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Military



Glossary


  Section I. Abbreviations

ACACS Army Command and Area Communications System
ACP Allied Communications Publication
ADC area damage control
APTF antenna pallet transit frame
ARTEP Army Training and Evaluation Program
ASG area support group
ASP Army Standardization Program
ATC air traffic control
AUTOCOMM Army Automation Communications Network
AUTODIN automatic digital network
AUTOVON automatic voice network
AUTOSEVOCOM automatic secure voice communications
BCOC base cluster operations center
BDOC base defense operations center
BTMS Battalion Training Management System
C-E communications-electronics
CEMS Communications-Electronics Management System
CEOI communications-electronics operating instructions
CESE communications equipment support element
CFC Combined Forces Command
CI counterintelligence
CMT Common Military Training
CNCE communications nodal control element
COHORT cohesion, operational readiness, and training
COMMZ communications zone
COMSEC communications security
CONUS continental United States
CP command post
CSCE communications system control element
CSPE communications system planning element
DCA Defense Communications Agency
DCS Defense Communications System
DGCL defense ground control link
DOCS DSCS Operational Control System
DS direct support
DSCS Defense Satellite Communications System
EAC echelons above corps
ECCM electronic counter-countermeasures
ECM electronic countermeasures
ED emergency destruction
EMC electromagnetic compatibility
EMCON emission control
EMP electromagnetic pulse
ESM electronic warfare support measures
ETM extension training materials
EW electronic warfare
FLOT forward line of own troops
FM frequency modulated
FRAGO fragmentary order
GMF ground mobile force
GMFSC Ground Mobile Force Satellite Communications
Gs general support
GTA graphic training aid
HF high frequency
HNS host nation support
ITEP Individual Training and Evaluation Program
JANAP Joint Army-Navy-Air Force Publication
LC learning center
LOS line of sight
MI military intelligence
MIJI meaconing, intrusion, jamming, and interference
MOPP mission oriented protective posture
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NAVAIDS navigational aids
NBC nuclear, biological, and chemical
NCO noncommissioned officer
NET new equipment training
OPSEC operations security
PLL prescribed load list
POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants
RAOC rear area operations center
RATT radio teletype
RDF radio direction finding
REC radioelectronics combat
SAMS Satellite Automatic Monitoring Subsystem
SATCOM satellite communications
SCCC Satellite Communications Control Center
SCCS Satellite Communications Control Systems
SFX signal field exercise
SHF super high frequency
SIGSEC signal security
SM soldier's manual
SOJT supervised on-the-job training
SOP standing operating procedure
SRA specialized repair activity
SQT skill qualification test
STANAG standardization agreement
TA theater Army
TAACOM Theater Army Area Command
TACSAT Tactical Satellite (Company)
TASC Training Aids Support Center
TCC(A) Theater Communications Command (Army)
TCS(A) Theater Communication System (Army)
TDA tables of distribution and allowances
TEC technical extension course
TG trainers guide
TM technical manual
TMACS Training Management Control System
TMDE test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment
TOE table of organization equipment
TRADOC Training and Doctrine Command
TSCCS Tactical Satellite Communications Control
USAISC United States Army Information Systems Command

