Light and heavy divisions also use this system. When required, the battalion can function as a stand-alone organization. The battalion headquarters is located where it can best control signal support, normally near the division rear CP.

3-3. C2 Support

To execute AirLand Operations successfully, the division's C2 system must allow the commander to control and synchronize deep, close, and rear operations. He must be able to receive, process, and transmit information in a timely manner. His decisions require rapid distribution. His communications network must be resilient and mobile to survive on the battlefield. The division must be able to plan and conduct operations with the Navy, Air Force, and the Marines. Interfacing must be done at the appropriate level and automated when required. Operating in the joint arena is imperative.

The ATCCS is the objective C2 architecture and is a subset of the ACCS. ATCCS includes automated information systems for the five BFAs and the communications links between and among the control systems. The BFAs are maneuver control, air defense, FS, IEW, and CSS. At each BFA, the ATCCS allows the commanders and staff to plan and control their operations and to coordinate these with other functional commanders.

The WAN is the backbone communications over which the control system operates. The WAN provides connectivity for voice and digital data transmission. ATCCS is divided into the ACUS, the ADDS, and CNR. Additional key elements of ATCCS are the TRTS and local terminal devices. Terminal devices such as BAS, telephones, and facsimiles are user-owned, -installed, and -maintained.

ACUS. The division signal battalion provides the division area common-user support. When included in the corps network, this system provides an integrated switching system from battalion through TA. With the fielding of MSE, the division signal battalion has been reorganized to provide this service more efficiently. The MSE network integrates the transmitting, switching, controlling, and terminating functions of voice and data equipment into one system. The system provides CP communications from brigade forward to the division rear and to echelons above division. Figures 3-1 through 3-4 show the current organizational structure of the division MSE signal battalion. It is the Army's intent to field the MSE system to all divisions. Now, the ATACS is supporting divisions that do not have MSE. For reference purposes, see Appendix D for the doctrinal employment of ATACS equipped division signal battalions. Also, see FM 11-50 for more details on ATACS supported divisions.

CNR. The CNR system provides a communications means to the division that is independent of the ACUS. Its primary use is for C2 within the division's maneuver brigades and battalions. The network is designed around three radio systems. Each system has different capabilities and transmission characteristics. The three systems are--

  • IHFR.
  • SINCGARS.
  • TACSAT.

The network primarily supports C2 voice transmission. However, the network can assume a secondary role for data transmission when so tasked.

ADDS. The ADDS is an integrated C2 communications system. It provides near real-time transmission capabilities that support high-volume data networks. It also provides precise position, location, navigation, identification, and reporting information of units on the battlefield. The terminal sets of the ADDS are user-owned and -operated radios which are integral to their C2 systems. These radios function automatically to terminate or relay data. Signal support units are responsible for network control and management. They provide dedicated relay units for complete network connectivity. ADDS consists of the Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS).

EPLRS is for data distribution on the battlefield. EPLRS is a computer-based communications system that provides secure, jam-resistant, contention free, near real-time data transmission and distribution to subscribers. It also provides unit identification, navigational aids, and the automatic location reporting of tactical combat and CS forces. EPLRS uses integral dual level (CONFIDENTIAL/SECRET) cryptographic security with over-the-air rekeying (OTAR), frequency hopping (FH), and error correction encoding as electronic countermeasures (ECM) protection. An EPLRS community consists of a net control station-EPLRS (NCS-E) and up to 460 EPLRS user units (EPUU) operating on 8 UHF frequencies from 420 to 450 MHz. Three host computer interfaces are available to connect data transfer devices to the EPUU. This allows direct information transfer from the sending computer to the receiving computer at data rates of up to 1.2 kilobits per second (kb/s). These interfaces are--

  • Standard interface X.25--Most Army user and all new automated systems.
  • Single-channel frequency shift keying (FSK)--Tactical fire direction system (TACFIRE), TPQ-36/37, automatic target hand off system.
  • Data Bus interface 1553--Tracked vehicle and aviation applications.

Division EPLRS architecture calls for 4 NCS-Eand 12 EPLRS grid reference units (EGRU) to support a 4 EPLRS community array where each community covers a brigade-sized area. The NCS-E and grid reference units (GRUs) are division signal battalion assets.

The JTIDS is an advanced radio system. It provides information distribution, position location, and identification capabilities in an integrated form which apply to tactical military operations. The system distributes encrypted information at high rates and is resistant to jamming in a hostile electromagnetic environment. It can interconnect scattered sources and users of information. JTIDS also provides surface and airborne elements with a position location capability (within a common position reference grid) and a basic identification capability through the distribution of secure position and identity information.



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