Host Nation Support
Host nation support (HNS) is the civil and military assistance provided by an HN to the forces located in or transiting through that HN's territory. HNS will play a critical role in future operations; unfortunately, outside of the logistics community, HNS is neither well known nor understood across the Army. One Force XXI characteristic is force tailoring in order to deploy only the minimum number of forces into an operating area. Efficient use of available HNS can greatly aid a tailored force package and augment the deployed sustainment force structure. This appendix provides general information on HNS and offers sample considerations for planners to use as a basis for work in a multinational setting.
The two types of support are planned and ad hoc.
Planned HNS is support that has been identified and requested during peacetime for provision in time of crisis or war. Based on negotiations between the HN and the sending nations, agreements are developed to obtain assured HNS for all programmed force requirements. The multinational logistics coordinator must be aware of all agreements between or among participating nations.
Requirements planning should be for support of generic units operating within a bilateral scenario. Identification of the absolute needs of each specific unit or developing data bases of HN capabilities is ideal. However, the absolute minimum planning product should contain accepted procedures which will be used to establish the HNS support of force requirements when sufficient information is available.
Ad hoc HNS is support requested during crisis or war that was not identified, planned, or agreed upon during peacetime. HN assets are not unlimited, and the HN will probably give its own population and forces priority of support. Therefore, ad hoc requests for HNS may neither be fully fulfilled nor provided to support valid requirements.
An operating areas' infrastructure is a key source of logistics. Common areas of HNS are facilities, transportation, services and civilian supplies, labor, construction equipment and materials, and base operations support functions. Three factors influence the use of HNS in an operation--
- Capability, dependability, and willingness of HN to provide assistance.
- Risk associated with a dependence on HNS.
- The effect on security of US forces.
HNS may come from HN governments, civilians, military units, or facilities and may be broken down by function or area support.
HNS agreements can be numerous and complex and require deliberate and continuous coordination among national contingents. This should prevent inadvertent conflicts and price escalations due to demand outpacing supply. Bilateral agreements entered into by members of the coalition must be revealed to other members of the coalition (typically, however, the US does not reveal financial-related information). Maximizing HNS can result in shorter lead-time support to the forces. It can also benefit the local area economy. The HN infrastructure must not be jeopardized by requiring too large a portion of a given commodity or service. Prudent use of HNS must allow the mission to be performed even if the HN provider fails to deliver the agreed-upon materiel.
The authority of the US to negotiate and conclude agreements with foreign governments is assigned by US Code to the DOS within the framework of implementing government regulations. However, negotiations and conclusion of certain aspects of HNS agreements are delegated to DOD and ultimately to unified commanders. The process described here reflects this delegation of authority and the procedures the US established to conclude these agreements. Because some nations prefer to exercise their sovereignty in a different manner, local variations are sometimes required, but they usually conform to the principles defined within this overall framework.
Figure D-1 depicts the process for entering into and concluding negotiations for HNS agreements between the US and a foreign government. The process usually starts with the UCP promulgated by the NCA. The UCP--
- Establishes the unified commands.
- Assigns them geographic responsibility.
- Assigns primary tasks to be carried out by the command.
- Defines the command relationships within the theater and between the theater and other US commands.
- Provides guidance on the exercise of combatant command authority.
Figure D-1. US Host Nation Support Agreement Negotiation Process
For example, within the European theater, the geographic responsibility of the US command is greater than the area covered by NATO, and the command has relationships with other non-NATO nations. The UCP establishes implicitly the need to enter into HNS agreements with these nations and those within the alliance. Additionally, the defense planning guidance (DPG) and the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) provide more detailed direction regarding specific planning responsibilities and the forces available to execute the plans. The OPLANs and CONPLANs developed by the unified commander, his staff, and the components provide the more detailed information on how US forces might be employed to accomplish the tasks outlined in the UCP and other guidance documents.
In the US process, the initial HNS agreement is the general agreement that is negotiated on a bilateral basis between the State Department and the comparable ministry of foreign affairs within the nation. This document establishes the legal basis between the US and the HN government for moving ahead on the detailed agreements to achieve HNS. The document also provides the political emphasis within the HN to ensure that the various national agencies plan and provide the support when required.
The OPLANs and CONPLANs developed by the unified commander, his staff, and the components provide the more detailed information on how US forces might be employed to accomplish the tasks outlined in the UCP and other guidance documents.
When the general agreement is concluded, the commands begin developing the next level of HN documentation, the technical agreement or arrangement(TA). The TA addresses broad functional areas and includes definitions, responsibilities, procedures, etc., to provide guidance to the components for detailed HNS planning. The US process explicitly restricts the TA negotiations to the US and HN representatives (Figure D-2).
Figure D-2. A General List of Items Which May be Included In a Host Nation Support Agreement
The next step, level of agreement, is conducted by a joint planning commission or group (JPC/G), co-chaired by the senior officials of the US unified command and the HN ministry of defense (MOD). This group codifies the policy and guidance needed to conduct joint bilateral HNS planning into a document, annexed by specific subject area, and known as the Joint Logistics Support Plan (JLSP). The JLSP guidance identifies the type of support the HN is able and willing to provide, and the conditions under which the support is made available. The next step in planning is for the sending nation to develop and submit to the host nation their concept of requirements (CORs).The COR is a statement of functional HNS requirements that the components need to support deploying US forces. The US process explicitly restricts the TA negotiations to the US and HN representatives (Figure D-2). Once the COR is submitted and approved (to the extent possible by the HN), the statement of requirements (SOR) is submitted. The SOR identifies in detail the type and amount of HNS required by the unit to accomplish its tasks. The requirements may be time-phased and incorporate facilities, services, and supplies at several separate locations. Generally, however, it should be expressed as a quantifiable work load that the HN can plan to allocate resources against during execution of US operations. Figure D-3 depicts a sample of the type of requirements contained in the COR/SOR.
Figure D-3. Host Nation Support Considerations and Documentation
The CORs/SORs are provided to the joint implementation committee (JIC), which is co-chaired by a representative of the sending nation and the appropriate HN territorial command. This committee establishes the detailed procedures for US commands to obtain SOR-related HNS from the nation. These procedures become the Joint Implementation Plan (JIP).
Figure D-4 depicts the process required to modify/renegotiate an existing HNS agreement. The process can be initiated by either country and normally modifications are required when the political or military environment causes changes to national guidance and/or OPLANs. Since an HNS agreement already exists, including existing support and implementation plans, the process flow is similar and primarily involves evaluation of existing documents for sufficiency/accuracy and modifications made as necessary.
Figure D-4. Host Nation Support Agreement Modification Process
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