Section II. Terms

Area signal node
Signal facility that provides communications to units within its assigned geographical area of responsibility. This ties the units into the TCS(A) and supplements their organic means for communications with higher, subordinate, or adjacent headquarters.
Army training system
System within which the Army develops, manages, and conducts training. System components are institutional training, unit training, and training support.
Authentication
A security measure designed to protect a communications system against fraudulent transmissions.
Base
A unit or multiunit position that has a definite perimeter. Army, other services, or host nation units may make up a base.
Base cluster
Combat support and combat service units in the rear area grouped together for rear battle operations or mission-related purposes. A base cluster has no clearly defined perimeter.
Base defense operations
Defense measures taken by a base to provide internal and perimeter security. Measures include organizing and preparing personnel and equipment in an effective manner to defend themselves until military police and, if needed, tactical combat forces can respond. A base defense operations center (BDOC) is established to coordinate base defense and area damage operations.
Brevity code
A code which provides no security but which has as its sole purpose the shortening of messages rather than the concealment of their contents.
Call sign
Any combination of characters or numbers or pronounceable words which identifies a communications facility, command, authority, activity, or unit. It is used primarily for establishing and maintaining communications.
Circuit
Communications term: An electronic path between two or more points capable of providing a number of channels. Engineering terms: A number of conductors connected together for the purpose of carrying an electrical current.
Code
Any system of communications in which arbitrary groups of symbols represent units of plain text of varying length. Codes are provided primarily for one of three purposes: (1) In the broadest sense, coding is a means of converting information into a form suitable for communication and encryption; (2) brevity codes are used to reduce the length of time necessary to transmit information; (3) security codes are used to provide some degree of cryptographic protection for the information being transmitted.
Collective training
The preparation of soldiers to perform those team or unit tasks essential to the accomplishment of a unit's TOE or operational mission.
Command and control
An arrangement of personnel, facilities, and the means for information acquisition, processing, and dissemination employed by a commander in planning, directing, and controlling operations.
Command post
A unit's headquarters from which command and control is centrally exercised.
Common-user circuit
A circuit allocated to furnish communications paths between switching centers to provide communications service on a common basis to all connected stations or subscribers.
Communications-electronics (C-E)
Embraces the design, development, installation, operation, and maintenance of electronics and electromechanical systems associated with the collecting, transmitting, storing, processing, recording, and displaying of data and information associated with all forms of military communications.
Communications-electronics operating instructions (CEOI)
A series of orders issued for the technical control and coordination of the signal communications activities of a command.
Communications equipment support demerit (GESE)
Individual elements of the C-E system-radio, switch, multiplex, wire teams, maintenance, and forth.
Communications nodal control element (CNCE)
A dual function facility that incorporates both facilities control and technical control requirements. The technical control element of the CNCE contains patching, testing, conditioning, and monitoring equipment and provides technical control of circuits in an through the facility. The management element of the CNCE provides management and control of C-E functions within the node.
Communications system control element (CSCE)
Provides actual focal point for dynamic control, acts as operations center for command system, and directs organic and subordinate C-E systems. It maintains the data base.
Communications system planning element (CSPE)
Consists of the staff and operational planners at each element and provides all the long-range planning.
Communications zone (COMMZ)
The portion of the theater of operations that begins at the corps rear boundary and extends rearward to include the area necessary to provide support to forces in the combat zone. The combat zone begins at the corps rear boundary and extends forward to the extent of the corps commander's area of influence.
Cross-training
The systematic training of the soldier on tasks related to another job within the same MOS or tasks related to a secondary MOS within the same skill level.
Data link
A communications link suitable for transmission of data.
Decentralized training
The process whereby authority and responsibility for the detailed planning, organizing, conducting, evaluating, and supervising of training is delegated to the lowest command element having the capability to manage effective training.
Echelons above corps (EAC)
Those headquarters and organizations that normally operate within the theater of operations and provide the interface between the deployed corps and higher operational, lateral, and/or support headquarters, and respective national control authorities, to include service components as required. The term is generic in nature and does not refer to a specific level of command. Functions provided and controlled at EAC may be operational, administrative, logistical, or any combination of the above.
Electromagnetic emission control
The control of friendly electronic emissions (for example, radio and radar transmissions) for the purpose of preventing or minimizing their use by unintended recipients.
Electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM)
That division of EW involving actions taken to ensure friendly effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Electronic countermeasures (ECM)
That division of EW involving actions taken to prevent or reduce the effectiveness of enemy equipment and tactics employing or affected by electromagnetic radiations, and to exploit the enemy's use of such radiations.
Electronic deception
The deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to mislead an enemy in the interpretation of use of information received by the Army's electronic systems. There are three categories of deception: manipulative, imitative, and simulative.
Electronic jamming
The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy with the object of impairing the use of electronic devices, equipment, or systems being used by an enemy.
Electronic warfare (EW)
That division of the military use of electronics involving actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy's effective use of radiated electromagnetic energy, and actions taken to ensure our own effective use of radiated electromagnetic energy.
Electronic warfare support measures (ESM)
That division of EW involving actions taken to search for, intercept, locate, record, and analyze radiated electromagnetic energy, for the purpose of exploiting such radiations in support of military operations. ESM provides a source of EW information required to conduct ECM, ECCM, threat detection, warning, avoidance, target acquisition, and homing.
Individual training
Training received that enables officers, NCOS, and soldiers to perform the specific duties and tasks related to their MOS and duty position.
Institutional training
Training, either individual or collective, conducted in schools (Army service school, U.S. Army Reserve school, NCO academy) or Army training centers. Institutions which conduct this training are referred to as being part of the training base.
Link
A general term used to indicate the existence of communications facilities between two points.
Military occupational specialty (MOS)
A term used to identify a grouping of duty positions possessing such close occupational or functional relationship that an optimal degree of interchangeability among persons so classified exists at any given level of skill.
Net
An organization of stations capable of direct communications with each other using a common frequency or channel.
Net control station (NCS)
A station designated to control traffic and enforce circuit discipline within a given net.
Network
Communications term: An organization of stations capable of intercommunication but not necessarily on the same channel. Engineering term: Two or more interrelated circuits.
New manning system
Name applied to the concept for the replacement of U.S. Army personnel, It consists of two reinforcing subsystems, the cohesion, operational readiness, and training (COHORT) unit replacement system and the U.S. Army Regimental System (DA Circular 600-82-2).
New equipment training (NET)
Training to transfer knowledge gained during materiel development to trainers, users, and support personnel during development and fielding of new equipment. It has the purpose of training unit soldiers and leaders on how to operate, maintain, and tactically employ the new equipment. Numbers and type of personnel and units to be trained are determined on a system-by-system basis during the NET planning process.
Performance-oriented training
Learning by doing. Performance to standard is required.
Radio direction finding (RDF)
Radio location in which only the direction of a station is determined by means of its emission. Since this technique can be used against all electronic emitters, it is sometimes simply referred to as direction finding (DF).
Rear area operations center (RAOC)
Rear area staff responsible for planning, coordinating, directing, and monitoring the rear battle.
Rear area
The area to the rear of the main battle area where supply, maintenance support, communications centers, and administrative echelons are located. The rear area extends from the brigade rear boundary to the theater rear boundary.
Systems approach to training
A logical process for effectively and efficiently determining what, where, when, and how tasks should be taught. It consists of the five interrelated phases of evaluation, analysis, design, development, and implementation.
System control
An engineering center within a telecommunications system at which technical control of facilities is exercised. See also communications system control element.
Supervised on-the-job training (SOJT)
A training process whereby students or trainees acquire knowledge and skills through actual performance of duties under competent supervision, in accordance with an approved, planned program.
Table of organization and equipment (TOE)
A document which prescribes the normal mission, organizational structure, personnel, and equipment requirements for a military unit and is the basis for an authorizations document.
Telecommunications
Any transmission, emission or reception of signals, signs, writings, images, sounds, or information of any nature by wire, radio, visual, or other electromagnetic systems.
Telecommunications center
An agency charged with the responsibility for acceptance, preparation for transmission, receipt, duplication, and delivery of messages.
Text
That part of a message which contains the thought or idea which the originator desires to be communicated.
Traffic (communication)
All transmitted and received messages.
Train-up training
Training that prepares an individual to perform tasks at a higher skill level in his career management field.
Type B organization
An organization with personnel positions that can be filled by non-U.S. personnel. The type B column of a TOE lists those positions which must be filled by U.S. military personnel. Vacancies in this column indicate those positions that may be filled by non-U.S. personnel in support of the Army OCONUS.
Unit category
A category designated in section I of the unit TOE that applies to the assignment of secondary missions (AR 310-31).
a. Category I TOE. In consideration of the primary mission, tactics, and normal employment of category I units, category I TOE will include secondary missions in exceptional cases only. The secondary missions must be directly related to, and an extension of, the assigned primary missions.
b. Category II TOE. Category II TOE will include limited secondary missions when the nature of the primary missions are such that the units using the TOE will not be employed full time in preparing for, or accomplishing, the primary missions. The secondary missions must be related to, and an extension of, the assigned primary missions.
c. Category III TOE. Category III TOE will include secondary missions whenever possible. The secondary missions must be directly related to, and an extension of, the assigned primary mission.
Unit training
Training, individual or collective, conducted in a unit.



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